Building around 17,000 BC

The Globe




Southwest Asia




Indus Valley





One of the most amply documented Upper Paleolithic cultures in eastern Europe is the Kostenski-Bershevo culture centered in the Don River Valley, about 470 kilometers southeast of Moscow. About 25,000 to 11,000 years ago, the Kostenski-Bershevo area was an open grassland environment, with no rock shelters, caves, or other natural habitations, and with very little wood available for fires. People here left a variety of archeological sites, including base camps, where pit houses were constructed  by digging a pit a meter or so deep, ringing the excavation with mammoth bones or tusks, and then draping hides over these supports. Some excavated pit houses were relatively large, with many hearths, suggesting that several families may have passed the winter together. (Patterns in Prehistory)

South America

The ruins of the Incan city of Tiahuanaco are situated 12 miles south of the lake and about 100 feet above the current shoreline. The entire complex was aligned to the cardinal points and faced the rising sun on the equinox. An artificial canal surrounded the civic center of the city. The most significant structure, the Akapana, consisted of seven terraces rising to 50 feet, with each measuring 600 feet per side, the size of two football fields. The terrace walls were constructed of precision-joined masonry that needed no mortar and the top-level terrace was covered with green gravel and crowned with buildings. A sunken court measuring roughly 150 feet on each side was set into the upper terrace. Internal cut-stone channels are thought to have provided drainage to the structure, but their purpose is debated. Independent researchers have long questioned both the orthodox view that the Incas built Tiahuanaco and the recent date ascribed to the site's construction. What are we to make of the monstrous construction blocks (one is estimated to weigh more than 400 tons) located 200 meters southwest of the Kalasaya? These megaliths are part of a site known as Puma Punka. Posnansky estimated that Tiahuanaco served as a port 17,000 I years ago, basing this figure on the celestial alignment of the site. (The Genesis Race)



North America



What has brought Natawidjaja to this radical view is the evidence he and his team have uncovered at Gunung Padang. When their drill cores began to yield very ancient carbon dates from organic materials embedded in clays filling the gaps between worked stones, they expanded their investigation using geophysical equipment—ground-penetrating radar, seismic tomography and electrical resistivity—to get a picture of what lay under the ground. The results were stunning, showing layers of massive construction using the same megalithic elements of columnar basalt that are found on the surface but with courses of huge basaltic rocks beneath them extending down to thirty meters (100 feet) and more beneath the surface. At those depths the carbon dates indicate that the megaliths were put in place more than 12,000 years ago and in some cases as far back as 24,000 years ago. (Magicians of the Gods)

“The geophysical evidence is unambiguous,” Natawidjaja says. “Gunung Padang is not a natural hill but a man-made pyramid and the origins of construction here go back long before the end of the last Ice Age. Since the work is massive even at the deepest levels, and bears witness to the kinds of sophisticated construction skills that were deployed to build the pyramids of Egypt, or the largest megalithic sites of Europe, I can only conclude that we’re looking at the work of a lost civilization and a fairly advanced one.” (Magicians of the Gods)

Schoch was in his element at Gunung Padang carefully interrogating the results of the geophysical scans with Danny, collecting samples and minutely examining the site. Afterward, when he’d returned to the US and had time to analyze the data, he wrote: The first important observation is that … Gunung Padang goes back to before the end of the last Ice Age, circa 9700 BC. Based on the evidence, I believe that human use of the site began by circa 14,700 BC. Possibly the earliest use of the site goes back to 22,000 BC, or even earlier. (Magicians of the Gods)