Building in South America


In Peru, megalithic masonry is found on a far vaster scale and the polygonal blocks often have far greater dimensions. On the basis of carbon dating, orthodox researchers claim that the accurate mortarless fitting of large polygonal blocks began in Peru after AD 1440, whereas Easter Island had similar dressed stonework before AD 1200 and therefore could not have been influenced by South America in this respect! However, there is not a scrap of hard evidence to support the claim that magnificent colossal structures like the ‘fortress’ at Sacsayhuaman just outside Cuzco were built by the Incas just a few hundred years ago. Although the Incas were excellent stone masons, they used small rectangular blocks, perfectly fitted. Layers of Incan masonry can often be seen on top of the earlier, larger, polygonal construction. For all anyone knows, the oldest, cyclopean masonry at Sacsayhuaman could be hundreds of thousands of years old! (74)

With its three rows of gigantic zig-zag walls undulating in parallel terraces for more than 300 metres across a hillside immediately above Cuzco, Sacsayhuaman is almost too large to grasp in one view. It has also long been recognized that it forms just part of an even larger geoglyph, once visible from surrounding mountain peaks, in which it combines with the oldest quarters of Cuzco to form the shape of an immense puma. There are more than a thousand individual stone blocks. All of them are massive, with many in the range of 200 tonnes, but the largest are on the lowest terrace. According to measurements and calculations by Dr John Hemming of the Royal Geographical Society in London, one of these has a height of 8.5 metres and weighs 355 tonnes, ranking it amongst 'the largest blocks ever incorporated into any structure'. (Heaven's Mirror)

The practice of dating stone structures by carbon dating organic remains found in association with them can obviously lead to flawed results. The same method has been used to date the beginning of the classic construction phase at Tiahuanaco (Tiwanaku) to AD 800. But the fact that the site was inhabited at that time does not preclude the possibility that some of the original structures were built ages earlier.(74)

The huge blocks of stone at Tiahuanaco were held together by copper, and sometimes by gold rivets, a method of building-construction found also in Assyria and Etruria. Some blocks of stone used at Tiahuanaco weighed a hundred and others even two hundred tons. They were brought from Kiappa, a distance of forty miles as the crow flies. Solid stone wheels have been found which could have been used to move them. The Sumerians themselves are the first people of whom we have evidence who used the solid wheel. The blocks were probably sawn out of the rock face by a method used by the Cretans, who sawed rock into ashlars with bronze saws. (The God-Kings & the Titans)

...there are little round holes in the top slabs of graves at Tiahuanaco, precisely as in Egyptian tombs, to let through the soul, presumed as being essential by the burial ritual of the Egyptians. There are double parallel walls at Tiahuanaco, with large stones outside and the centre filled with soil, a method of building used in Crete and indeed allover the Middle East. (The God-Kings & the Titans)

Ollantaytambo, Peru

...we came to a stairway cut into the trapezoidal wall. Following this upwards, we emerged at last on to the summit of Ollantaytambo, part mountain and part temple. Here there were many more scattered megaliths of between 100 and 200 tonnes and, at the highest point, a squat, square structure fronted by six truly massive megaliths, each about 2 metres in breadth and a metre or so in depth, varying in height between 3-4 metres and 4.3 metres. What was remarkable about these polished, jewel-hard pink-porphyry blocks, as well as bearing no resemblance, other than in size, to any of the blocks of Cuzco and Sacsayhuaman, was the almost unbelievable journey that they came on in order to get here. The quarries from which they were cut have been identified by geologists and lie nearly 8 kilometres away and about 900 metres higher on the opposite side of the sacred Vilcamayu river. This means that they had to be dragged down to the valley floor, across the river, and then steeply up again to the summit of Ollantaytambo - an almost superhuman task. What the Ollantaytambo blocks most resemble is the architecture of Tiahuanaco, far away to the south-east beyond Lake Titicaca - hulking, slab-like, straight-edged megaliths, with inexplicable knobs and protrusions and indentations here and there, put together with breathtaking skill and precision. (Heaven's Mirror)

This may explain why a characteristic symbolic device of Tiahuanaco, the step-pyramid, appears several times in low relief on one of the upright slabs of Ollantaytambo's megalithic wall. In ancient Egypt exactly the same graphic device was used as the hieroglyph and symbol for the Benben stone, the emblem of immortal life. Likewise, as in Egypt, as in Tiahuanaco, and as in Angkor, one of the 'signatures' of the builders of Ollantaytambo was a distinctive construction technique in which I-shaped metal clamps were used to hold blocks together. (Heaven's Mirror)

There were obelisks, as in Egypt, outside the Peruvian temple of Puma Punca and that of Tiahuanaco. (Heaven's Mirror)

The ruins are now twelve miles from Lake Titcaca but there is no question that in the days when the city was built it stood on or very near the shores of the lake, for traces of a dock or mole are to be seen just north of the principal ruins. Moreover, the city was once completely encircled by a wide moat filled with water from the lake. Although the city originally covered a vast area and was probably continuous over that area, the ruins are now more or less separated and may roughly be divided into three sections known as the Akapana or 'Hill of the Sacrifices', the Kalasasaya or 'Temple of the Sun', and the Tunca-Puncu or 'Place of Ten Doors', in addition to several smaller groups, isolated buildings and numerous monuments and idols. (The God-Kings & the Titans)

Most conspicuous of all is the Akapana, an immense truncated pyramidal hill one hundred and seventy feet in height and measuring 496 by 650 feet at the base and with each side almost mathematically in line with the respective cardinal points of the compass. Originally the entire surface was faced with huge rectangular stone blocks and smaller stones, but the greater part of these has been carried away by the railway workers and the natives. An immense stone stairway once led to the summit but only a few of the steps of enormous stones now remain. The greater part of the top of the man-made hill is occupied by a huge artificial lake provided With beautifully cut and fitted and most scientifically designed over­ flow conduits. Although the original purpose of the Akapana is not definitely known, yet there seems little doubt that it served the combined purposes of a place of worship and a gigantic baptismal font very similar in its design to such fonts on artificial hills in the Near East and known to the Sumerians as Apasus or E-Abzus. (The God-Kings & the Titans)

And another city in Peru, Chan Chan, is described thus: In its heyday, Chan Chan the capital of the Kingdom of the Grand Chimu, covered an area of eleven square miles and had a population estimated at a quarter of a million inhabitants. It was built upon a plain within easy reach of the sea with which it was connected by canals with docks at the city itself. Surrounding the city were immense walls of a cement-like mixture of clay and gravel, their surfaces everywhere ornate with bas-relief designs of intricate patterns in brilliant colours. In addition, many were decorated with enormous frescoes forming a veritable pictorial record of Chimu life, history and important events. Within the walls that were pierced by ornate gateways, were straight paved streets shaded by palms and flowering trees and beside each street was an irrigation ditch fed by a great aqueduct that brought the water across mountains and deserts from the distant Moche River. Flanking the streets were countless houses, often several stories in height, and their steeply-pitched roofs were of heavy timbers covered with reed thatch and capped by baked clay tiles. In order to support the weight, the walls were thickest at the base, and the doors and windows were wider at the bottom than the top and were closed by reed mats or the tanned hides of deer and sea-lions. Within, the houses were divided into numerous rooms separated by beautifully woven cotton draperies and many had porches or balconies with railings hung with multi-coloured rugs. They were well and comfortably furnished with wooden stools and benches, low tables and beds. Some were supplied with running water and there were even indoor toilets. Although meagrely furnished as judged by our standards, yet they had everything really essential. In the kitchens were clay stoves and ovens, metates for grinding corn, cooking utensils and even some cutlery. The wooden stools and low tables were carved and the beds were covered with blankets and robes of vicuna hides or the breasts of pelicans. There were hand looms, the various implements and materials for spinning, weaving and pottery making. In fact the Chan Chan homes were far more comfortable, more sanitary and better designed than were those of Europe centuries later. (The God-Kings & the Titans)

Looming high above the residences and built upon mounds of rubble, rose the public buildings, the palaces and temples. These were magnificent affairs, richly and ornately decorated with figures of animals, birds, deities and mythological creatures in bas-relief and with friezes of painted frescoes. Several of the temples as well as the palace of the Grand Chimu, covered an area of several hundred thousand square feet. Within them were innumerable rooms, passages and galleries with all the walls and in many cases the ceilings richly decorated with frescoes and bas-reliefs and in one great gallery were scores of niches, each containing the richly dressed and gold-laden mummy of some royal personage or priest. The throne room of the palace was forty-five feet square with its walls completely overlaid with beaten gold plates. Beyond this, and in the centre of the city, was the great plaza with its avenues and shade trees, its gardens of flowering plants, its fruit trees laden with cherimoyas, avocados, duraznos and other luscious fruits; with limpid pools and with public baths. To guard against possible dearth of water there were enormous tanks or reservoirs. One of these was six hundred yards in length by fifty yards in width and nearly twenty feet in depth while another was five hundred feet long, nearly two hundred feet wide and sixty feet deep. About the plaza and separated from the other buildings by high walls were the homes of the elite - built like the others but more ornate, provided with enclosed courtyards or patios having their private baths. As the Chimus were as much fisher folk as agriculturists the city had its own little harbour with piers and moorings, and was connected with the sea by a canal that was provided with locks or gates - a real necessity in a land where the rise and fall of the tide is so great. (The God-Kings & the Titans)

The people around here say that they [the Nazca Lines] were not the work of men, but of demigods, the Viracochas, who also left their fingerprints elsewhere in the Andean region many thousands of years ago. It's clear, for example, that the animals and birds antedate the geometry of the 'runways', because many of the trapezoids, rectangles and straight lines bisect (and thus partly obliterate) the more complex figures. The obvious deduction is that the final artwork of the desert as we view it today must have been produced in two phases. Moreover, though it seems contrary to the normal laws of technical progress, we must concede that the earlier of the two phases was the more advanced. The execution of the zoomorphic figures called for far higher levels of skill and technology than the etching of the straight lines. (Fingerprints of the Gods)

Dr Phillis Pitluga, an astronomer with the Adler Planetarium in Chicago, after making an intensive computer-aided study of stellar alignments at Nazca, concluded that the famous spider figure was devised as a terrestrial diagram of the giant constellation of Orion, and that the arrow-straight lines linked to the figure appear to have been set out to track through the ages the changing declinations of the three stars of Orion's Belt. (Fingerprints of the Gods)

Such mysteries multiply at Nazca and none of the designs, except perhaps the condor, really seems quite at home here. The whale and the monkey are, after all, as out of place in this desert environment as the Amazonian spider. A curious figure of a man, his right arm raised as though in greeting, heavy boots on his feet and round eyes staring owlishly forward, cannot be said to belong to any known era or culture. And other drawings depicting the human form are equally peculiar: their heads enclosed in halos of radiance, they do indeed look like visitors from another planet. Their sheer size is equally noteworthy and bizarre. The hummingbird is 165 feet long, the spider 150 feet long, the condor stretches nearly 400 feet from beak to tail-feathers (as does the pelican), and a lizard, whose tail is now divided by the Pan-American highway, is 617 feet in length. Almost every design is executed on the same cyclopean scale and in the same difficult manner, by the careful contouring of a single continuous line. Similar attention to detail is to be found in the geometrical devices. (Fingerprints of the Gods)

Some of these take the form of straight lines more than five miles long, marching like Roman roads across the desert, dropping into dried-out river beds, surmounting rocky outcrops, and never once deviating from true. None of the designs is small enough to be seen from ground level, where they appear merely as a series of shapeless ruts in the desert. They show their true form only when seen from an altitude of several hundred feet. There is no elevation nearby that provides such a vantage point. It was the development of aviation that made the difference, giving men and women the godlike ability to take to the skies and see beautiful and puzzling things that had hitherto been hidden from them. (Fingerprints of the Gods)

[There are] two parallel north-south highways, for example, one running for 3600 kilo metres along the coast and the other for a similar distance through the Andes. Both these great thoroughfares were paved and connected by frequent links. In addition, they exhibited an interesting range of design and engineering features such as suspension bridges and tunnels cut through solid rock. They were clearly the work of an evolved, disciplined and ambitious society. (Fingerprints of the Gods)

The ancient citadel of Sacsayhuaman lies just north of Cuzco. I craned my neck and looked up at a big granite boulder that my route now passed under. Twelve feet high, seven feet across, and weighing considerably more than 100 tons, it was a work of man, not nature. It had been cut and shaped into a symphonic harmony of angles, manipulated with apparent ease (as though it were made of wax or putty) and stood on its end in a wall of other huge and problematic polygonal blocks, some of them positioned above it, some below it, some to each side, and all in perfectly balanced and well-ordered juxtaposition. ...one of these astonishing pieces of carefully hewn stone had a height of twenty-eight feet and was calculated to weigh 361 tons (roughly the equivalent of five hundred family-sized automobiles) (Fingerprints of the Gods)

...from Fr Jose de Acosta's Natural and Moral History of the Indies, in which the learned priest set out 'what the Indians themselves report of their beginning': They make great mention of a deluge, which happened in their country...The Indians say that all men were drowned in the deluge, and they report that out of Lake Titicaca came one Viracocha, who stayed in Tiahuanaco, where at this day there are to be seen the ruins of ancient and very strange buildings, and from thence came to Cuzco, and so began mankind to multiply...(Fingerprints of the Gods)

The great Creator God, Viracocha, decided to make a world for men to live in. First he made the earth and sky. Then he began to make people to live in it, carving great stone figures of giants which he brought to life. At first all went well but after a time the giants began to fight among themselves and refused to work. Viracocha decided that he must destroy them. Some he turned back into stone...the rest he overwhelmed with a great flood. (Fingerprints of the Gods)


12,000 years ago when Lake Titicaca was more than 100 feet deeper than it is today, Tiahuanaco would have been an island, as shown above. (Fingerprints of the Gods)

We must now say something about the large and almost incredible buildings of Tiahuanaco. There is an artificial hill, of great height, built on stone foundations so that the earth will not slide. There are gigantic figures carved in stone...these are much worn which shows their great antiquity. There are walls, the stones of which are so enormous it is difficult to imagine what human force could have put them in place. And there are the remains of strange buildings, the most remarkable being stone portals, hewn out of solid rock; these stand on bases anything up to 30 feet long, 15 feet wide and 6 feet thick, base and portal being all of one piece...How, and with the use of what tools or implements, massive works of such size could be achieved are questions which we are unable to answer...Nor can it be imagined how such enormous stones could have been brought here...(Fingerprints of the Gods)

As I climbed up the broken sides and around the deep grassy troughs in the top of the Akapana, I realized that the true function of the pyramid was probably never going to be understood. All that was certain was that it had not been merely decorative or ceremonial. On the contrary, it seemed almost as though it might have functioned as some kind of arcane 'device' or machine. Deep within its bowels, archaeologists had discovered a complex network of zig-zagging stone channels, lined with fine ashlars. These had been meticulously angled and jointed (to a tolerance of one-fiftieth of an inch), and had served to sluice water down from a large reservoir at the top of the structure, through a series of descending levels, to a moat that encircled the entire site, washing against the pyramid's base on its southern side. So much care and attention had been lavished on all this plumbing, so many man-hours of highly skilled and patient labour, that the Akapana made no sense unless it had been endowed with a significant purpose. (Fingerprints of the Gods)

We are not proposing that the Nazca geoglyphs in any sense constitute an accurate 'map' or 'chart' of the sky on the March equinox 2000 years ago. They do not. We are simply making the observation that many of the constellations that we know to have been present in that sky are curiously 'mirrored' by the patterns and alignments of the principal Nazca figures. Although their relative positions appear to have been selected at random (with the ground figures completely 'jumbled up' vis-a-vis the relative positions of the sky figures), it may be significant that all these constellations lie in a great sweep from north to south around the western half of the celestial sphere. (Heaven's Mirror)

...there are...strong signs of an ancient astronomical cult at the Coricancha. Of great significance, arranged around the central courtyard, were what Garcilaso describes as 'five large square rooms', the core-masonry of which, in polished grey granite blocks, has survived to this day. 'They had no communication between them,' Garcilaso tells us, 'and were roofed over in the form of a pyramid.' One room was...dedicated to the Moon, the bride of the Sun. It was entirely panelled with silver ... A likeness to the Moon, with the face of a woman, decorated it in the same way that the Sun decorated the larger building ... The room nearest to that of the Moon was devoted to Venus, to the Pleiades and to all the stars ... This room was hung with silver, like that of the Moon, and the ceiling was dotted with stars, like the firmament. The next room was dedicated to lightning and to thunder . .. The fourth room was devoted to the rainbow, which they said had descended from the Sun ... It was entirely covered in gold and the rainbow was painted, in beautiful colours, across the entire surface of one of the walls ... The fifth and last room was reserved for the high priest and his assistants, who were all of royal blood ... This parlour was panelled with gold, in the same way as the others. (Heaven's Mirror)

There is the riddle of the huge stones. At the Puma Punku, a squat step- pyramid with a base measuring approximately 60 metres by 50 metres, there is a block that has been calculated to weigh 447 tonnes. Many others are in the range of 100 to 200 tonnes. The principal quarries were 60 kilometres away, where all Tiahuanaco's andesite came from, and 15 kilometres away, where all its red sandstone came from. Another riddle, much in evidence at the Puma Punku, is that many of the megaliths were joined by metal clamps, some very large. For a long while it was thought that these I-shaped and T-shaped clamps had been pre-cast at a furnace and then placed cold into carved indentations in the recipient blocks. A close study with a scanning electron microscope has, however, revealed surprising evidence that they were poured molten into the indentations. This implies that a portable smelter must have been used, moving from block to block at the site itself - a much higher level of technology than has ever been credited to pre- Columbian South America. (Heaven's Mirror)

Another mystery is that spectrographic analysis of one of the very few surviving clamps has shown it to consist of a most unusual alloy of 2.05 per cent arsenic, 95.15 per cent copper, 0.26 per cent iron, 0.84 per cent silicon and 1.70 per cent nickel. There is no source of nickel anywhere in Bolivia. Furthermore, the 'rarely encountered' alloy of arsenical nickel bronze would have required a smelter operating at extremely high temperatures. (Heaven's Mirror)

So the builders of Tiahuanaco constructed a "mountain full of water" in sight of a lake and an island called Titicaca, or "Lion Cliff," where water gushed forth from a cliff, and whose glyphic analogue in Mexico--a mountain with fangs and a cave at the base--represented the village, alteptl, literally "mountain full of water." And like any true cosmic mountain, the Akapana recycled as well the waters of spiritual life, whose headwaters arose at the top of the cosmic mountain, at June solstice in the precincts of the Milky Way. (The Secret of the Incas)

Garcilasco de la Vega, who visited in the mid-sixteenth century, described it this way: "We must now say something about the large and almost incredible buildings of Tiahuanaco. There is an artificial hill, of great height, built on stone foundations so that the earth will not slide. There are gigantic figures carved in stone ... these are much worn which shows great antiquity. There are walls, the stones of which are so enormous it is difficult to imagine what human force could have put them into place. And there are the remains of strange buildings, the most remarkable being stone portals, hewn out of solid rock; these stand on bases up to 30 feet long, 15 feet wide and 6 feet thick. How, and with the use of what tools or implements, massive works of such size could be achieved are questions which we are unable to answer." One of the stone portals de la Vega describes stands at the north- west corner of a vast enclosure known as the Place of Upright Stones. This portal, while an amazing work of art, is also a complex and accurate calendar in stone. The whole complex has been found to be an intricate astronomical observatory, designed perhaps to calculate alignments of solstices and equinoxes with the galactic core and edge. Whatever it was designed to do, its astronomical nature allows us to date its construction with precision.Posnansky found that by establishing the solar alignments of key structures that now looked out of true, he could determine the angle of the ecliptic tilt at the time when the structure was built. He found a tilt of 23°8'48". Comparing this angle to the graph developed in 1911 by the International Conference of Ephemerids, we find a corresponding date of around 15,000 B.C.E. Naturally, most orthodox archaeologists found this hard to take. (The Mysteries of the Great Cross of Hendaye)

The ancient city of Cusco was laid out in the shape of a puma, a South American mountain lion; this shape was made more pronounced by Incan emperor Pachacuti's rebuilding around 1440 C.E. The main part of the old city lies within the animal's torso, but the face of the puma and the nose are both part of the Sacsayhuaman complex, which towers high above the city. What is left today of the giant stonework of Sacsayhuaman tells only a tiny part of the story of these magnificent monuments and the unknown people who built them. At its height, the complex at Sacsayhuaman was enormous, with three tall towers and room for over five thousand defenders in its labyrinth of rooms. But it is only in the mind's eye that one can reconstruct the magnificence of this center, built to mark the origin of the sacred river, channeled through stone conduits and tunnels into the city. There are several tunnel openings still to be seen in the complex. But they appear to have been sealed to depths of twenty to thirty feet. (The Mysteries of the Great Cross of Hendaye)

The Gamarras have walked the walk and earned the right to speak out on this matter, and when they speak, though they themselves are of Inca descent, their message is absolutely clear—many of the great architectural works that are attributed to the Incas were not made by the Incas. There are traces of a lost civilization here. Indeed not just one lost civilization, but—if Gamarra’s time frame is correct—two. “All the big blocks of Sacsayhuaman are from the Uran Pacha period,” he says. (Magicians of the Gods)

An intriguing study by the Institute of Tectonics and Geophysics of the Russian Academy of Sciences, working in cooperation with Peru’s Ministry of Culture, produced evidence that the limestone of the Sacsayhuaman megaliths was at some point subjected to temperatures in excess of 900 degrees centigrade and possibly as high as 1100 degrees centigrade. When the Russian researchers went to the quarries where the blocks are believed to have been cut, they found the natural limestone filled with tiny organic fossils. Strangely, when samples from the Sacsayhuaman megaliths were assayed by the researchers they confirmed that the rock was indeed limestone of “high density.” However there were: no obvious fossils and organic remains in it, but only clearly visible fine-grained structure. Their conclusion was that the blocks had been subjected to intense heat between the time when they were quarried and the time when they were placed into the wall and that this heat was sufficient to reduce the fossils to indeterminate fine-grained structure… (Magicians of the Gods)

“These,” says Gamarra, indicating the ruins, “are examples of what was done in the Ukun Pacha period—the work of the Incas.” Some of it, he makes clear, for example the structure of three concentric circles of walls, was very nicely done. The Incas called it Muyuc Marca, he tells me. It was a tower that once rose to over 30 meters in height and was built as an imperial residence for the emperor—whose title was “the Inca.” Only later, and by extension, did the entire nation become “the Incas.” Gamarra’s argument is that in buildings like Muyuc Marca we are looking at the finest results the Incas were capable of. Yet these results are so patently inferior to the megaliths—and so different—that they must obviously be accepted as the work of another culture. (Magicians of the Gods)

Before we leave Sacsayhuaman, Jesus Gamarra takes me to a very strange place a few hundred meters to the northeast of the megalithic walls, where a narrow stairway with a dozen steps appears to have been molded—not cut—into the midst of a massive boulder 20 feet high and as many wide. At the point where the lowest of the steps would originally have touched the earth, Gamarra shows me the entrance to what looks like a deep, dark hole, now filled up with slabs of rock. “It’s a tunnel,” he tells me. “It goes under the ground all the way to Cuzco, but the government blocked the entrance to stop people exploring it.” (Magicians of the Gods)

…he takes me to the ancient temple known as the Coricancha, which was converted into a cathedral after the Spanish conquest. The temple was used by the Incas, indeed it was central to their sacred life, but Gamarra does not believe that the Incas built it. In his view, though they undertook some repairs and added some minor constructions of their own, the bulk of the polished, precise, sharply angled gray granite stonework is from the Uran Pacha (“second world”) period and thus predates the Incas by thousands of years. He’s reluctant to commit to a timescale, but suggests that the Coricancha was originally raised up “more than 20,000 years ago” in order to venerate an even earlier Hanan Pacha (“first world”) monolithic site—the original “uncovered navel stone” from which the city derives its name. (Magicians of the Gods)

The huge granite blocks are so finely cut—Gamarra insists they were molded into shape—that the towering inner chambers look more like the parts of some gigantic, sophisticated machine than of a temple. Adding to this impression are the complicated series of grooves, channels, holes and niches indented into several of the blocks, giving them the appearance of printed circuit boards from which the circuitry has been removed, leaving only empty tracks. …there is a curious glassy sheen around the joints, which he believes is evidence of “vitrification caused by exposure to intense heat.” He makes a convincing case that what we’re looking at is different from the normal shine that passers-by might impart to the stone by rubbing and touching it over the centuries. Indeed the “vitrified” elements—and I make no claim that this is what they are—form a clear skin over the underlying blocks that is particularly evident where areas have been damaged or broken. (Magicians of the Gods)

“Each of these cultures,” Gamarra explains, “venerated and respected the culture that went before. They expressed their feelings of respect by building over and around the work of their predecessors and by attempting to copy what they did. As I showed you in Loreto Street, the Incas sought to emulate the Uran Pacha style, but they didn’t have the knowledge or the right conditions to do such a good job.” By “the right conditions” Gamarra means the lowered gravity and greater malleability of stone that he hypothesizes in past epochs, but I don’t need to embrace that to accept that his observations about the different building styles and their likely origination by different cultures make complete sense of what we’re looking at. (Magicians of the Gods)

Bolivia’s Tiahuanaco Archeological Research Center reported that a survey with ground-penetrating radar had revealed the existence of a complete “buried pyramid” in a previously unexcavated area of the site, together with “a number of underground anomalies” that are thought to be monoliths. (Magicians of the Gods)

What’s new for me on my October 2013 visit is a much closer look at the machine-age precision of the megaliths littered around the immense platform of the Puma Punku, and the truly intricate manner in which so much of the stone has been cut—molded, I think Jesus Gamarra would say. As at the Coricancha, I come across several megaliths that resemble circuit boards stripped of their circuits. There are others with cross-shaped indentations that look as though they were part of some contraption—as though perhaps they were to receive the ends of metal axles, or connecting pieces that have long since oxidized or been carried off by looters. Particularly striking, because I’ve missed them before on all previous visits, are a couple of rows of massive andesite blocks all identical, as though stamped out of some mold, and all shaped like the letter “H.” (Magicians of the Gods)

The publicity around Silva’s “discovery,” coupled with new insights into the complexity of ancient Amazonian civilization, led to a gradual reawakening of interest in Rego Grande. More research was done and out of roughly 200 prehistoric sites identified across the state of Amapá it was found that 30 had megalithic monuments of one kind or another. In 2005 archaeologists Mariana Petry Cabral and João Darcy de Moura Saldanha of Amapá’s Institute of Scientific and Technological Research set about the task of surveying them all, with a particular focus on Rego Grande. There, the principal stone circle, which has a diameter of 30 meters, consists of 127 upright megaliths. Brought from a quarry 3 kilometers away... In the case of Rego Grande, it is the winter solstice that is the primary focus. Cabral and Saldanha point to a megalith that uses shadow effects to track “the sun’s path throughout this day.” Two other granite megaliths close by, one with an artificial hole cut through it, also line up to track the rising point of the winter solstice sun. (America Before)

...the total number of geometric ditched enclosures discovered in the southwestern Amazon survey area had increased from “over 210,” the figure on record in 2009, to “over 450” by 2017. The researchers suggest that at least 1,300 further sites remain hidden within the jungles of the Amazon’s southern rim—(America Before)

...both Fazenda Parana and Severino Calazans consist of square  geoglyphs. The first features two squares, one 200 meters along each side and the second exactly half that size, with an interconnecting causeway. Meanwhile, the second site has side lengths of 230 meters, giving it the same footprint as the Great Pyramid of Egypt. All four of these squares—the two at Fazenda Parana, the one at Severino Calazans, and of course the Great Pyramid itself, are cardinally oriented, that is, their sides face true north, south, east, and west. (America Before)

In a follow-up paper, published in American Anthropologist in August 2017, Saunaluoma and Virtanen take their analysis much further, proposing that the geoglyphs “were systematically constructed as spaces especially laden with visible and invisible entities.” Their argument is that, regardless of scale or medium, the whole process of materializing visionary iconography, in particular geometric patterns,  is “related to the fluid forms inhabiting the Amazonian relational world. Different designs ‘bring’ the presence of nonhumans to the visible world of humans for a number of Amazonian Indigenous peoples, while perceiving geometric designs in Amerindian art as paths from one dimension to another allows a viewer to shift between different worlds, from the visible to the invisible.” (America Before)

There are three clear indications at Nazca that some form of alternative viewing was achieved by the people who created this extraordinary land art. The first is the most fundamental: very few of the geoglyphs at Nazca can be successfully viewed from the ground. The artists dedicated untold hours of toil and sweat in order to create images that can only be seen with a remote view. Second, they created depictions of animals and insects whose natural residences were also extremely remote, in some cases thousands of miles distant. Third, as we will see, to understand the significance of the location of Nazca requires a worldview. Nazca is an extraordinary work of art at a phenomenal location on Earth. The delta-shaped geoglyphs at Nazca are on a line passing through three of the world's greatest deltas, and 3,142 nautical miles can be measured between two of them, the Nile and the Ganges Deltas. The line itself has a bearing of 61.8 degrees from Nazca. v. The deltas depicted on the ground at Nazca symbolize natural deltas, just as the pyramids, mounds, and henges symbolize natural high points. (Sacred Geometry of the Earth)

It seems that ancient monuments are all expressions of the same underlying belief, and at its root is the recognition of geometric order governing the topography of the Earth. The code at Nazca reveals that right triangles can be drawn between the Amazon, Nile, and MacKenzie Deltas; the Amazon, Nile, and Danube Deltas; the Ganges, Nile, and MacKenzie Deltas; and the Ganges, Nile and Danube Deltas. A baseline shared by all these triangles extends directly to Nazca, where the bearing on the line is 61.80 degrees. It is a spectacular example of the landscape art and earth science rolled into one. The evidence of sophistication in the past is not missing. The deltas are aligned with Nazca, and the deltas are aligned with each other. Also, 3,142 nautical miles can be measured between the Nile and the Ganges Deltas, and then 1.5 X 3,142 nautical miles can be measured between the Nile and the MacKenzie Deltas. The message passed down from early history is that of an ordered, fashioned, designed, or created Earth. The cause of this was variously attributed to living forces, supernatural forces, or a single god--all apparently deemed reasonable conclusions at the time. (Sacred Geometry of the Earth)