Building in Egypt

The earliest Egyptians had buried their dead directly into the backing hot desert sand, where the high dry temperature desiccates the bodies to effectively mummify them. As the civilization developed, mud-brick structures known as ‘mastabas’ began to appear. These buildings were trapezoid structures --- rectangular in plan with inward sloping sides and a flat top. Over time it became the practice to build one slightly smaller mastaba on top of another, which led too the development of the step pyramid. Then there followed a phase during which the architects improved the design of the step pyramid by adding triangular infills for the saw-tooth sides, leading to the sort of smooth pyramid with which most people are familiar. The later stages of this process actually came about surprisingly rapidly --- given the normally ponderous nature of building evolution. (Before the Pyramids)

The engineering of the Giza plateau pyramid structures, using the same materials as the builders, could not be replicated today with the degree of perfection they exhibit. These three great Egyptian pyramids contain from one million to three million stones with average weights of three to four tons each. The structures would have to have been started at the bottom where a deviation of less than an inch on one stone at the bottom would produce a 20-foot error by the time the masons reached the apex. This discussion does not even include the exact astronomical measurements built into the structure. The pyramids' master builders reportedly taught humans their architectural and engineering skills. (Gods, Genes, and Consciousness)

The Great designed around the "2 x Pi x radius" formula of a circle. The perimeter length around the base of the pyramid is the equivalent of the perimeter of a circle, and the height of the pyramid represents the radius of the same circle. The Second Pyramid has simply been made to a different mathematical design from its neighbour; it has an angle of elevation that is based around the Pythagorean 3-4-5 triangle principle, with the unit of '4' representing the vertical height of the pyramid. It is quite apparent that the design principle of both these pyramids revolves around fundamental mathematical formulae, and so the Great Pyramid represents a circle while the Second Pyramid represents a square. The ratio of 22:7 is the closest whole-number fraction of Pi and it would seem that this is the Pi ratio that was used in the design of the Great Pyramid. (Thoth: Architect of the Universe)

...if the Thoth cubit (tc) is actually 52.35 cm, then what impact will this have on the external size of the Great Pyramid? Take the base of this pyramid, which is 230.36 m in length, divide this by 0.5235 and the result is 440.04 tc, which is fairly close to the whole-number of 440. In the same manner, the pyramid's height of 146.59 m, when divided by 0.5235, becomes 280.02 tc which is again quite close to a whole-number value of 280. demonstrates a high level of accuracy to round figures in using the cubit length of 0.5235 m. This is a real unit of measure, as used by the original architect, and therefore this is the unit that should be used when studying these designs. (Thoth: Architect of the Universe)

The designer of the Great Pyramid was simply looking for a multiple of the Pi fraction 22:7 that would satisfy four requirements:
i) The first ratio figure had to be a multiple of the number 22
ii) The second ratio figure had to be a multiple of the number 7
iii) It would be useful if the chosen ratio could be divided by simple 2s and 4s to fit the simple ancient maths
iv) The chosen ratio had to produce a cubit/yard length that was small enough to be handled easily in everyday usage.
The ratio chosen for the Great Pyramid was simply 880:280, which is a 40-times multiple of the 22:7 ratio for Pi...(Thoth: Architect of the Universe)

The northern pyramid on the Dahshur site is known for the colour of the sandstone used in its construction. The 'Red' Pyramid, as it is known, has exterior elevations of the more stable angle of 43° 36', and once more it does not exhibit any indication of having ever been used as a tomb. The quality of the construction of the Red Pyramid is far superior to those of Meidum or Saqqara, with the quality of the stonework in the chambers, for example, being particularly fine. The Red Pyramid would still have been a very imposing monument, were it not for the stone robbers who have stripped the casing off. Like the Red Pyramid, Bent is of much superior construction to those at Saqqara and Meidum, as is witnessed by its near complete survival. Nearly all the casing stones have survived intact, which gives us a good example of what the pyramids of Giza must have looked like in the past. Only the colour has changed over the years, from the original brilliant white to the sandy buff hue that we see today. (Thoth: Architect of the Universe)

As we can see from the remaining cladding stones that still cover the Bent Pyramid and the upper portions of the Second Pyramid, in the desert climate, good quality stone usually weathers very slowly. Then, after many millennia, someone came along and started pilfering the cladding stones from the pyramids; something that is usually ascribed to the eighth or ninth century AD. From this time onwards, the whole of the paving slab was now exposed to the elements and started to weather, hence a line was formed in the paving stones between the two periods of weathering. In general, it would appear that there was a minimum of ten times as much erosion on the exposed section of each block as on the portion that had been covered with the cladding stones, and this ratio would in turn give us a direct indication of the true age of these pyramids. If a constant erosion rate is presumed, and if the time elapsed since the cladding was stolen is about 1,000 years, then the time required for the erosion of the exposed sections of each slab would equate to about 10,000 years, and quite possibly, much much longer. (Thoth: Architect of the Universe)

In addition, some of the pavement blocks around the Second Pyramid weigh in at up to 200 tonnes and the depth of this pavement is quite astounding. The Second Pyramid was built on an incline and therefore the south western corner had to be countersunk into the bedrock. Indeed, part of this corner of the pyramid was actually formed from a raised section of remaining bedrock. To the east, the problem was the reverse; the ground here sloped away and was deeply fissured. Thus, the foundations to the pyramid across all of this eastern area had to be raised up to make the site level and stable. The Bronze Age solution to this defect on the topography of the chosen site was 'simple': just form a thick raft of megalithic blocks, each weighing in at hundreds of tonnes, and then build the pyramid on top of that. (Thoth: Architect of the Universe)

Now we know that the sites are intimately linked, we can join up the dots and see that the resulting layout is exactly the same at Avebury as it is at Dahshur - the angles between the monuments are the same at both sites. So we have another direct link between Avebury and Giza; again, it would appear that the same designer was at work on both sites. I started in Giza, where the layout of the pyramids seemed to mimic a planisphere of the stars. From there, the comparison was made with the Wessex monuments, which seem to copy the layout of the pyramids. Finally, there was the Uffington horse, which confirms the planisphere layout in the same way as the Sphinx does at Giza. The stellar layout of the henges is nearly complete. Stonehenge does, indeed, seem to mimic Giza in its role as the constellation of Orion. (Thoth: Architect of the Universe)

There were huge numbers of columns, some broken, some virtually intact, but all tumbled and fallen. There were Doric column bases surrounded by tumbled debris. Here and there one or two courses of a wall could be seen, rising up out of the murk. There were dozens of metre-wide hemispherical stones, hollowed inside, of a type that I had never encountered before in Egypt. There were several small sphinxes, one broken jaggedly in half, and large segments of more than one granite obelisk seemed to have been tossed about like matchsticks. There were also quarried granite blocks scattered everywhere. Most were in the 2-3 square metre range but some were much larger - 70 tonnes or more. A notable group of these behemoths, some a staggering 11 metres in length, lay in a line running south-west to north-east in the open waters just outside Qait Bey When I researched the matter later I learnt that they were amongst the blocks that Empereur had identified as coming from the Pharos: “some of them are broken into two or even three pieces, which shows that they fell from quite a height. In view of the location the ancient writers give for the lighthouse, and taking into consideration the technical difficulty of moving such large objects, it is probable that these are parts of the Pharos itself which lie where they were flung by a particularly violent earthquake.”(Underworld)

The simple, honest truth is that during the thousands of years of the Sphinx's existence, often with only its head protruding above the sand, almost anyone could have worked on its face at almost any time. Moreover, Lehner's own photogrammetric study has thrown up at least one piece of evidence which is highly suggestive of major recarving: the Sphinx's head, he writes, is 'too small' in proportion to the body. To deal with the first point first, it is a simple matter of fact that no objective test presently exists for the accurate dating of rock-hewn monuments. In all honesty, therefore, what confronts us at Giza is an entirely anonymous monument, carved out of undatable rock, about which, as the forthright Egyptologist Selim Hassan wrote in 1949, 'no definite facts are known'. Excepting for the mutilated line on the granite stela of Thothmosis IV, which proves nothing, there is not a single ancient inscription which connects the Sphinx with Khafre. So sound as it may appear, we must treat this evidence as circumstantial until such a time as a lucky turn of the spade will reveal to the world definite reference to the erection of this statue...(Keeper of Genesis)

Back in the Sphinx enclosure the first interesting result came from Dobecki, who had conducted seismographic tests around the Sphinx. The sophisticated equipment that he had brought with him picked up numerous indications of 'anomalies and cavities in the bedrock between the paws and along the sides of the Sphinx'." One of these cavities he described as: a fairly large feature; it's about nine metres by twelve metres in dimension, and buried less than five metres in depth. Now the regular shape of this - rectangular - is inconsistent with naturally occurring cavities ... So there's some suggestion that this could be man-made."(Keeper of Genesis)

The unifying features of these ancient and anonymous structures are the stark, undecorated austerity of the building style, and the use throughout of ponderous megaliths - many of which are estimated to weigh in the range of 200 tons apiece. There are no small blocks here at all: every single piece of stone is enormous - the least of them weighing more than 50 tons - and it is difficult to understand how such monsters could have been lifted and manoeuvred into place by the ancient Egyptians. Indeed, even today, contractors using the latest construction technology would face formidable challenges if they were commissioned to produce exact replicas of the Sphinx Temple and the Valley Temple. (Keeper of Genesis)

The problems are manifold but stem mainly from the extremely large size of the blocks - which can be envisaged in terms of their dimensions and weight as a series of diesel locomotive engines stacked one on top of the other. Such loads simply cannot be hoisted by the typical tower and hydraulic cranes that we are familiar with from building sites in our cities. These cranes, which are pieces of advanced technology, can generally 'pick' a maximum load of 20 tons at what is called 'minimum span' - i.e. at the closest distance to the tower along the 'boom' or 'arm' of the crane. The longer the span the smaller the load and at -'maximum span' the limit is around 5 tons. Loads exceeding 50 tons require special cranes. Furthermore, there are few cranes in the world today that would be capable of picking 200-ton blocks of quarried limestone. Such cranes would normally have to be of the 'bridge' or 'gantry' type, often seen in factories and at major industrial ports where they are used to move large pieces of equipment and machinery such as bulldozers, military tanks, or steel shipping containers. Built with structural steel members and powered with massive electric motors, the majority of these cranes have a load limit of under 100 tons. (Keeper of Genesis)

...the French master engineer Leherou Kerisel, a consultant for the building of the Cairo Metro, worked out the logistics of hauling into place the 70-ton blocks that were used in the construction of the so-called King's Chamber. According to his calculations the job could just about have been done - although with enormous difficulty - with teams of 600 men arranged in ranks across a very wide ramp buttressed against one face of the Pyramid," From this it follows that teams 1800 men strong would have been required to haul the Valley Temple blocks. But could 1800 men have been effectively harnessed to such dense and relatively compact loads (the maximum dimensions of each block are 30 feet by 10 feet by 12 feet)? And more to the point, since the temple walls do not exceed 130 feet along each side, how likely is it that such large teams could have been organized to work efficiently - or at all ­ in the limited space available? Assuming a minimum of three feet of horizontal space per man, each rank of haulers could not have contained more than fifty men. To make up the total of 1800 men needed to move a 200-ton block, therefore, would have called for no less than thirty-six ranks of men pulling in unison, to be harnessed to each block. The potential complications that might have arisen are mind­ boggling. Even assuming they could all have been overcome, however, the next question that presents itself is perhaps the most intriguing of all. (Keeper of Genesis)

Why? Why bother? Why specify temples built out of unwieldy 200-ton blocks when it would have been much easier, much more feasible and just as aesthetically pleasing, to use smaller blocks of say two or three tons each? There are really only two answers. Either the people who designed these hulking edifices had knowledge of some technique that made it easy for them to quarry, manipulate and position enormous pieces of stone, or their way of thinking was utterly different from our own - in which case their motives and priorities are unlikely to be fathomable in terms of normal cross-cultural comparisons. (Keeper of Genesis)

...the megaliths of the temples demonstrate precisely the same apparent precipitation­induced weathering features as the Sphinx itself. And it is of interest to note that the surviving granite casing blocks seem to have been carved on their inner faces to fit over the limestone core-blocks at a lime when these were a/ready heavily marked by erosion. Since the granite casing has the look of other Old Kingdom Egyptian architecture (while the limestone core-blocks do not) this may be laken as further evidence of the theory that an ancient, revered and much-eroded structure was restored and renovated by the Old Kingdom Pharaohs. Robert Schoch certainly favours this view. 'I remain convinced,' comments the Boston University geology professor, 'that the backs of the Old Kingdom granite facing stones were carved to match or complement the earlier weathering features seen on the surfaces of the core limestone blocks of the temples."(Keeper of Genesis)

All the Arab commentators prior to the fourteenth century tell us that the Great Pyramid's casing was a marvel of architecture that caused the edifice to glow brilliantly under the Egyptian sun. It consisted of an estimated 22 acres of 8-foot-thick blocks, each weighing in the region of 16 tons, 'so subtilly jointed that one would have said that it was a single slab from top to bottom'. A few surviving sections can still be seen today at the base of the monument. When they were studied in 1881 by Sir W. M. Flinders Petrie, he noted with astonishment that 'the mean thickness of the joints is 0.020 of an inch; and, therefore, the mean variation of the cutting of the stone from a straight line and from a true square is but 0.01 of an inch on a length of 75 inches up the face, an amount of accuracy equal to the most modern opticians' straight-edges of such a length.' Another detail that Petrie found very difficult to explain was that the blocks had been carefully and precisely cemented together: 'To merely place such stones in exact contact at the sides would be careful work, but to do so with cement in the joint seems almost impossible...' (Keeper of Genesis)

The causeways - one for each of the three Pyramids - are important features of the Giza necropolis, though all have fallen into an advanced state of disrepair. The three causeways, like the Mortuary and Valley Temples, are fashioned out of huge blocks of limestone. Indeed all of these prodigious structures are clearly 'of a piece' from a design point of view and seem to have been the work of builders who thought like gods or giants. There is about them an overwhelming, weary, aching sense of antiquity and it is certainly not hard to imagine that they might be the leavings of a lost civilization. In this regard we are reminded of The Sacred Sermon, a 'Hermetic' text of Egyptian origin that speaks with awe of lordly men 'devoted to the growth of wisdom' who lived 'before the Flood' and whose civilization was destroyed: 'And there shall be memorials mighty of their handiworks upon the earth, leaving dim trace behind when cycles are renewed...' (Keeper of Genesis)

...Egyptian irrigation specialists checking for groundwater drilled in the same area, less than 100 feet away from the Hawass dig, and were able to go down more than 50 feet without impediment before their drill-bit suddenly collided with something hard and massive. After freeing the drill, much to their surprise, they found that they had brought to the surface a large lump of Aswan granite. No granite occurs naturally anywhere in the Nile Delta area where Giza is located, and Aswan - the source of all the granite used by the ancients at Giza - is located 500 miles to the south. The discovery of what appears to be a substantial granite obstacle - or perhaps several obstacles - 50 feet below ground level in the vicinity of the Sphinx is therefore intriguing to say the least. Since 1982, we were suprised to learn, almost no further research has been officially authorized to investigate the numerous tantalizing hints of deeply buried structures and chambers in the vicinity of the Sphinx. The single exception was Thomas Dobecki's seismic work in the early 1990S. ...this resulted in the discovery of what appears to be a large, rectangular chamber beneath the forepaws of the Sphinx. (Keeper of Genesis)

On Friday, 26 May 1837, after a couple of days of blasting and clearing, Hill discovered the flat iron plate mentioned above.
This is to certify that the piece of iron found by me near the mouth of the air-passage [shaft], in the southern side of the Great Pyramid at Gizeh, on Friday, May 26th, was taken out by me from an inner joint, after having removed by blasting the two outer tiers of the stones of the present surface of the Pyramid; and that no joint or opening of any sort was connected with the above mentioned joint, by which the iron could have been placed in it after the original building of the Pyramid. In 1881 the plate was re-examined by Sir W. M. Flinders Petrie...Though some doubt has been thrown on the piece, merely from its rarity, [he noted) yet the vouchers for it are very precise; and it has a cast of a nummulite [fossilized marine protozoa] on the rust of it, proving it to have been buried for ages beside a block of nummulitic limestone, and therefore to be certainly ancient. No reasonable doubt can therefore exist about its being a really genuine piece...(Keeper of Genesis)

...[the so-called 'Pyramid Texts' of ancient Egypt] take the form of extensive funerary and rebirth inscriptions carved on the tomb walls of certain Fifth- and Sixth-Dynasty pyramids at Saqqara, about ten miles south of Giza. Egyptologists agree that much if not all of the content of the inscriptions predates the Pyramid Age. It is thus unsettling to discover in these ancient scriptures, supposedly the work of neolithic farmers "who had hardly even begun to master copper, that there are abundant references to iron. The name given to it is B'ja - 'the divine metal' - and we always encounter it in distinctive contexts related in one way or another to astronomy, to the stars and to the gods." Iron is also mentioned in the texts as being necessary for the construction of a bizarre instrument called a Meshtyw. Very much resembling a carpenter's adze or cutting tool, this was a ceremonial device which was used to 'strike open the mouth' of the deceased Pharaoh's mummified and embalmed corpse - an indispensable ritual if the Pharaoh's soul were to be re-awakened to eternal life amidst the cycles of the stars. (Keeper of Genesis)

Unlike the King's Chamber shafts, those in the Queen's Chamber (a) do not exit on the outside of the monument and (b) were not originally cut through the chamber's limestone walls. Instead the builders left the last five inches intact in the last block over the mouth of each of the shafts - thus rendering them invisible and inaccessible to any casual intruder....the Dixons found three small relics in the shafts. These objects - a rough stone sphere, a small two-pronged hook made out of some form of metal, and a fine piece of cedar wood some 12 centimetres long with strange notches cut into it...These three items are the only relics ever to have been found inside the Great Pyramid. (Keeper of Genesis)

Dormion and Goidin had persuaded certain senior officials at the Egyptian Antiquities Organization that a "hidden chamber" could lie behind the west wall of the horizontal corridor leading to the Queen's Chamber. In a rare move, the EAO gave permission for the drilling of a series of small holes to test the theory. Apparently some evidence was found of a large 'cavity' which was filled with unusually fine sand - nothing more... The project was eventually stopped and Dormion and Goidin were never to resume their work in the Great Pyramid. (Keeper of Genesis)

The same thing happened again in 1988 when a Japanese scientific team from Waseda University took up the challenge. They were led by Professor Sakuji Yoshimura. This time the Japanese used 'non­ destructive techniques' based on a high-tech system of electromagnetic waves and radar equipment. They, too, detected the existence of a 'cavity' off the Queen's Chamber passageway, some three metres under the floor and, as it turned out, very close to where the French had drilled. They also detected a large cavity behind the north-west wall of the Queen's Chamber itself, and a 'tunnel' outside and to the south of the Pyramid which appeared to run underneath the monument. Before any further exploration or drilling could be done, the Egyptian authorities intervened and halted the project....after crawling a total distance of 200 feet into the shaft, the floor and walls became smooth and polished and the robot suddenly ­ and one might almost say 'in the nick of time' - reached the end of its journey. As the first images of the 'door' with its peculiar metal fittings appeared on the small television monitor in the Queen's Chamber, Rudolf Gantenbrink immediately realised the massive implications of his find. (Keeper of Genesis)

What better candidate is there for that 'Predynastic religious centre near to Memphis' - that 'homeland' of the Egyptian temple - than the sacred city of Heliopolis and its associated Pyramids and other structures on the Giza plateau? (Keeper of Genesis)

If we regard the Giza Pyramids (in relation to the Nile) as part of a scaled-down 'map' of the right bank of the Milky Way, then we would need to extend that 'map' some 20 miles to the south in order to arrive at the point on the ground where the Hyades-Taurus should be represented. How likely is it to be an accident that two enormous Pyramids - the so-called 'Bent' and 'Red' Pyramids of Dahshur - are found at this spot? And how likely is it to be an accident, as was demonstrated in The Orion Mystery, that the site plan of these monuments, i.e. their pattern on the ground, correlates very precisely with the pattern in the sky of the two most prominent stars in the Hyades? (Keeper of Genesis)

...there are little round holes in the top slabs of graves at Tiahuanaco, precisely as in Egyptian tombs, to let through the soul, presumed as being essential by the burial ritual of the Egyptians. (The God-Kings & the Titans)

We now have the first real evidence as to why the Pyramid of Khafre was placed in its precise location vis-a-vis the Great Pyramid. If the location had varied even slightly, it would not have cast this winter solstice shadow upon the south face of its neighbour. So the winter solstice shadow was a stark signal, displayed upon the gleaming triangular white wall. Just as the sun went down in the West on the shortest day of the year, it gave a mammoth and spectacular public demonstration of the slope of all the interior passages of the Great Pyramid. Thereafter, the shadow would shrink away again and disappear until the next winter solstice returned. (The Crystal Sun)

One very unusual feature of the Great Pyramid is a concavity of the core that makes the monument an eight-sided figure, rather than four­sided like every other Egyptian pyramid. This is to say, that its four sides are hollowed in or indented along their centre lines, from base to peak. This concavity divides each of the apparent four sides in half, creating a very special and unusual eight-sided pyramid; and it is executed to such an extraordinary degree of precision as to enter the realm of the uncanny. For, viewed from any ground position or distance, this concavity is quite invisible to the naked eye. The hollowing-in can be noticed only from the air, and only at certain times of the day. This explains why the concavity was never discovered until the age of aviation. A 'sun-flash' would have been generated when the Great Pyramid was still gleaming white by this mysterious and all but invisible concavity or hollowing of the faces. I believe such flashes would have happened at sunrise and sunset just prior to and just after the two equinoxes. It is possible that in both cases the 'flashes' would have been deeply golden in colour. On the actual days of the equinoxes themselves, the sun-flashes would have vanished, to be resumed again two or three days later. The cessation of the flash would prove the equinox had arrived, since the sun was then briefly absolutely dead-on. The Great Pyramid was thus a great centre of light and shadow phenomena marking the four points of the year, and enabling the year to be defined with precision to 365.24 days, a length which was in turn embodied in the perimeter measurements. (The Crystal Sun)

...the length of the granite coffer, which is not a coffin but a standard of measure placed in the king's chamber inside the Great Pyramid, is exactly 2,268 millimetres and that the total volume of the pyramid in cubic cubits multiplied by the historically sacred number 126, again gives us the number of the great constant: 2,268 million. (Our Cosmic Ancestors)

We know that, unlike many other calendars, the Egyptian calendar was not based on movements of the Sun, the Moon, or even the planets Jupiter and Saturn, but on apparent motions of the star Sirius. This celestial reference point moves by 1° every 72 years, so that 15° correspond to 1,080 years, or 3 times 360. That tells us that the temple at Karnak was realigned with the star Sirius once every 360 years, so that the priests could maintain their line of vision on certain stars or constellations on certain days of the solar year. (Our Cosmic Ancestors)

Obviously, no one would build such monuments, and in such great numbers, over thousands of years, for uncultivated peasants. This work is of necessity that of an elite, and, even more remarkably, an elite that never ceased to renew itself, an elite that seems to have been uniquely endowed with a wealth of scientific knowledge, including an understanding of the laws of Life. What, then, was this inexhaustible source, and what means so powerful and so stable assured such continuity? We are dealing here, not with an evolution of science, but rather, on the contrary, with an immutable basis: for the existence of a language and a form of writing that were already complete from the time of the earliest dynasties of the historical period seems to confirm this. What we see is not the beginnings of research, but the application of a Knowledge already possessed. (The Temple in Man)

In the construction of the temple, several kinds of foundations can be observed:
1. The temple set on virgin soil, with no real foundation. The soil is prepared by the symbolic sowing of various materials such as charcoal, resins, bitumen, natural salts combined for this purpose, and other consecrated materials.
2. The temple constructed on chosen blocks from a temple that has been "turned under," like germinated seed that returns to the earth. The blocks are chosen and placed with care, providing, among other things, information on the meaning of the preceding monument and on the orientations of past and future temples. Let us note as well foundations on the unfired bricks of a previous temple, symbolizing water, that is to say, the "mud of the waters."

Karnak. Temple of Montu, resting on blocks from old temples.

Karnak. Temple of Montu. Sandstone doorway resting on fired bricks.

3. The temple built on a hollow basin or stylobate filled with stones from the preceding work, in apparent disorder. One must be on one's guard, for this disorder is only apparent; great experience is necessary to discover in it the location of the sanctuary, the axes of orientation, and various symbols indicating the esoteric purpose of the new temple. This stylobate plays the role of a vase, in which the final "growth" of the seed thrown in this place will be accomplished. Fig. 22. Karnak. Temple of Montu built on a hollow stylobate.
4. The monument dug in the earth or carved in the rock must also be noted. Here earth and rock are considered the matrix of the temple. (The Temple in Man)

The pharaonic architects construct their sanctuaries just as Nature constructs a plant. If a certain cell ought to be hexagonal, it will be so - since it is living, and growing - it adapts itself according to the needs of the moment and of the place. Similarly, certain chambers, apparently square or rectangular in plan, will be slightly rhomboidal or trapezoidal. One need only examine, in their angles, the cut of the stones to establish that for this distortion, an exceptional effort was required to give these angles a few degrees more or less than a right angle. The same kind of rhomboids or trapezoids can be found on the surfaces of the walls or tableaux. We might be inclined to attribute this to an oversight, but these distortions are insistently compensated for or occasionally repeated. The purpose of this is always to specify measure in the spirit that I have described. For example: The north wall of room 12, with its twelve columns, shows a slight concave curve, verifiable along two-thirds of its length. Obviously one is tempted to attribute this curve to a modification of the entire construction. However, each of the blocks making up this wall is cut with a slight curve having the same versed sine. (The Temple in Man)

It wasn't just the tens of thousands of blocks weighing 15 tons or more that the builders would have had to worry about. Year in, year out, the real crises would have been caused by the millions of 'average-sized' blocks, weighing say 2.5 tons, that also had to be brought to the working plane. The Pyramid has been reliably estimated to consist of a total of 2.3 million blocks. Assuming that the masons worked ten hours a day, 365 days year, the mathematics indicate that they would have needed to place 31 blocks in position every hour (about one block every two minutes) to complete the Pyramid in twenty years. Assuming that construction work had been confined to the annual three-month lay-off, the problems multiplied: four blocks a minute would have had to be delivered, about 24 every hour. To carry an inclined plane to the top of the Great Pyramid at a gradient of 1:10 would have required a ramp 4800 feet long and more than three times as massive as the Great Pyramid itself (with an estimated volume of 8 million cubic metres as against the Pyramid's 2.6 million cubic metres). Heavy weights could not have been dragged up any gradient steeper than this by any normal means. If a lesser gradient had been chosen, the ramp would have had to be even more absurdly and disproportionately massive. The problem was that mile-long ramps reaching a height of 480 feet could not have been made out of 'bricks and earth' as Edwards and other Egyptologists supposed. On the contrary, modern builders and architects had proved that such ramps would have caved in under their own weight if they had consisted of any material less costly and less stable than the limestone ashlars of the Pyramid itself. (Fingerprints of the Gods)

Since this obviously made no sense (besides, where had the 8 million cubic metres of surplus blocks been taken after completion of the work?), other Egyptologists had proposed the use of spiral ramps made of mud brick and attached to the sides of the Pyramid. These would certainly have required less material to build, but they would also have failed to reach the top. They would have presented deadly and perhaps insurmountable problems to the teams of men attempting to drag the big blocks of stone around their hairpin corners. And they would have crumbled under constant use. Most problematic of all, such ramps would have cloaked the whole pyramid, thus making it impossible for the architects to check the accuracy of the setting-out during building. Covering a full 13.1 acres at the base, it weighed about six million tons - more than all the buildings in the Square Mile of the City of London added together...To these had once been added 22-acre, mirrorlike cladding consisting of an estimated 115,000 highly polished casing stones, each weighing 10 tons, which hid originally covered all four of its faces....enough had remained in position to permit the great nineteen century archaeologist, W.M. Flinders Petrie, to carry out a detailed study of them. He had been stunned to encounter tolerances of less than one- hundredth of an inch and cemented joints so precise and so carefully aligned that it was impossible to slip even the fine blade of a pocket knife between them. 'Merely to place such stones in exact contact would be careful work', he admitted, 'but to do so with cement in the joint seems almost impossible; it is to be compared to the finest opticians' work on scale of acres. (Fingerprints of the Gods)

Acting on impulse, I climbed into the granite coffer and lay down, face upwards, my feet pointed towards the south and my head to the north Hoping that I would remain undisturbed for few minutes, I folded my hands across my chest and gave voice to a sustained low-pitched tone - something I had tried out several times before at other points in the King's Chamber. On those occasions, in the centre of the floor, I had noticed that the walls and ceiling seemed to collect the sound, to gather and to amplify it and project it back at me so that I could sense the returning vibrations through my feet and scalp and skin. Now in the sarcophagus I was aware of very much the same effect, although seemingly amplified and concentrated many times over. It was like being in the sound-box of some giant, resonant musical instrument designed to emit for ever just one reverberating note. The sound was intense and quite disturbing. (Fingerprints of the Gods)

The [Valley] Temple was square in plan, 147 feet along each side. It was built into the slope of the plateau, which was higher in the west than in the east. In consequence, while its western wall stood only a little over 20 feet tall, its eastern wall exceeded 40 feet. Another important and unusual feature of the Valley Temple was that its core structure was built entirely, entirely, of gigantic limestone megaliths. The majority of these measured about 18 feet long x 10 feet wide x 8 feet high and some were as large as 30 feet long x 12 feet wide x 10 feet high. Routinely exceeding 200 tons in weight, each was heavier than a modern diesel locomotive - and there were hundreds of blocks. At present there are only two land-based cranes in the world that could lift weights of this magnitude. At the very frontiers of construction technology, these are both vast, industrialized machines, with booms reaching more than 220 feet into the air, which require on-board counterweights of 160 tons to prevent them from tipping over. The preparation-time for a single lift is around six weeks and calls for the skills of specialized teams of up to 20 men. What the Inventory Stela had to say about the Valley Temple was that it had been standing during the reign of Khafre's predecessor Khufu, when it had been regarded not as a recent but as a remotely ancient building. Moreover, it was clear from the context that it was not thought to have been the work of any earlier pharaoh. Instead, it was believed to have come down from the 'First Time' and to have been built by the 'gods' who had settled in the Nile Valley in that remote epoch. It was referred to quite explicitly as the 'House of Osiris, Lord of Rostau'" (Rostau being an archaic name for the Giza necropolis). (Fingerprints of the Gods)

Water, water, everywhere - this seemed to be the theme of the Osireion, which lay at the bottom of the huge crater Naville and his men excavated in 1914. It was positioned some 50 feet below the level of floor of the Seti I Temple... Two pools, one rectangular and the other square, had been cut into the plinth along the centre of its long axis and at either end stairways led down to a depth of about 12 feet below the water level. The plinth also supported the two massive colonnades Naville mentioned in his report, each of which consisted of five chunky rose-coloured granite monoliths about eight feet square by 12 feet high and weighing, on average, around 100 tons. The tops of these huge columns were spanned by granite lintels and there was evidence that the whole building had once been roofed over with a series of even larger monolithic slabs. ... the plinth formed a rectangular island, surrounded on all four sides by a water- filled moat about 10 feet wide. The moat was contained by an immense rectangular enclosure wall, no less than 20 feet thick, made of very large blocks of red sandstone disposed in polygonal jigsaw-puzzle patterns. Into the huge thickness of this wall were set the 17 cells mentioned in Naville's report. Describing himself as overawed by the 'grandeur and stern simplicity' of the monument's central hall, with its remarkable granite monoliths, and by 'the power of those ancients who could bring from a distance and move such gigantic blocks', Naville made a suggestion concerning the function the Osireion might originally have been intended to serve: 'Evidently this huge construction was a large reservoir where water was stored during the high Nile...It is curious that what we may consider as a beginning in architecture is neither a temple nor a tomb, but a gigantic pool, a waterwork...(Fingerprints of the Gods)

The Sphinx was part of a master-plan. And the Khafre Pyramid is maybe the most interesting in that respect because it was definitely built in two stages. If you look at it - maybe you've noticed - you'll see that its base consists of several courses of gigantic blocks similar in style to the blocks of the core masonry of the Valley Temple. Superimposed above the base, the rest of the pyramid is composed of smaller, less precisely engineered stuff. But when you look at it, knowing what you're looking for, you see instantly that it's built in two separate bits. They talk...about two long prior periods. In the first of these Egypt was supposedly ruled by the gods - the Neteru - and in the second it was ruled by the Shemsu Hor, the "Companions of Horus". (Fingerprints of the Gods)

Any theory about the Great Pyramid should both satisfy the demands of logic and provide answers for all the relevant discoveries that have promoted so much perplexity in the past. ...current theories regarding the function and construction of the pyramid fall short. A credible theory would have to explain the following conditions found inside the Great Pyramid:
* The selection of granite as the building material for the King's Chamber. It is evident that in choosing granite, the builders took upon themselves an extremely difficult task.
* The presence of four superfluous chambers above the King's Chamber.
* The characteristics of the giant granite monoliths that were used to separate these so-called "construction chambers."
* The presence of exuviae, or the cast-off shells of insects, that coated the chamber above the King's Chamber, turning those who entered black.
* The violent disturbance in the King's Chamber that expanded its walls and cracked the beams in its ceiling but left the rest of the Great Pyramid seemingly undisturbed.
* The fact that the guardians were able to detect the disturbance inside the King's Chamber, when there was little or no exterior evidence of it.
* The reason the guardians thought it necessary to smear the cracks in the ceiling of the King's Chamber with cement. * The fact that two shafts connect the King's Chamber to the outside.
* The design logic for these two shafts - their function, dimensions, features, and so forth. Any theory offered for serious consideration concerning the Great Pyramid also would have to provide logical reasons for all the anomalies we have already discussed and several we soon will examine, including:
* The Antechamber.
* The Grand Gallery, with its corbeled walls and steep incline.
* The Ascending Passage, with its enigmatic granite barriers.
* The Well Shaft down to the Subterranean Pit.
* The salt encrustations on the walls of the Queen's Chamber.
* The rough, unfinished floor inside the Queen's Chamber.
* The corbeled niche cut into the east wall of the Queen's Chamber.
* The shafts that originally were not fully connected to the Queen's Chamber.
* The copper fittings discovered by Rudolph Gantenbrink in 1993.
* The green stone ball, grapnel hook, and cedar-like wood found in the Queen's Chamber shafts.
* The plaster of paris that oozed out of the joints inside the shafts.
* The repugnant odor that assailed early explorers. (The Giza Power Plant)

Petrie's close examination of the casing stones revealed variations so minute that they were barely discernible to the naked eye. The records show that the outer casing blocks were square and flat, with a mean variation of 1/100 inch (.010) over an area of thirty-five square feet. Fitted together, the blocks maintained a gap of 0 to 1/50 inch (.020), which might be compared with the thickness of a fingernail. Inside this gap was cement that bonded the limestone so firmly that the strength of the joint was greater than the limestone itself. The composition of this cement has been a mystery for years. The casing blocks were reported to weigh between sixteen and twenty tons each, with the largest blocks measuring five feet high, twelve feet long, and eight feet deep. Here was a prehistoric monument that was constructed with such precision that you could not find a comparable modern building. More remarkable to me was that the builders evidently found it necessary to maintain a standard of precision that can be found today in machine shops, but certainly not on building sites. In proposing methods of construction, academics have given little or no consideration to the fine tolerances maintained throughout the Great Pyramid's structure. They pass over the astounding accuracy of the Descending Passage's construction, or at best give it just cursory consideration. These facts have not attracted the critical attention they deserve because there is a big difference between reading these figures in a book and the actual experience of having to maintain this precision in one's work. It was clear to me that modern quarrymen and the ancient pyramid builders were not using the same set of guidelines or standards. They were both cutting and dressing stone for the erection of a building, but the ancient Egyptians somehow found it necessary to maintain tolerances that were a mere four percent of modern requirements. Two questions sprang from this revelation. Why did the ancient pyramid builders find it necessary to hold such close tolerances? And how were they able to consistently achieve them? (The Giza Power Plant)

Using the most modern quarrying equipment available for cutting, lifting, and transporting the stone, Booker estimated that the present-day Indiana limestone industry would need to triple its output, and it would take the entire industry, which as I have said includes thirty-three quarries, twenty-seven years to fill the order for 131,467,940 cubic feet of stone.' These estimates were based on the assumption that production would proceed without problems. Then we would be faced with the task of putting the limestone blocks in place. The level of accuracy in the base of the Great Pyramid is astounding, and is not demanded, or even expected, by building codes today. Civil engineer Roland Dove, of Roland P. Dove & Associates, explained that .02 inch per foot variance was acceptable in modern building foundations. When I informed him of the minute variation in the foundation of the Great Pyramid, he expressed disbelief and agreed with me that in this particular phase of construction, the builders of the pyramid exhibited a state of the art that would be considered advanced by modern standards. In analyzing the reason for this high degree of perfection, I consider two possible alternative answers. First, the building was for some reason required to conform to precise specifications regarding its dimensions, geometric proportions, and its mass. Second, the builders of the Great Pyramid were highly evolved in their building skills and possessed greatly advanced instruments and tools. The bald fact is that the Great Pyramid - by any standard old or new - is the largest and most accurately constructed building in the world. (The Giza Power Plant)

In Pyramids and Temples of Gizeh, Petrie noted, "At El Bersheh (lat. 27° 42 ') there is a still larger example, where a platform of limestone rock has been dressed down, by cutting it away with tube drills about 18 inches in diameter; the circular grooves occasionally intersecting, prove that it was done merely to remove the rock." The estimated height of the Great Pyramid is 480.95 feet. It is estimated to weigh 5,300,000 tons and contain 2,300,000 blocks of stone. The stones that makes up the bulk of the pyramid are limestone, which was quarried locally on the plateau itself and in the Mokattam Hills across the Nile River, twenty miles away. It has been stated that it contains more stone than that used in all the churches, cathedrals, and chapels built in England since the time of Christ. Thirty Empire State Buildings could be built with the estimated 2,300,000 stones. A wall three-feet high and one-foot thick could be built across the United States and back using the amount of masonry contained in the Great Pyramid. (The Giza Power Plant)

The characteristics of the holes, the cores that came out of them, and the tool marks would be an impossibility according to any conventional theory of ancient Egyptian craftsmanship, even with the technology available in Petrie's day. Three distinct characteristics of the hole and core, as illustrated in Figure 21, make the artifacts extremely remarkable:
* A taper on both the hole and the core.
* A symmetrical helical groove following these tapers showing that the drill advanced into the granite at a feedrate of .10 inch per revolution of the drill.
* The confounding fact that the spiral groove cut deeper through the quartz than through the softer feldspar. In conventional machining the reverse would be the case.
In 1983 Donald Rahn of Rahn Granite Surface Plate Co. told me that diamond drills, rotating at nine hundred revolutions per minute, penetrate granite at the rate of one inch in five minutes. In 1996, Eric Leither of Tru-Stone Corp. told me that these parameters have not changed since then. The feedrate of modern drills, therefore, calculates to be .0002 inch per revolution, indicating that the ancient Egyptians drilled into granite with a feedrate that was five hundred times greater or deeper per revolution of the drill than modern drills! In contrast, ultrasonic drilling fully explains how the holes and cores found in the Valley Temple at Giza could have been cut, and it is capable of creating all the details that Petrie and I puzzled over. Unfortunately for Petrie, ultrasonic drilling was unknown at the time he made his studies, so it is not surprising that he could not find satisfactory answers to his queries. In my opinion, the application of ultrasonic machining is the only method that completely satisfies logic, from a technical viewpoint, and explains all noted phenomena. The most significant detail of the drilled holes and cores studied by Petrie was that the groove was cut deeper through the quartz than through the feldspar. Quartz crystals are employed in the production of ultrasonic sound and, conversely, are responsive to the influence of vibration in the ultrasonic ranges and can be induced to vibrate at high frequency.(The Giza Power Plant)

Crouching through the entrance passage and into the bedrock chamber, I climbed inside the box and - with a flashlight and the parallel- was astounded to find the surface on the inside of the box perfectly smooth and perfectly flat. Placing the edge of the parallel against the surface I shone my flashlight behind it. No light came through the interface. No matter where I moved the parallel - vertically, horizontally, sliding it along as one would a gauge on a precision surface plate - I could not detect any deviation from a perfectly flat surface. It would be impossible to do that kind of work on the inside of an object by hand. Even with modern machinery it would be a very difficult and complicated task! I was even more impressed with other artifacts found at another site in the rock tunnels at the temple of Serapeum at Saqqara, the site of the Step Pyramid and Zoser's Tomb. These tunnels contain twenty-one huge granite and basalt boxes. Each box weighs an estimated sixty-five tons, and, together with the huge lid that sits on top of it, the total weight of each assembly is around one hundred tons. The granite boxes were approximately 13-feet long, 7 1/2- feet wide, and l l-feet high. I jumped down into a crypt and placed my parallel against the outside surface of the box. It was perfectly flat. I shone the flashlight and found no deviation from a perfectly flat surface. I clambered through a broken-out edge into the inside of another giant box and, again, I was astonished to find it astoundingly flat. I looked for errors and could not find any. Checking the lid and the surface on which it sat, I found them both to be perfectly flat. It occurred to me that this gave the manufacturers of this piece a perfect seal - two perfectly flat surfaces pressed together, with the weight of one pushing out the air between the two surfaces. With such a convincing collection of artifacts that prove the existence of precision machinery in ancient Egypt, the idea that the Great Pyramid was built by an advanced civilization that inhabited the Earth thousands of years ago becomes more admissible. I am not proposing that this civilization was more advanced technologically than ours on all levels, but it does appear that as far as masonry work and construction are concerned they were exceeding current capabilities and specifications. Making routine work of precision machining huge pieces of extremely hard igneous rock is astonishingly impressive. (The Giza Power Plant)

Such a revisioning occurred in 1986 when a French chemist named Joseph Davidovits rocked the world with a startling new theory on pyramid construction. Davidovits proposed that the blocks used to construct the pyramids and temples in Egypt were actually cast in place by pouring geopolymer materials into molds. In 1982, Davidovits analyzed limestone, given to him by French Egyptologist lean-Philippe Lauer, which was taken from the Ascending Passage of the Great Pyramid and also the outer casing stones of the pyramid of Teti. In his book The Pyramids: An Enigma Solved, coauthored with Margie Morris, he reported: X-ray chemical analysis detects bulk chemical composition. These tests undoubtedly show that Lauer's samples are man-made. The samples contain mineral elements highly uncommon in natural limestone, and these foreign minerals can take part in the production of geopolymeric binder. (The Giza Power Plant)

Although today we stand in amazement before ancient megalithic sites that were built employing huge stones, if we had Leedskalnin's technique for lifting huge stones, it would make sense to us that the ancient masons might make their building blocks as large as possible. Very simply, it would be more economical to build in that manner. If we had a need to fill a five- foot cube, the energy and time required to cut smaller blocks would be much greater than what would be required to cut a large one. As we have seen, the evidence carved into the granite artifacts in Egypt clearly points to manufacturing methods that involved the use of machinery such as lathes, milling machines, ultrasonic drilling machines, and highspeed saws. They also possess attributes that cannot be produced without a system of measurement that is equal to the system of measure we use today. Their accuracy was not produced by chance, but is repeated over and over again. (The Giza Power Plant)

It was the discovery of the knowledge of the transcendental number of pi in the Great Pyramid that prompted Taylor to conclude that the perimeter of the Great Pyramid could be analogous to the circumference of the Earth at the equator. The height would represent the distance from the center of the Earth to the poles. Further studies of the dimensions of the Great Pyramid revealed surprising inferences regarding the knowledge of its builders. When searching for a unit that would fit the pyramid in whole numbers yet still retain the pi proportion, Taylor's answer of 366 base and 116.5 height suggested to him that the Egyptians may have divided the perimeter of the Great Pyramid into segments of the solar year. He also found the figure 366 when he divided the base of the pyramid by 25 inches. This suggested that the British inch was close to the Egyptian unit of measure, with 25 such units making one cubit. To review Taylor's findings:
* A pyramid inch is .001 inch larger than a British inch. There are 25 pyramid inches in a cubit and there were 365.24 cubits in the square base of the Great Pyramid.
* There are 365.24 days in a calendar year.
* One pyramid inch is equal in length to 1/500 millionth of the Earth's axis of rotation.
This relationship suggests that not only were the builders of the Great Pyramid knowledgeable of the dimensions of the planet, they based their measurement system on them. (The Giza Power Plant)

What else is unique about the Great Pyramid? Although it is a pyramid in shape, its geometry possesses an astounding approximation to the unique properties of a circle, or sphere. The pyramid's height is in relationship with the perimeter of its base as the radius of a circle is in relationship with its circumference. A perfectly constructed pyramid with an exact angle of 51 degrees 51 minutes. 14.3" has the value pi incorporated into its shape. William Fix presented well-founded and objective data to support this claim: "We know that someone in very deep antiquity was aware of the size and shape of the earth with great precision. The three key measurements of the earth are incorporated in the dimensions of the Great Pyramid. The perimeter of the Pyramid equals a half minute of equatorial latitude. The perimeter of the sockets equals a half minute of equatorial longitude, or 1/43,200 of the earth's circumference. The height of the Pyramid including the platform, equals 1/43,200 of the earth's polar radius .... We do not know how they measured it, but that they did so is now an article of knowledge."(The Giza Power Plant)

With this experimental evidence available, and with what can be extrapolated from the dimensions and mass of the Great Pyramid, we have an object that fits the criteria established as necessary for an object to draw vibrations from the Earth. That object is the Great Pyramid of Giza! Here is the product of an ancient civilization empowered with the knowledge that as long as the moon continued to orbit the Earth, the special relationship that existed between the two assured the Egyptians of vast amounts of energy. The source of the energy is the Earth itself, in the form of seismic energy. The ancient Egyptians saw tremendous value in this form of energy and expended a considerable amount of effort to tap into it. The benefits they received may have been twofold: energy to fuel their civilization, and the ability to stabilize the Earth's crust by drawing off seismic energy over a period of time rather than allowing it to build up to destructive levels. Covering a large land area, the Great Pyramid is, in fact, in harmonic resonance with the vibration of the Earth - a structure that could act as an acoustical horn for collecting, channeling, and/or focusing terrestrial vibration. We are led to consider, therefore, that energy associated with the pyramid shape is not drawn from the air or magically generated simply by the geometric form of a pyramid, but that the pyramid acts as a receiver of energy from within the Earth itself. (The Giza Power Plant)

...the Great Pyramid conducts a broad range of vibrational frequencies through its mass. When I consider the mathematical comparison of the dimensions of the Great Pyramid with the dimensions of the Earth, I am led to conclude that this correspondence was no coincidence, but was in fact the expressed intention of the builders. If the dimensions of the Earth determine the wave characteristics of vibrations emanating from the core, then it would obviously be beneficial to incorporate these dimensions in a receiver of these vibrations. The receiver would respond harmonically to the influence of the vibrations and be in a state of resonance with them. The energy of the Earth is tremendous. The seismic disturbances around the globe (for instance, an estimated one million earthquakes occur annually) and the awesome power released by a volcanic eruption attest to the magnitude of this Earth energy. And these accumulated stresses are a constant factor in the Earth's evolution. Let me make no apology for the theory I am proposing. The Great Pyramid was a geomechanical power plant that responded sympathetically with the Earth's vibrations and converted that energy into electricity. (The Giza Power Plant)

Rather than suffering from a lack of attention, therefore, the rough top surfaces of those granite beams in the King's Chamber have been given more careful and deliberate attention and work than the beams' sides or bottoms. Before the ancient craftspeople placed them inside the Great Pyramid, each beam may have been "tested" or "tuned" by being suspended on each end in the same position that it would have once it was placed inside the pyramid. The workers would then shape and gouge the topside of each beam in order to tune it before it was permanently positioned inside the pyramid. After cutting three sides square and true to each other, the remaining side could have been cut and shaped until it reached a specific resonating frequency. The removal of material on the upper side of the beam would take into consideration the elasticity of the beam, as a variation of elasticity might result in more material being removed at one point along the beam's length than at another. The fact that the beams above the King's Chamber are all shapes and sizes would support this speculation. In some of the granite beams, I would not be surprised if we found holes gouged out of the granite as the tuners worked on trouble spots. What we find in the King's Chamber, then, are thousands of tons of granite that were precisely tuned to resonate in harmony with the fundamental frequency of the Earth and the pyramid! (The Giza Power Plant)

The Grand Gallery, which is considered to be an architectural masterpiece, is an enclosed space in which resonators were installed in the slots along the ledge that runs the length of the gallery. As the Earth's vibration flowed through the Great Pyramid, the resonators converted the vibrational energy to airborne sound. By design, the angles and surfaces of the Grand Gallery walls and ceiling caused reflection of the sound, and its focus into the King's Chamber. Although the King's Chamber also was responding to the energy flowing through the pyramid, much of the energy would flow past it. The specific design and utility of the Grand Gallery was to transfer the energy flowing through a large area of the pyramid into the resonant King's Chamber. This sound was then focused into the granite resonating cavity at sufficient amplitude to drive the granite ceiling beams to oscillation. These beams, in turn, compelled the beams above them to resonate in harmonic sympathy. Thus, with the input of sound and the maximization of resonance, the entire granite complex, in effect, became a vibrating mass of energy. The existence of resonators in this gallery is predicted by what has been found inside the King's Chamber and the design of, and phenomena noted in, the Grand Gallery. The mystery of the twenty-seven pairs of slots in the side ramps is logically explained if we theorize that each pair of slots contained a resonator assembly and the slots served to lock these assemblies into place To increase the resonators' frequency, the ancient scientists would have made the dimensions smaller, and correspondingly reduced the distance between the two walls adjacent to each resonator. In fact, the walls of the Grand Gallery actually step inward seven times in their height and most probably the resonators' supports reached almost to the ceiling. (The Giza Power Plant)

In the [Cairo] museum's collection are stone jars and bowls so finely machined and perfectly balanced that they inspire awe and wonder. One bowl in particular, a schist bowl with three lobes folded toward the center hub, is an incredible piece of work. (above) Graham Hancock…wrote, "During my travels in Egypt I had examined many stone vessels - dating back in some cases to pre-dynastic times - that had been mysteriously hollowed out of a range of materials such as diorite, basalt, quartz crystal and metamorphic schist. For example, more than 30,000 such vessels had been found in the chambers beneath the Third Dynasty Step Pyramid of Zoser at Saqqara. That meant that they were at least as old as Zoser himself (i.e. around 2650 BC)." It then occurred to me that perhaps these stone artifacts were not domestic vases at all, but were used in some other way. Perhaps they were being used to convert vibration into airborne sound. Given their shape and dimensions - and the fact that there were 30,000 of them found in chambers underneath the Step Pyramid - are these vessels the Helmholtz resonators we are looking for? As if to provide us with clues, one of the bowls in the Cairo Museum has a horn attached to it, and one of the bowls does not have handles normally seen on a domestic vase, or urn, but has trunnion-like appendages machined on each side of it. These trunnions would be needed to hold the bowl securely in a resonator assembly. (The Giza Power Plant)

By installing baffles inside the Antechamber, sound waves traveling from the Grand Gallery through the passageway into the King's Chamber would be filtered as they passed through, allowing only a single frequency or harmonic of that frequency to enter the resonant chamber. Those sound waves with a wavelength that did not coincide with the dimensions between the baffles would be filtered out, thereby ensuring that no interference sound waves could enter the resonant King's Chamber to reduce the output of the system. To explain the half-round grooves on the west side of the Antechamber and the flat surface on the east, we could speculate that when the installation of these baffles took place, they received a final tuning or "tweaking.”(The Giza Power Plant)

In the Great Pyramid, there is evidence that strongly indicates that the ancient Egyptian engineers and designers knew about and utilized the principles of a maser to collect the energy that was being drawn through the pyramid from the Earth and deliver it to the outside. This evidence can be found in the King's Chamber. The key to converting or transducing hydrogen gas to usable power in the Giza power system was the introduction of acoustical vibration of the correct frequency and amplitude. (The amplitude is the amount of energy contained within a sound wave.) Based on the previous evidence, sound must have been focused into the King's Chamber to force oscillations of the granite, creating in effect a vibrating mass of thousands of tons of granite. The frequencies inside this chamber, then, would rise above the low frequency of the Earth - through a scale of harmonic steps - to a level that would excite the hydrogen gas to higher energy levels. The King's Chamber is a technical wonder. It is where Earth's mechanical energy was converted, or transduced, into usable power. It is a resonant cavity in which sound was focused. Sound roaring through the passageway at the resonant frequency of this chamber - or its harmonic - at sufficient amplitude would drive these granite beams to vibrate in resonance. Sound waves not of the correct frequency would be filtered in the acoustic filter, more commonly known as the Antechamber (above). (The Giza Power Plant)

With the granite beams vibrating at their resonant frequency, the sound energy would be converted through the piezoelectric effect of the silicon-quartz crystals embedded in the granite, creating high-frequency radio waves. Ultrasonic radiation would also be generated by this assembly. The hydrogen generated in the Queen's Chamber, directly below the King's Chamber, would fill the upper chambers and then efficiently absorb this energy as each atom responded in resonance to its input. In the Giza power plant, the Northern Shaft served as a waveguide through which the input microwave signal traveled. A typical waveguide is rectangular in shape, with its width being the wavelength of microwave energy and its height measuring approximately one-half its width. The Northern Shaft waveguide was constructed precisely to pass through the masonry from the north face of the pyramid and into the King's Chamber. That microwave signal could have been collected off the outer surface of the Great Pyramid and directed into the waveguide (above). Amazingly, this waveguide leading to the chamber has dimensions that closely approximate the wavelength of microwave energy - 1,420,405,751. 786 hertz (cycles per second). This is the frequency of energy emitted by atomic hydrogen in the universe. These features and facts are gathered in Table 3 (below). (The Giza Power Plant)

These features inexorably move us to consider the purpose for the gold-plated iron that was discovered embedded in the limestone near the Southern Shaft. In order to have an efficient conduit for electromagnetic radiation, the entire lengths of the Northern and Southern Shafts would have to have been lined with this material, thereby making a very efficient conduit for the input signal and the power output (above). There is evidence to suggest that the granite box could refract electromagnetic radiation as it passed through the box's north and south walls. Though fully accurate measurements for optical characteristics have not been made on these surfaces, Smyth's measurements show that the grinding on these surfaces produced a concave surface. Manufactured in such a manner, the coffer - positioned in the path of the incoming signal through the Northern Shaft and with oscillating crystals adding energy to the microwave beam - may have served to spread or diverge the signal inside the box as it passed through the first wall. Within the confines of the granite box, the spreading beam would then interact and stimulate the emission of energy from the energized, or "pumped,” hydrogen atoms (right). If we follow a straight line across the King's Chamber from where the Northern Shaft enters, we find a feature cut into the granite wall that closely resembles a horn antenna, much like a microwave receiver. Passing through the opposite wall of the coffer, then, the radiation picked up more energy, was once more refracted, and then focused into this horn antenna. (The Giza Power Plant)

Considering the investment the ancient Egyptians made in building such a structure, and its intended purpose as a power plant, it would be nearly unthinkable for them not to have fully tested the machinery that would be put to use. The remarkable similarity in the dimensions of both the passages in the Great Pyramid and the Trial Passages supports my speculation that every piece of equipment critical to the operation of the power plant was first fully developed and tested prior to its installation. The power plant theory currently is the only one that provides a logical pattern of events to explain the purpose for the Trial Passages. (The Giza Power Plant)

The Queen's Chamber's characteristics indicate that its specific purpose was to produce fuel, which is of paramount importance for any power plant. Although it would be difficult to pinpoint exactly what process took place inside the Queen's Chamber, it appears a chemical reaction repeatedly took place there. The residual substance the process left behind (the salts on the chamber wall) and what can be deduced from artifacts (grapnel hook and cedarlike wood) and structural details (Gantenbrink's "door" for example) are too prominent to be ignored. They all indicate that the energy created in the King's Chamber was the result of the efficient operation of the hydrogen-generating Queen's Chamber. The equipment that provided the priming pulses was most likely housed in the Subterranean Pit. Before or at the time the "key was turned" to start the priming pulses, a supply of chemicals was pumped into the Northern and Southern Shafts of the Queen's Chamber, filling them until contact was made between the grapnel hook and the electrodes that were sticking out of the "door." Seeping through the "lefts" in the Queen's Chamber, these chemicals combined to produce hydrogen gas, which filled the interior passageways and chambers of the pyramid. The waste from the spent chemicals flowed along the Horizontal Passage and down the Well Shaft. Induced by priming pulses of vibration - tuned to the resonant frequency of the entire structure - the vibration of the pyramid gradually increased in amplitude and oscillated in harmony with the vibrations of the Earth. Harmonically coupled with the Earth, vibrational energy then flowed in abundance from the Earth through the pyramid and influenced a series of tuned Helmholtz-type resonators housed in the Grand Gallery, where the vibration was converted into airborne sound. By virtue of the acoustical design of the Grand Gallery, the sound was focused through the passage leading to the King's Chamber. Only frequencies in harmony with the resonant frequency of the King's Chamber were allowed to pass through an acoustic filter that was housed in the Antechamber. (The Giza Power Plant)

The King's Chamber was the heart of the Giza power plant, an impressive power center comprised of thousands of tons of granite containing fifty-five percent silicon-quartz crystal. The chamber was designed to minimize any damping of vibration, and its dimensions created a resonant cavity that was in harmony with the incoming acoustical energy. As the granite vibrated in sympathy with the sound, it stressed the quartz in the rock and stimulated electrons to flow by what is known as the piezoelectric effect. The energy that filled the King's Chamber at that point became a combination of acoustical energy and electromagnetic energy. Both forms of energy covered a broad spectrum of harmonic frequencies, from the fundamental infrasonic frequencies of the Earth to the ultrasonic and higher electromagnetic microwave frequencies. The hydrogen freely absorbed this energy, for the designers of the Giza power plant had made sure that the frequencies at which the King's Chamber resonated were harmonics of the frequency at which hydrogen resonates. As a result, the hydrogen atom, which consists of one proton and one electron, efficiently absorbed this energy, and its electron was "pumped" to a higher energy state. (The Giza Power Plant)

The Northern Shaft served as a conduit, or a waveguide, and its original metal lining - which passed with extreme precision through the pyramid from the outside - served to channel a microwave signal into the King's Chamber. The microwave signal that flowed through this waveguide may have been the same signal that we know today is created by the atomic hydrogen that fills the universe and that is constantly bombarding the Earth. This microwave signal probably was reflected off the outside face of the pyramid, then was focused down the Northern Shaft. Traveling through the King's Chamber and passing through a crystal box amplifier located in its path, the input signal increased in power as it interacted with the highly energized hydrogen atoms inside the resonating box amplifier and chamber. This interaction forced the electrons back to their natural "ground state." In turn, the hydrogen atoms released a packet of energy of the same type and frequency as the input signal. This "stimulated emission" was entrained with the input signal and followed the same path. The process built exponentially - occurring trillions of times over. What entered the chamber as a low energy signal became a collimated (parallel) beam of immense power as it was collected in a microwave receiver housed in the south wall of the King's Chamber and was then directed through the metal-lined Southern Shaft to the outside of the pyramid. This tightly collimated beam was the reason for all the science, technology, craftsmanship, and untold hours of work that went into designing, testing, and building the Giza power plant. (The Giza Power Plant)

There can be little doubt that the Pyramid Texts make a clear statement that the dead kings become stars, especially seen in the lower eastern sky. They also tell us that it is the souls of departed kings which become stars: 'be a soul as a living star ….' 'I am a soul ...I (am) a star of gold …' '0 king, you are this Great Star, the companion of Orion, who traverses the sky with Orion, who navigates the Duat with Osiris …' What an incredible description of events related to the pyramids' link to the stars. Suddenly I saw a new meaning for this star. Imagine if we had put a vehicle in space, for whatever reason, and were beaming energy to it - for the vehicle's own use or to be returned to some location on Earth. Would that vehicle not appear as a bright star in the night sky? Assuming that the energy beam would have some divergence (it would grow in size) the farther it traveled from its source, then the larger the microwave receiver - the "star" - would have to be. And more fantastic still, what if the energy were being used to provide power to a space ship? The microwave energy that was projected from the Southern Shaft to Orion's belt stars may have been delivering more than Khufu's soul to the heavens. The energy, which Robert Bauval describes as Khufu's soul traveling to Orion, may have been his actual person along with an entourage! (The Giza Power Plant)

These readings described the ancient Atlantean power plants, which on the surface seem far removed from the Egyptian pyramids; however, an interpretation of the readings becomes more meaningful when we compare (what Cayce described as) the "firestone" with granite, out of which the King's Chamber, the power center in the Giza power plant, is constructed: About the firestone - the entity's activities then made such applications as dealt both with the constructive as well as destructive forces in that period. It would be well that there be given something of a description of this so that it may be understood better by the entity in the present. (The Giza Power Plant)

In the center of a building which would today be said to be lined with nonconductive stone - something akin to asbestos, with ... other nonconductors such as are now being manufactured in England under a name which is well known to many of those who deal in such things. The building above the stone was oval; or a dome, wherein there could be ... a portion for rolling back, so that the activity of the stars - the concentration of energies that emanate from bodies that are on fire themselves, along with elements that are found and not found in the earth's atmosphere. The concentration through the prisms of glass (as would be called in the present) was in such manner that it acted upon the instruments which were connected with the various modes of travel through induction methods which made much the [same] character of control as would in the present day be termed remote control through radio vibrations or directions; though the kind of force impelled from the stone acted upon the motivating forces in the crafts themselves. The building was constructed so that when the dome was rolled back there might be little or no hindrance in the direct application of power to various crafts that were to be impelled through space - whether within the radius of vision or whether directed under water or under other elements, or through other elements. (The Giza Power Plant)

The preparation of this stone was solely in the hands of the initiates at the time; and the entity was among those who directed the influences of the radiation which arose in the form of rays that were invisible to the eye but acted upon the stones themselves as set in the motivating forces - whether the aircraft were lifted by the gases of the period; or whether for guiding the more-of-pleasure vehicles that might pass along close to the earth, or crafts on the water or under the water. These, then, were impelled by the concentration of rays from the stone which was centered in the middle of the power station, or powerhouse (as would be the term in the present). In the active forces of these, the entity brought destructive forces by setting up - in various portions of the land - the kind that was to act in producing powers for the various forms of the people's activities in the cities, the towns and the countries surrounding same. These, not intentionally, were tuned too high; and brought the second period of destructive forces to the people in the land - and broke up the land into those isles which later became the scene of further destructive forces in the land. (Dec. 20, 1933) When I looked for an event in Egyptian history that would explain the destruction of this culture and at the same time explain the erosion of the pyramids, I found a clue in the 1985 discovery of volcanic ash twenty feet underground in the Nile delta. This ash was found to be identical to that from an enormous eruption that occurred approximately 3,500 years ago on the Greek island of Santorini. The eruption is estimated to have been 22,000 times more destructive than the atomic bomb that was dropped on Hiroshima. (The Giza Power Plant)

Brad Steiger presented a forceful argument that in prehistory nuclear explosions had affected several areas of the Earth. He cited the discovery of fused green glass in deep stratas of the Earth, and in Gabon, Africa, the Euphrates Valley, the Sahara Desert, the Gobi Desert, the Mojave Desert, and Iraq. These vast wastelands of melted sand can be compared with White Sands, New Mexico, where the sands were fused as a result of nuclear bomb testing. Steiger wrote, "Perhaps the most potentially mind-boggling evidence of an advanced prehistoric technology that might have blown its parent- culture away is to be found in those sites which ostensibly bear mute evidence of pre-Genesis nuclear reactions .... At the same time, scientists have found a number of uranium deposits that appear to have been mined or depleted in antiquity,"! Knowing that the energy of the sun comes from the fusion of hydrogen atoms, the thought of hydrogen bombs brings terrible visions of vast destruction, mushroom clouds, and insidious radiation wafting across the land. These visions are included in other books that reference The Mahabharata as testimony of nuclear war in prehistory. In We Are Not the First, Andrew Tomas wrote: " 'A blazing missile possessed of the radiance of smokeless fire was discharged. A thick gloom suddenly encompassed the heavens. Clouds roared into the higher air, showering blood. The world, scorched by the heat of that weapon, seemed to be in fever,' thus describes the Drona Parva a page of the unknown past of mankind. One can almost visualize the mushroom cloud of an atomic bomb explosion and atomic radiation. Another passage compares the detonation with a flare-up of ten thousand suns."(The Giza Power Plant)

That the Egyptians were acquainted with a cutting jewel far harder than quartz, and that they used this jewel as a sharp pointed graver, is put beyond doubt by the diorite bowls with inscriptions of the fourth dynasty, of which I found fragments at Gizeh; as well as the scratches on polished granite of Ptolemaic age at San. The hieroglyphs are incised, with a very free-cutting point; they are not scraped nor ground out, but are ploughed through the diorite, with rough edges to the line. As the lines are only 1/150 inch wide (the figures being about .2 long), it is evident that the cutting point must have been harder than quartz; and tough enough not to splinter when so fine an edge was being employed, probably only 1/200 inch wide. Parallel lines are graved only 1/30 inch apart from centre to centre. That the blades of the saws were of bronze, we know from the green staining on the sides of saw cuts, and on grains of sand left in a saw cut. The forms of tools were straight saws, circular saws, tubular drills, and lathes. The straight saws varied from .03 to .2 inch thick, according to the work; the largest were 8 feet or more in length, as the cuts run lengthways on the Great Pyramid coffer, which is 7 feet 6 in. long. These tubular drills vary from 1/4 inch to 5 inches in diameter, and from 1/30 to 1/5 thick. The smallest hole yet found in granite is 2 inches diameter, all the lesser holes being in limestone or alabaster, which was probably worked merely with tube and sand. A peculiar feature of these cores is that they are always tapered, and the holes are always enlarged towards the top. The principle of rotating the tool was, for smaller objects, abandoned in favour of rotating the work; and the lathe appears to have been as familiar an instrument in the fourth dynasty, as it is in modern workshops. (The Giza Power Plant)

It is significant to note, in this connection, that a piece of wrought-iron was found in the Great Pyramid by one of Col. Howard Vyse's assistants, Mr. J.R. Hill, during the operations carried out at Giza in 1837. Mr. Hill found it embedded in the cement in an inner joint, while removing some of the masonry preparatory to clearing the southern air-channel of the King's Chamber. Dr. Sayed El Gayer, who gained his Ph.D. in extraction metallurgy at the University of Aston in Birmingham, reported that "it is concluded, on the basis of the present investigation, that the iron plate is very ancient. Furthermore, the metallurgical evidence supports the archaeological evidence which suggests that the plate was incorporated within the Pyramid at the time that structure was being built."(The Giza Power Plant)

According to John Anthony West, an experienced Egyptologist, the Pharaohs and priests were preoccupied with a principle known as Ma'at - often translated as 'equilibrium' or 'balance'. It was possible, he suggested, that this principle might have been carried over into practical spheres and 'that the Egyptians understood and used techniques of mechanical balance unknown to us'. Such techniques would have enabled them to 'manipulate these immense stones with ease and finesse ... What would be magic to us was method to them.' (The Sign and the Seal)

Certainly, when I first entered the Great Pyramid at Giza, I felt like a Lilliputian - dwarfed and slightly intimidated, not only by the sheer mass and size of this mountain of stone but also by an almost tangible sense of the accumulated weight of the ages. At some point, for a reason that I cannot explain, I moved to the middle of the floor and gave voice to a sustained low-pitched tone like the song of the fallen obelisk at Karnak. The walls and the ceiling seemed to collect this sound, to gather and amplify it - and then to project it back at me so that I could sense the returning vibrations through my feet and scalp and skin. I felt electrified and energized, excited and at the same time calm, as though I stood on the brink of some tremendous and absolutely inevitable revelation. (The Sign and the Seal)

...every aspect of Egyptian knowledge seems to have been complete at the very beginning. The sciences, artistic and architectural techniques and the hieroglyphic system show virtually no signs of a period of 'development'; indeed, many of the achievements of the earliest dynasties were never surpassed, or even equalled later on. (The Sign and the Seal)

One large block in the West wall measures approximately 18 feet x 10 feet x 8 feet and would weigh somewhere between fifty and sevety tons. For no concievable rational architectural or engineering reason, it is elaborately dressed and slotted into place as if it were no more than a piece of a jigsaw puzzle. It is typical of the stones in the Sphinx temple complex, and quite atypical of all of the rest of Egypt. (The Sign and the Seal)

...although there is again a marked difference of degree, there is no difference in kind between the geometric, astronomically aligned structures of the Giza plateau and the geometric, astronomically aligned structures of the Mississippi Valley. All of them seem bound together by the single purpose of the triumph of the soul over death and by the means deployed to achieve that purpose. (America Before)

The Benben is one of the most ancient traditions in Egypt. It was centered on the city of Heliopolis and the temple of the Phoenix. The Benben stone was not the entire tower but the conical stone on the top, which is often presumed to have been of meteoric origins. Because of its dramatic and fiery appearance in the world, in falling from the skies, the Benben was considered to have originally been the property of the gods. From this, the link was made to its being the seed of the gods, part of the ritual of death and rebirth. Legends indicate that the original Benben stone at Heliopolis went missing around 2000 BC. Various pharaohs have erected replacement towers there, offerings to the gods which were presumably the root of the obelisk cult in Egypt. The oldest of these obelisks to have survived is the red granite construction of Senusret I, which still stands in the suburbs of Cairo. The obelisk is quite bare now, but many of these stelae were originally covered in precious metals - electrum or gold. (Jesus: Last of the Pharaohs)

There seems to be mounting evidence that there was some symbolic architecture at Giza and Dashur during Zep Tepi and that it referenced Vega and Sirius, because these stars represented the First Time, the beginning of the Great Year of precession. By the third dynasty, King Djoser, with his astronomer-priest Imhotep, built at Saqqara the first major monumental complex of dynastic Egypt. Then fourthdynasty founder King Sneferu, and Sneferu's son, King Khufu, built the Bent Pyramid at Dashur, followed by the Great Pyramid at Giza, both constructed on top of much more ancient sacred subterranean passages and platforms from Zep Tepi. Thus, all the truly monumental pyramid architecture of the dynastic period (with the exception, perhaps, of the fourth-dynasty Unfinished Pyramid at Zawiyet elAryan) is associated with Zep Tepi. In summary, the astronomically determined dates related to Zep Tepi are these: (1) the layout of the Great Pyramids at Giza, referring back to the centuries around 11,700 BC; (2) the southern culmination of Sirius circa 12,280 BC, marked by the location of the Giza monuments and the Queen's Chamber horizontal passage; and (3) Vega located as North Star at its northern culmination, in 12,070 BC, marked by the subterranean passage of Khufu's Great Pyramid. (Black Genesis)