Building in Southwest Asia

At a place called Baalbek, forty miles east of Beirut, there is an ancient site whose builders are unknown. It boasts the world's largest quarried blocks. Three colossal foundation stones of red granite, together referred to as the Trilithon, weigh nearly eleven hundred tons each and make up an immense platform called the Grand Terrace. On top of this site the Greeks built a temple, and on top of the Greek site the Romans later built another three--one dedicated to Venus, the goddess of love; another to Bacchus, the god of fertility and wine; and the third to Jupiter. The weight of these stones is so great that today there exists no modern machine that could move them. The largest block is sixty-five feet in length; fourteen feet, six inches in height; and twelve feet thick. The two others are the same height and thickness, but are slightly shorter, sixty-four feet, ten inches, and sixty-three feet, two inches. A fourth stone, called Hajar-el-Hibla, or "stone of the pregnant woman," was never moved from the quarry. It is the largest, weighing an estimated twelve hundred tons. Amazingly, they were quarried twelve hundred feet away from their final placement--in a valley, no less--and then moved into position. How this was accomplished is a mystery. The course of stone beneath the Trilithon consists of six megaliths, thirty to thirty-three feet in length, fourteen feet high, and ten feet deep, each weighing an estimated 450 tons. Even in the “bury and excavate” method (continually placing soil or sand around the structure so that as stones are placed at higher levels, the workers will always remain at "ground level") were used to build this massive structure, how many men would it take to move a thousand-ton block? Although no one knows for sure, one scholar calculated that it would require forty thousand men to pull the sled that held the block. Logistically, it seems impossible for anyone, at any time, to coordinate such a feat. Although there have been attempts to rationalize a late construction for the lower portions of Baalbek, such as the Phoenician tradition of using three layers of stone for a podium or a Roman column supporting part of the podium, the quarrying and construction of the lowest level are beyond explanation. Its plain, precise, and squared architecture belong to a history that researchers know very little about. The theory that superhuman giants of some bygone age built the structures doesn't solve the mystery: if giants did build them, they would have had to be ten times bigger and stronger than we are. The best explanation for Baalbek's megalithic construction is that its culture was part of a technically advanced civilization, such as those that built similar structures in Malta and Egypt. (Before the Pharaohs)

The scale of the platforms at Baalbek are still out of the range of today's technology; they cannot be duplicated with current crane lifts and other equipment. This huge complex of so-called temples and royal structures in modern Lebanon contains a platform comprised of five million square feet of stone blocks. Most weigh hundreds of tons, and three (the trilithons) quarried at several miles distance weigh more than 1,000 tons each. We have no obvious clue to the technology involved. Clearly a civilization beyond primitive humans just graduated from the New Stone Age was required. (Gods, Genes, and Consciousness)

Baalbek is perhaps the most impressive site in the Middle East because of the gigantic blocks of stone used in the construction of a platform that was later to become a temple dedicated to the Roman god, Jupiter. In John Anthony West's award-winning documentary The Mystery of the Sphinx, he showed just how difficult it was even for modern engineers using the largest cranes in the world to move objects weighing 200 tons. The blocks used in construction at Baalbek are much larger than those found in Egypt. Andrew Collins comments on their sheer weight: 'An outer podium wall, popularly known as the Great Platform, is seen by scholars as contemporary to the Roman temples. Yet incorporated into one of its courses are the three largest building blocks ever used in a manmade structure. Each one weighs an estimated 1,000 tons apiece. They sit side-by-side on the fifth level of a truly cyclopean wall located beyond the western limits of the Temple of Jupiter. These three stones are called the Trilithon. Even if they did not exist and we were left with the six blocks of stone that lie beneath them, we would still be looking at blocks weighing in excess of 450 tons. The course beneath the Trilithon is almost as bewildering. It consists of six mammoth stones thirty to thirty-three feet in length, fourteen feet in height and ten feet in depth, each an estimated 450 tons in weight.' (The Atlantis Blueprint)

Perhaps the ziggurat and its monumental style of architecture can help us understand the nature of the god-human relationship. The ziggurat first appears in Sumerian history as the precataclysm E.KUR (meaning "house which is like a mountain") in Nippur. Anunnaki leader Enlil reportedly lived there and, with access to the DUR.AN.KI (meaning "Link Heaven and Earth"), commanded the Anunnaki colony's mission control center. The control center was reserved for the gods. Other inner areas were limited to the gods and their chosen priesthood. Anyone encroaching was punished. The ziggurat's size and magnificence showed who was king and lord. (Gods, Genes, and Consciousness)

After the Cataclysm, the Anunnaki who were assigned to rule Mesopotamian city-states had their headquarters in personal ziggurats. These were constructed and maintained by humans under Anunnaki supervision, but access was controlled. Archaeologists in the 1940s counted 33 ruins in 27 Mesopotamian cities. Babylonian texts mention active ziggurats, as in Lagash, as late as 2200 BC (This is compatible with the 2024 BC date mentioned elsewhere as the end of Anunnaki presence in many cities. (Gods, Genes, and Consciousness)

The zikkurat at Ur is a rectangular structure measuring at its base 65 metres by 43 metres, and its angles, not its sides, are oriented to the cardinal points of the compass. It has a solid core of unbaked brick with a thick facing of burnt brick, and its walls had an inward batter. To make a good bond, reed-mats dipped in pitch were laid between the brick courses at regular intervals. (Babylonian Life and History)

There is another mysterious example of the use of the same sacred numbers on the other side of the world, namely, at the famed Tower of Babel. It was constructed in units of the Sumerian foot of 0.310723 m, out of 57.6 million clay bricks, each with a volume of 0.25 cu. ft. The volume of the whole tower was 14.4 million cu. ft, or 432,000 cu. m, six times smaller than the Cheops pyramid. The tower was 264 ft. tall, and on its top stood the 24 ft. high Temple of Marduk, making the total height of the tower 288 ft. The statue of Marduk was cast in solid gold and weighed 800 Sumerian talents, or 24 metric tons. (Our Cosmic Ancestors)

...the Sumerians gave their bricks great strength by mixing the wet clay with chopped reeds or straw. They also knew that clay products could be given tensile strength and durability by firing them in a kiln. The world's first high-rise buildings and archways, as well as durable ceramic wares, were made possible by these technological breakthroughs. (The 12th Planet)

So extensive was the Sumerian use of these petroleum products--not only as fuel but also as road-building materials, for waterproofing, caulking, painting, cementing, and molding--that when archaeologists searched for ancient Ur they found it buried in a mound that the local Arabs called "Mound of Bitumen." Forbes shows that the Sumerian language had terms for every genus and variant of the bituminous substances found in Mesopotamia. Indeed, the names of bituminous and petroleum materials in other languages--Akkadian, Hebrew, Egyptian, Coptic, Greek, Latin, and Sanskrit--can clearly be traced to the Sumerian origins; for example, the most common word for petroleum--naphta--derives from napatu ("stones that flare up"). (The 12th Planet)

Entering the underground city [Kaymakli], we descended flights of stone steps and found ourselves in corridor after corridor hewn out perfectly from the volcanic rock, which hardens on exposure to the air. Each passageway seemed enormous, with a width of anything up to ten or so feet across and headroom of well over six and a half feet. Into each passage opened other connecting tunnels, leading to still more sections of the complex. On each side of the corridors were maze-like complexes of rooms and halls that had once formed bedrooms, food warehouses, water stores, wine cellars, temples and, yes, even a Christian church. Each room had been cut with such accuracy from the bedrock that it was clear that only thin walls divided it from its neighbours. Ventilation was provided by a whole system of shafts that connected all levels with the surface, while huge wheel-like doors made of hard dark stone and known locally as tirhiz, or tarkoz, could be used to seal off each individual section or level as and when required. There was no real indication of exactly who had constructed this subterranean citadel, although the presence of the church certainly confirmed that early Christians had occupied at least some of its levels. Rock-cut tomb hollows had been found on the sloping rocks above the city, and these may also have been of Christian origin. Yet, apart from this evidence, there was no obvious reason to suggest that the Christians of Cappadocia had actually constructed this city complex. (From the Ashes of Angels)

There were not just a few underground cities, as I had imagined, but an incredible thirty-six of them scattered about the Cappadocian landscape. So far eight different levels had been explored at Derinkuyu, though between eighteen and twenty are known to exist. The first three storeys alone contained approximately 2,000 households, providing accommodation for an estimated 10,000 people. Scholars have estimated that anything up to 20,000 people could have lived comfortably in the Derinkuyu complex at any one time, and if this figure is considered in the knowledge that at least another thirty-five similar cities exist in the region, then it paints an awesome picture of what appears to have been going on here in ancient times. Anything between 100,000 and 200,000 people would have been able to live comfortably in these citadels for any conceivable length of time. More incredible still is the fact that long tunnels are known to have linked several of these cities. One such tunnel, situated on the third storey at Derinkuyu, is thought to connect with the underground complex of Kaymakli five miles away. Moreover, the passageway in question contains ventilation ducts to the surface and is large enough to enable between three to four people to walk upright, side by side, along its entire course. The Derinkuyu complex has no less than fifty-two of these ventilation shafts, which descend to depths of between sixty-five and seventy-seven yards. Temperatures within the city complex remain a constant 7-8°C, meaning that it would have been an ideal place of refuge during either extremely hot or extremely cold weather conditions. As at Kaymakli, huge wheel-like stone doors were able to seal off each section, while no less than 15,000 air ducts connected the first subterranean level with the surface, a distance of between eight and ten feet. The strange thing is that these shafts have diameters as small as four inches, a near-impossible achievement without the use of metal-tipped drills. (From the Ashes of Angels)

Even though no datable artefacts or remains have been uncovered from periods earlier than the Christian era, there are major differences in the architectural and building styles of the different levels. From the outside of the underground city nothing is visible to the eye, except a slightly raised bank with an opening that appeared to be disgorging brightly attired tourists. Inside, however, we found a vast cyclopean domain unlike anything I could imagine anyone wanting to build. I remembered too the words of Edward Bacon commenting on the sub-surface dwellings and shrines at Catal Huyuk: 'It is almost as though the remotely ancestral houses of these people had been troglodytic holes in the ground.' Strangely enough, on the levels considered by Demir to be among the oldest, the headroom in the corridors was much higher than other sections or levels, giving a maximum height of around seven feet. In the 'later' storeys, the headroom was so low that we had to stoop to navigate the tunnels, which were also much narrower in these areas. (From the Ashes of Angels)

The description of Yima's var bore so many similarities to the subterranean world beneath the plains of Cappadocia that some kind of relationship between the two seemed apparent. For instance, in the var's 'upper part', Ahura Mazda instructed the fair­faced king to 'layout nine avenues; in the middle, six; in the lower part, three' giving a total of eighteen main streets. The Wise Lord further added that: 'In the streets of the upper part thou shalt place one thousand couples, men and women; six hundred in the streets of the middle part; three hundred in the streets of the lower part. This gave a total of 1,900 couples, or 3,800 adults; the text says nothing of children or relatives. Underground temperatures would have remained relatively constant, probably around 7-8°C. This would have meant that anyone could have lived quite comfortably without the use of open fires for any length of time, provided, of course, they wore plenty of clothing. The storage of food during milder periods would have enabled the population to suitably nourish itself on a regular basis, although these provisions would have needed to be supplemented by hunting expeditions across the snow and ice. In this manner underground life could have continued ad infinitum. The only signs to suggest that the complex was even there would probably have been a ring of defensive spikes, possibly topped with banners and animal skulls, and, of course, the monolith-marked ventilation shafts. (From the Ashes of Angels)

It is now known that the Israelites who invaded their promised land appropriated many Cannanite holy places, including Hebron and Beersheba in the south; Bethel, Gilgal, Shechem and Shiloh in the central area; Dan in the far north; and most important of all, the ancient sanctuary of Jerusalem itself. These holy sanctuaries were actually megalithic sites including standing stones, dolmens and stone circles! Professor Anderson confirms that the normal equipment of these Canaanite sanctuaries included the altar, a standing stone called a messebhoth and a wooden pole, called an asherah, which was named after Asherah. (Uriel's Machine)

Turkey’s Cappadocia region has a very large number of ancient underground structures hewn out of solid rock and usually, like the Vara, consisting of multiple levels stacked one above the other. These underground “cities,” as they are known, include the eerie and spectacular site of Derinkuyu, which I was able to visit in 2013. Lying beneath a modern town of the same name, eight of its levels are presently open to the public, although further levels remain closed off below and, astonishingly, a subterranean tunnel several kilometers in length connects it to another similar hypogeum at Kaymakli. The whole place, in short, is a complex and cunning labyrinth on an immense scale—a work of astonishing architectural complexity that would be impressive if it had been built above ground, but that is utterly breathtaking when one considers that it all had to be mined, chiseled, hammered, cut and gouged out of the volcanic bedrock. Later, studying a plan, realized that this vast hypogeum, looking in cross-section like a gigantic rabbit warren and extending over an area of more than 4 square kilometers, lay underfoot wherever one went in the modern town of Derinkuyu, streets beneath streets, rooms beneath rooms, a secret antipodal city of unknown antiquity and of unknown purpose but certainly the product of immense ingenuity, determination and skill. And Derinkuyu is just one of two hundred such subterranean complexes, each containing a minimum of two levels (with around forty containing three levels or more) that have been identified in Turkey in the area between Kayseri and Nevsehir. (Magicians of the Gods)

Sitchin’s claim that the raised platform of Baalbek was “intended to support some extremely heavy weight” and that the heavy weight in question was a “rocket-like Flying Chamber,” could only have been made by a man who had no idea of the real appearance and layout of Baalbek itself, and could only be believed by others with no direct knowledge of the site. The Mesopotamian cuneiform texts, which he could not read and translate as he claimed (his “translations” were adapted and to some extent “fictionalized” from the work of mainstream scholars) do in fact contain material of the greatest interest, and I think he was right to notice hints of high technology in them. (Magicians of the Gods)