Building in North America

From western New York State to Nebraska, from the Great Lakes to the Gulf of Mexico, the land was once littered with mounds, many of them enormous in height and extent. The largest were flat-topped like the pyramids of Central Mexico, and they all would have necessitated huge crowds of workers. They were built of vast tonnages of dirt, many with astonishingly precise angles, some in the form of a perfect circle. In what would become East Saint Louis, a huge metropolis seemed once to have existed along the Mississippi, in a place called Cahokia. It was some five square miles in area, with a hundred mounds grouped around central plazas. Most spectacular of the Cahokia mounds was what came to be called Monk's Mound: covering sixteen acres, it was the largest single earthwork ever built by prehistoric people in North America. A temple evidently once sat atop this mound, one hundred feet above the surrounding area and visible to the entire population. It has been estimated that this one mound called for the quarrying and piling up of more than 21 million square feet of dirt. Estimates of the resident population ran in the tens of thousands, though current estimates suggest something far less - perhaps five thousand in Cahokia's heyday, which is still a big place if one is accustomed only to the stereotype of the Native American as living in small bands of hunter-gatherers wandering around in the woods or riding over the plains. (In fact, at the time of European discovery, most natives, by far, were village or town-dwelling agriculturalists who also hunted and gathered resources from the surrounding countryside.) When asked by British colonists, the Cherokees in western North Carolina whose villages were built on mounds had essentially shrugged and said the mounds had already been present when the Cherokees had arrived. (The First Americans)

There also exists an American Woodhenge, but the resemblance is in the proportion 22:7 only. The American site, at Cahokia Mounds, is constructed with the Tiahuanaco foot of 0.2972 m, which is quite surprising in itself. This prehistoric circle is in Illinois, near East St. Louis, on the east bank of the Mississippi River, and is only a part of an extensive maze of prehistoric temples, habitats, and truncated pyramids. The diameter of Woodhenge Circle is 420 Tiahuanaco ft.; and its circumference is 1,320 ft, divided into 48 equal parts of 27 1/2 ft. each, separated by 48 equidistant poles. (Our Cosmic Ancestors)

...the diameter of southwest England’s circular monument at Avebury equals that of Newark’s Great Circle in northern Ohio...Britain’s Maiden Castle (from the Keltic mai-dun for “great hill”), in Dorset, features eastern and western gateways virtually identical in their complexity to an Adena hill-fort in Butler County, Ohio, located near the town of Hamilton. (The Lost History of Ancient America)

...a striking feature of Newark’s Great Circle is the massive ditch—as much as 12.5 meters wide and 4 meters deep—that runs inside its embankment  walls. Indeed, such a ditch, within rather than outside a circular embankment, is the very definition of a henge. Alongside its circles, and an integral part of the same enormous complex (to the other major elements of which it was joined by causeways), Newark in its prime possessed a square enclosure, “nearly geometrically perfect,” with sides averaging 931 feet in length.23 Almost nothing of it remains today but fortunately enough was intact when it was surveyed in the nineteenth century... These and subsequent surveys have revealed not only that “the perimeter of the square earthwork is precisely equal to the circumference of the Great Circle,” but also, as Bradley Lepper notes, that “its area is equal to the area of the Observatory Circle.” In these clearly deliberate and carefully thought through harmonies, Lepper rightly finds “indications of the remarkable sophistication of the geometry incorporated into the architecture of the Newark Earthworks.” (America Before)

...“the main axis of High Bank Works—that is, a line projected through the center of the Circle and the Octagon—bears a direct relationship to the axis  of Newark’s Observatory Circle and Octagon. Although built more than 60 miles apart, the axis of High Bank Works is oriented at precisely 90 degrees to that of Newark earthworks. This suggests a deliberate attempt to link these sites through geometry and astronomy.” The geometry of the Newark Earthworks—and of High Bank, too—turns out to be very closely fitted to these obscure celestial events, known to astronomers as “lunar standstills,”... (America Before)

Our continued analysis … has revealed repetitive patterns of earthwork and topographical features oriented or aligned to the extreme rise and set points of both the sun and the moon on the horizon. These alignments, combined with the massive scale, geometrical symmetry and regularity of the earthen enclosures suggest that the Newark Earthworks were built to record, celebrate, and connect with celestial actors or large-scale forces that appear to govern relations among earth, sky and the human mind. (America Before

It looks very much as if there was another hiatus, perhaps not of 1,000 years—let’s say 800 years—between the end of Poverty Point and the rebirth of the mound-builder movement late in the Adena period. Thereafter it grew again to full force in its Hopewell and later Mississippian manifestations until finally being brought to an end by the European conquest. Despite the fact that different cultures were involved at different periods, every resurgence of mound-building was linked to the reiteration and reimagination of the same geometrical and astronomical memes.  (America Before)

...although there is again a marked difference of degree, there is no difference in kind between the geometric, astronomically aligned structures of the Giza plateau and the geometric, astronomically aligned structures of the Mississippi Valley. All of them seem bound together by the single purpose of the triumph of the soul over death and by the means deployed to achieve that purpose. (America Before)

This definitive report stares that the enrire country lying between the lllinois and Mississippi Rivers, between Galena and Cairo, is honeycombed with Indian mounds.   (The Giants Who Ruled America)

After falling through the ceiling of an unknown tunnel, the miner had followed it 20 miles north of the Panamint Mountains to discover a huge ancient underground city. He saw arching stone vaults with huge stone doors and a polished round table in the center of their council chamber, which had once been lit by ingenious lights, fueled by subterranean gases. Leaning against the walls were their tall gold spears. He said that the designs on their thick golden armbands resembled the work of the Egyptians. The tunnel ended at an exit overlooking Furnace Creek Ranch in California's Imperial Valley. He could see from there that the valley had once been underwater. The tunnel entrance had been a dock or a quay located halfway up the side of the mountain.  (The Giants Who Ruled America)

Some [mounds] have the appearance of military structures, and others look as though they were built as observatories, while others seem to be designed for religious or burial purposes. Some mounds have the form of birds, serpents, alligators, and other animals. The "old fort" at Newark, has a mound in the center several feet high and about fifty feet long, built in the shape of an eagle with spread wings. It was certainly no barbaric skill that could have traced out those perfect circles, surveyed those rectangles and octagons, much less controlled the tens of thousands of laborers that must have been necessary to construct these earthen walls and mounds. (The Giants Who Ruled America)

One of the most impressive earthworks found during this Iowa excavation was rhe remains of a six-acre octagon with curving sides and a passageway on the western side that led to a freshwater spring. To give you an idea of the vast extent of some of these sites under investigation, in this report on the Iowa dig, it is reported that a general survey of the area revealed the presence of thousands of mounds that went on for miles and the remains of what is described as a large, ancient city. (The Giants Who Ruled America)

In all it is estimated that there are at least 100,000 mounds in the Eastern portion of the United States. These represent the work of millions of people, many nations and tribes, and they were constructed over a long period of time. (The Giants Who Ruled America)

The real find was 19 feet from the top. Here a large vault 12 feet square, and 7 or 8 feet high, was discovered. Upright timbers had been placed around the sides to hold up the roof, but they had decayed, and dirt and rocks had fallen into the vault. In this vault were five skeletons, four of whom had been placed in each corner in an erect position, and the fifth was lying flat on the floor. The four seemed to be standing guard over a chief or important person. This man was a giant, seven feet, six inches tall, and measured nineteen inches between his shoulder sockets. He had been buried in a bark coffin, placed on his back with arms at his side and legs together. (The Giants Who Ruled America)

Current estimates put the number of known American mounds at well over one hundred thousand. They ranged in shape from the great pyramids of Illinois to the fantastic pictorial mounds of Wisconsin. It seemed to be common knowledge that giants were found buried in many of these mounds and that these giants were not related to the present-day American Indians living in the region.  (The Giants Who Ruled America)

In seven townships lying about Devil's Lake there are 734 mounds. Best known of these is a bird with outstretched wings, extending 150 feet, tail forked, and wings bent near the tip. The bird seems to be flying toward the lake, the shore of which is but a few rods distant. The head, breast, and body are several feet in height. (The Giants Who Ruled America)

The earthwork mounds resemble various shapes of varying sizes: mink, panther, bird, conical, oval, and turtle. In the area around the Dells in Kilbourn, Wisconsin, the discovery of a two-hundred-foot long giant lizard mound was reported. At an adjacent mound complex consisting of eight to twelve conical mounds as tall as twelve feet, another effigy mound in the shape of a deer was noted.  (The Giants Who Ruled America)

Not only have mammoth and mastodon remains been found in Wisconsin, but bones, tusks, and teeth have been found in association with mound builder burials. In Minnesota, an effigy mound in the shape of an elephant or mastodon has also been reported. On the high bluffs many beautiful effigies were discovered, a large majority of them being in the shape of squirrels. The squirrels, some of them large of size, were in every conceivable attitude. One interesting effigy mound represented a fox running, with his head turned around and looking behind him. (The Giants Who Ruled America)

In Putnam County, New York, hundreds of megalithic stone chambers have been documented. Many have been built and configured to align with the winter solstice sunrise, which is the sunrise on the shortest day of the year. In another instance, from the end of Long Island through Connecticut, across the Hudson River valley, and through the Catskill Mountains, an array of stone constructions has been discovered that all align with the setting sun on the summer solstice, the longest day of the year. (Spirits in Stone)

 ...the stone chambers of the Hudson River valley have been the subject of investigation by a number of researchers over many years... it’s been discovered that many chamber sites are associated with electromagnetic “hot spots” or are located in areas that show an increase or spike in the power density of the Earth’s electromagnetic field strength at that particular spot, as measured with electronic sensor equipment. (Spirits in Stone)

It can be said that the configuration and layout of large stone constructions on Overlook Mountain, consisting of six large stone cairns and two serpentine walls, when taken as a whole, constitute a component petroform that resembles a snake or serpent. Specifically, in form and composition, the Overlook Mountain petroform bears a striking similarity to the star constellation Draco.  (Spirits in Stone)

“These people receive, by right of birth, the underground water directly from their ancestors who are believed to reside within the earth.” Despite different historical periods and phases, the function of several features seen in the southwestern, central, and northeastern United States has remained the same. In Peru and Chile, geometric shapes were used to document the flow of areas of higher permeability, and many of those found in the United States have the same function (Johnson 2009). This suggests ancestral Native Americans were using the same basic concepts to map the locations of areas of higher permeability throughout the Western Hemisphere with structures and stone features. The similarity between various stone features strongly suggests some degree of cultural uniformity existed throughout most, if not all, of the Western Hemisphere.  (Spirits in Stone

Throughout our investigations of sacred landscapes, ceremonial stone landscapes, and habitationscapes in three regions of the Western Hemisphere, certain fundamentals remain the same throughout Native American tribes during different historical periods.  For all practical purposes, the stone features function as hieroglyphs that correspond to the oral traditions of the Native Americans.  (Spirits in Stone

This sampling of stories from around the nation makes it clear that ancient America was home to significant urban centers, connected by trade. What is often not understood is that many mound builder centers featured traditional houses that surrounded the ceremonial mounds and that most of the major sites had roads, gates, and walls surrounding them. In addition, evidence of sewage systems and canals has been detected at various sites across the country. In some cases the towns were also manufacturing centers and show signs of high trade and commerce of great sophistication. (The Giants Who Ruled America)

Ohio alone has 10,000 of these in the form of mounds of various sizes, and 1,500 enclosures are scattered through the state. The claims of the local Indians of Pennsylvania that they did not clear the wide swaches of forest in the area echo the claims of orher Indian tribes across che United srates, who also claim no part in the construction of the ancient earthworks found in their tribal domains. The local Indians' claim that giants were responsible for the clearing of forestland and construction of huge earthworks is echoed rhroughout the United States by widely separated unrerated Indian tribes. (The Giants Who Ruled America)

Tracing the area as it one-time appeared, and basing theories on the tremendous amount of artifacts found by workmen during digging operations, it is established by anthropologists and archaeologists who are now on the scene, that the "city," if that is what it might have been called, had an area of about 10 square miles, and no doubt supported an estimated population of over 100,000 people.  The remains of this vanished race consist of about 75 complete skeletons. Two distinct burials were unearthed, one containing dozens of decapitated bodies, while the other contained an equal amount of complete skeletons, which do not appear to have been mutilated. (The Giants Who Ruled America)

REPORT ON THE SMITHSONIAN'S 1910 PUYE CLIFF DWELLER EXCAVATION "Tbe Pueblos baue no traditions, legends, or anything regarding these cliff people." It is estimated by the Smithsonian people that 10,000 people lived on the face of this one cliff and that the population of the adjoining cliffs and on the mesas was fully 100,000 people. (The Giants Who Ruled America)

Where the great quantities of cement came from that plastered almost every room of these hundreds is another for the puzzle department to go to. Nothing has ever been found here of the sticky nature, yet these aborigines must have had a Portland source from somewhere, for it was used in abundance. The great building reminds one of our modern stockyards--an enclosure cut up into little rooms--each room about five by ten feet--and each communicating with the other by a door about three feet high by eighteen inches wide--just one great beehive with no outdoor entrances. From the quantity of ruins it is pretty thoroughly established that this building was at least three stories high, one great enclosure around a court, and with one main entrance, or street, which is clearly defined. In the center, or court, there are many handsome stone relics, grinding stones, skinning stones, pieces of pottery, and many whose use we can only guess at, but plainly fashioned for some purpose. (The Giants Who Ruled America)

It is a notable fact that all the best mines of North Carolina are of prehistoric origin. The ancient people working these mines were doubtless contemporaneous with the mound builders of the Ohio Valley, since in Chillicothe, Circleville, and other places have been found in the mounds adjacent sheets of mica covering human remains; also, mica sheets lying upon ancient altars, evidently used for sacrificial purposes...  (The Giants Who Ruled America)

At that early time the Temple (on Catalina Island) consisted of a large circle of upright stones, similar to the Druid temple at Stonehenge, England. The stones were believed to point to the sun at mid- day. The circle of upright monoliths enclosed the hideous idol of the Sun God. This idol bore some resemblance to the images found by the Spaniards in the Aztec temples of Mexico. (The Giants Who Ruled America)

Modern readers are familiar with the sensation that was caused when Robert Bauval likened the arrangement of the Great Pyramid complex to Orion's belt. In this account, which is almost two hundred years old, Haywood notes a similar stellar arrangement in the placement of the mounds he is examining in Tennessee, only this time in relation to the Pleiades.  (The Giants Who Ruled America)