Transport around 1,000 AD

The Globe

I had come to the Virgin Islands a year after the Smithsonian had reported the Hull Bay find." According to the Associated Press report on the discovery the skeleton of two Negroid males in their late thirties had been found buried in soil layers dated 1250 AD. Clamped around the wrist of one of the skeletons was a ceramic vessel of pre-columbian Indian design. Examination of the teeth ofthe skeletons indicated "dental mitilation characteristic of early African cultures. (They Came Before Columbus)



Southwest Asia




Indus Valley





Ironically, horses were what enabled Turkish tribes from central Asia in the eleventh century AD to invade the land of the first written Indo-European language, Hittite. The most important innovation of the first Indo-Europeans was thus turned against their descendants. Turks are largely European in their genes, but non-Indo-European (Turkish) in their language. Similarly, an invasion from the east in 896 AD left modern Hungary largely European in its genes but Finno-Ugric in its language. By illustrating how a small invading force of steppe horsemen could impose their language on a European society, Turkey and Hungary provide models of how the rest of Europe came to speak Indo-European. (The Third Chimpanzee)

South America




North America

The horse-mounted nomadic hunters who range through thousands of Hollywood epics have some basis in reality, but only after the Europeans reintroduced the horse in America. (Patterns in Prehistory)

Of all the Roman coins that have been found in Tennessee and Kentucky, the earliest bears date in the time of Antoninus, the next in the time of Commodus, the next before the elevation of Pertinax, and the last in the time of Valerian. Coins prior or subsequent to the space embraced in these periods are nor found; and from hence the conclusion seems to be furnished, that they were brought into America within one or two centuries at furthest, after the latter period, which is about the year of our Lord 354, and thence to260; and by a people who had not afterwards any intercourse with the countries in which the Roman coins circulated. (The Giants Who Ruled America)