Building in General

The Globe

Perhaps the most obvious differences between the archaeological record of the Pleistocene and that of the last five or six millennia is the presence in the latter period of massive amounts of residential and public architecture. All early states built palaces and tombs; hunter-gatherers occasionally built permanent structures but rarely on the same scale as agriculturalists.

Similarly, once residential architectural variability appeared in many of these early communities, "monumental" architecture also appeared. Here, too, the important thing is that the ability and incentive to make these investments are radically different from the capacities of Pleistocene bands, in that they imply the ability of some members of the society to control and organize others. (Patterns in Prehistory)

It was only while I was writing Heaven's Mirror that I began to look into another and much more controversial possibility - that a network of sacred sites might have been established all around the globe according to a longitude grid based on precessional numbers. Thus, the massive sacred complexes on which stand the Great Pyramids of Giza in Egypt and the fabulous temples of Angkor in Cambodia are on meridians 72 degrees of longitude apart; Pohnpei is 54 degrees of longitude east of Angkor; Easter Island is today the closest dry land to 144 degrees of longitude east of Angkor; the Bay of Paracas in Peru dominated by the massive cliff drawing of unknown origin known as the 'Candelabra of the Andes', lies 180 degrees east of Angkor. Frequently these sites are linked to flood myths, spoken of in ancient traditions as 'Navels of the Earth' (omphalos in Greek), and are rich in symbolism of obelisks, stone pillars pyramids and other stone monuments. (Underworld)

Apparent longitudinal 'correlations' linking sacred sites according to a sequence of numbers thought to have been derived from astronomical observations that occur in ancient myths and scriptures could, of course, arise by chance. I don't deny that possibility. But I wish to pursue what I believe to be the more interesting explanation - namely that such sites may originally have been established on specific longitudes to act as permanent markers and reference points for an archaic worldwide grid of earth measurements and to safeguard precious geodetic and navigational knowledge for the long-term benefit of mankind. (Underworld)

This, indeed, is little more than is already claimed in the ancient Indian accounts of the deluge, and the survival of it by a remnant of wise men, and their preservation and repromulgation of antediluvian knowledge in the new age of the earth. Moreover, it can hardly be an accident that the yuga system that lies at the heart of the Dwarka story, of the story of the flood of Manu, and of the Hindu concept of recurrent cycles of cataclysm and rebirth, is also denominated in terms of precessional numbers. According to the Puranas, for example, the duration of the Kali Yuga is set at 1200 'divine years', equivalent to 432,000 mortal years. The durations for the preceding Krita, Treta and Davapara Yugas are set respectively at 4800 divine years, 3600 divine years and 2400 divine years, such that one mahayuga - made up of the total of 12,000 divine years contained in the four lesser yugas - is equivalent to 4,320,000 years of mortals. (Underworld)

Had some stone pillar, now venerated as the self-generated lingam of Siva, been set up by prehistoric geodecists at Arunachela, for example, to mark the auspicious longitude of the Red Hill? The same symbolism of the lingam is, of course, found all over the temples of Angkor in Cambodia. And in ancient Egypt the conical Ben Ben stone, perched atop a stone pillar, was the symbol of the Heliopolitan priesthood that built the Pyramids of Giza. Same symbolism in all three places. Same gnostic quest for immortality. Same use of precessional numbers in their architecture and their myths. And there are 48 degrees of longitude between Giza and Arunachela, 24 degrees between Arunachela and Angkor, and 72 degrees between Giza and Angkor. (Underworld)

The ziggurat, the great temple architecture of civilised America, is virtually indentical with that of the Sumerians of the Middle East and, by inference with that of Mohenjo-daro - by inference because the temple platforms of the Indus have subsided, through the action of time and flood, into shapeless mounds. (The God-Kings & the Titans)

Temples that were oriented to the equinoxes, like Solomon's temple in Jerusalem, (and the old St. Peter's basilica at the Vatican in Rome), faced permanently east, welcoming sunrise on equinox day year after year without reorientation. But temples oriented to the solstices, like Egypt's temples in Thebes or China's Temple of Heaven in Beijing, needed periodic reorientation because due to Precession, where the Sun rises on solstice day shifts ever so lightly over the centuries...(The End of Days)

...on both sides of the Atlantic we find identical huge stone block edifices, built of cut pieces so heavy that even our present-day equipment could not move them. On the west side of the Atlantic, similar huge blocks were used at Cuzco and Tiahuanaco and also at the newly discovered underwater constructions near Bimini. On the east side we have the pyramids of Egypt and the gigantic stone slabs of Baalbek in Lebanon, a temple of totally unknown origin. The ruins of Baalbek, at an altitude of 3,800 feet, stand on a platform built of enormous stone blocks weighing more than 800 tons each. None of today's machines could move these megaliths or even lift them. Such blocks must have been put into place either by giants or by beings of a civilization that knew the secrets of levitation and antigravity. (Our Cosmic Ancestors)

The prevailing ideas of history would deny any links between northern Europe and Egypt in the Neolithic/Bronze Age era, and yet we cannot deny the similarity of these monuments, both in shape and size. Djoser's Pyramid at Saqqara measured 125 m x 60 m while the Silbury 'pyramid', being of a slightly simpler design, is a somewhat flatter 160 m x 40 m; but Silbury is nevertheless a substantial construction, utilizing about the same volume of material. Just like Djoser's pyramid, Silbury has had at least three enlargements to the structure and the final edifice comprises a step­pyramid, containing six steps. Like many of the Egyptian step-pyramids, each step at Silbury has large facing blocks - although here made of chalk - and a rubble interior. The steps were further subdivided into cells, or segments, with the cell walls helping to stabilize the structure. At this stage in the construction, Silbury would have strongly resembled the step­pyramid of Djoser, except in having a circular perimeter and being faced with gleaming white chalk. One can only presume that the finished structure at Silbury was subsequently covered by earth, in order to protect the relatively fragile chalk blocks that were used in the exterior cladding. There is a further mystery in this respect, because this same construction technique was also used in the Mexican pyramids at Teotihuacan. In a very similar fashion, these pyramids were also constructed of clay cores, which were then faced with stone blocks. The Teotihuacan pyramids were then subsequently buried, just as at Silbury, under a layer of loose soil. (Thoth: Architect of the Universe)

In the case of Meidum, we can clearly see these different eras in the sequence of construction of the entrance passageway, which has three distinct styles. The sequence of construction is roughly as follows: a. A small tumulus was made at ground level. The interior construction of the overlapping stones in this chamber is quite rough; the entrance passageway is in the floor of the chamber and it tunnels through the bare earth. The standard of workmanship in the tumulus and in the passageway is not unlike the technology used in a long barrow in ancient Britain. b. Perhaps during the construction of the step-pyramid above, the entrance to the tumulus was reworked. The new entrance was formed by placing huge monolithic blocks around the small chamber, with each massive block of white Tura limestone being jointed together with extreme care. (These blocks may even underlie the small chamber.) The workmanship here is comparable to anything at Giza and it is claimed that the mastaba chamber next door is carved within one single block of limestone; a massive block indeed. The passageway to the pyramid chamber was then formed by tunnelling bodily and very roughly through these finely jointed blocks; which is a curious method given the care employed on the blocks themselves. c. After the construction of the step-pyramid, when the pyramidal cladding was being added at a later date, the form of the passageway alters into the more usual method of construction, and separate stone blocks now form the smooth sides of the tunnel. (Thoth: Architect of the Universe)

... in ancient civilisations, a class of initiates had precise knowledge of harmonic laws. They knew how to manipulate them to create the precise effect they wanted. And they wrote this knowledge into architecture, art, music, paintings, rituals and incenses, producing Gothic cathedrals, vast Hindu temples, all the marvels of Egypt and many other sacred ancient works that even today, in ruins, produce a powerful effect upon us. This effect is produced because these men knew exactly what they were doing and why they were doing it: it was done entirely through a complex of sensory manipulation. (Serpent in the Sky)

At Göbekli Tepe there is a creature, sculpted in high-relief, identified by Klaus Schmidt as a beast of prey with splayed claws and powerful shoulders, its tail bent to its left over its body. A very similar animal is seen at Cutimbo (Peru) with the same splayed claws and the same powerful shoulders, while the tail instead of being bent to its left is bent to its right. At both Göbekli Tepe and Cutimbo, reliefs of salamanders and of serpents are found. The style of execution in all cases is very similar. Lions feature in the reliefs at Göbekli Tepe, pumas feature in the reliefs at Cutimbo and again the manner of representation is similar. (Magicians of the Gods)

As Heyerdahl commented: The statues on Easter Island … had their chins carved pointed and projecting, because the sculptors themselves grew beards. The Norwegian adventurer was likewise struck by the way that the Easter Island figures and the Tiahuanaco figures have “their hands laid in position on their stomachs.” Both also wear distinctive broad belts. “The sole decoration of the Easter Island figures,” he wrote: is a belt which was always carved round the figure’s stomach. The same symbolic belt is to be found on every single statue in Kon-Tiki’s ancient ruins by Lake Titicaca. I think he would have been struck by the resemblance between the hand positions depicted on the “Totem Pole” figure from Göbekli Tepe and the hand positions on the Viracocha pillar statue and on the Ponce and El Fraile monoliths at Tiahuanaco. (Magicians of the Gods)

There are striking similarities between the ancient civilizations. They include the Sumerians (in modern-day Iraq); the Incan Empire (in modern-day Peru); the ancient Chinese, Japanese and Indians; the Aborigines (of modern-day Australia); the Malekula people (of modern-day Vanuatu); and more. Their buildings, windows, doors, and pyramids are virtually identical in style. All of them have produced similar-looking carvings and artifacts of what appear to be visitors from space. They’re frequently depicted in flying machines or spacecraft, and they’re often referred to as “gods.” (Humans are Not from Earth)   

Orkney Island would seem to reflect a secondary attempt to impart knowledge to humanity, with the specific goal of establishing regional kingships, a1l founded on a self-sustaining system of agriculture, at the four cardinal points of the compass. These would have been Egypt (Taru), Ireland (Aaru), China (Iru), and Peru (Peru). Timing of the construction of the passage tomb at Newgrange, which is dated to .round 3200 BCE--the same era as the Orkney Island structures--suggests that Ireland, which wa.s geographically nearest to the Orkney and Faroe Islands, came first in this secondary effort. The few details we have relating to inhabitants found on Orkney Island in ancient times suggest that they consisted of a group of dark-complexioned or otherwise racially distinct priestly clerics who dressed in white, comparable to the Dogon priests, and these clerics interacted with a group of pygmies who displayed odd habits and were capable of overcoming, capturing, and transporting a troop of hardy Mediterranean explorers twice their size; in fact, the explorers specifically described their smaller captors as sorcerers. These descriptions, along with the Egyptian words for "pygmy," suggest that these small people rnay have been the mythical Nummo teachers of Dogon agriculture and cosmology. (The Mystery of Skara Brae)

The village of Skara Brae would have essentially constituted dorm housing for instructed groups of eight initiates and perhaps their families, the same number per group of initiates as is claimed by the Dogon priests and the same number of ancestral families that the Dogon traditionally honor. The symbolism of the structure of the Skara Brae house, which the Dogon assert is based on the major structures of the human body, is consistent with what R. A. Schwaller de Lubicz interprets for the Egyptian Temple of Man at Luxor. Like the Skara Brae house plan, the plan of the village set a working pattern that has largely survived down through the centuries as the Dogon village. The village also gave the initiates immediate access to a functioning model farm, which the Dogon call the Field of Arou, where they practiced and mastered skills of farming. Evidence of domesticated animals near Skara Brae suggests instruction in animal husbandry also occurred there. (The Mystery of Skara Brae)

At Teotihuacan, as with Stonehenge, there is no way of knowing who first marked the location, nor when that marker was created, but an understanding of why these locations around the world were so important is beginning to emerge. We may never understand how the builders achieved this, but the measurements speak for themselves. With only minimal tolerances on these lines, Almendres is 314.2 nauticle miles from the northern Iberian landmass extreme on a bearing of 3.142 degrees. Teotihuacan is 3,142 nautical miles from the North American landmass extreme on a bearing of 1.618 degrees, and so on. Teotihuacan follows another alignment principle found in Neolithic Europe. In all cases the monuments are located on lines joining at least two topographical extreme ponts. Teotihuacan is no exception; the scale is global, just as at Carnac. (Sacred Geometry of the Earth)

The only language that can reveal the form and function of megalithic structures is that of number, the science of metrology (measurements based on the size and shape of the Earth), and alignment. At Angkor the northern and southern extremes of Asia are specified; at Avebury the eastern and western extremes of England are specified; at Loughcrew it is the eastern and western extremes of Ireland; at Carmac the northern and southern extremes of Africa are specified; at Cahokia the southern and western extremes of South America; at Teotihuacan the northern extremes of both the America; at Almendres the eastern extreme ofe Africa and the western extreme of Asia; and at Giza the pyramids stand in the crosshairs between the eastern extremes of Africa and America and the southern and northern extremes of Africa and Asia. What a coincidence: all these monuments illustrate the same aspect of topographical geometry, some sort of elusive pattern in nature. Thc key to the code is the sexagesimal system and the units of angle and distance derived by applying this base sixty system to the globe; that is, the unit distance is the nautical mile, the angle is in degrees. But just as we do today, the decimal system is adopted thereafter, resulting in 31.42 degrees and other pi-and phi-digit mcasurements. (Sacred Geometry of the Earth)

It is unrealistic to expect randomly located points in the landscape to consistently appear on lines joining landmass extremes, and to then anticipate pi- and phi-digit measurements associated with the lines. For this reason the realization that monuments and landmass summits more often than not conform to these criteria provides persuasive evidence that monument locations were decided because the chosen point on the Earth offered a reflection of the same phenomenon occurring in the natural world. (Sacred Geometry of the Earth)


See this page.

Southwest Asia

See this page.


See this page.

Indus Valley

See this page.


See this page.


See this page.

South America

See this page.


See this page.

North America

See this page.


See this page.