Science in Southwest Asia

…in 1938, Dr. Wilhelm Koenig, a German archeologist, was inventorying artifacts at the Iraq State Museum in Baghdad when he noticed what seemed to be the impossible resemblance of a collection of two-thousand-year-old clay jars to a series of dry cell storage batteries. A typical jar was 130 mm (5-1/2 inches) high and contained a copper cylinder, the bottom of which was capped by a copper disk and sealed with bitumen or asphalt. An iron rod was suspended from an asphalt stopper at the top of the copper cylinder into the centre of the cylinder. The rod showed evidence of having been corroded with an acidic agent such as wine or vinegar. A few years later, Dr. Koenig's suspicion was put to the test. Willard Gray, a technician at the General Electric High Voltage Laboratory in Pittsfield , Massachusetts , finished an exact reproduction of the Baghdad jars. He found that an iron rod inserted into the copper tube and filled with citric acid generated 1.5 to 2.75 volts of electricity, enough to electroplate an object with gold. Gray's experiment demonstrated that practical electricity could have been applied to metalworking by ancient craftsmen after all. (Forbidden History)

Excavations have unearthed libraries full of intact books in the form of cuneiform tablets on such subjects as mathematics, school curriculum, agriculture, poetry, and the payment of taxes. These Sumerian writings and other artifacts arrest to the fact that the ancient peoples in this area had a sophisticated understanding of a 360-degree circle, the zodiac, the actual number of planets in the solar system (they included Pluto, which was not rediscovered until 1927), and much more. (86)

We have, however, borrowed many features of the far more ancient Mayan and Sumerian numerical systems, each of which was ingeniously integrated with its culture's astronomical charts and calendars. Both the Sumerians (who followed a base-60 system) and the Maya invented the system of ordered position on a lateral string--which we still use today, referring to it as place value, or (place notation. In this system, the position of a numeral is crucial; for example, the difference between 1 and 1,000,000 is the difference between being poor and being rich. The Maya (who used a base-20 system) were the first to conceive of a systematic use of a symbol for zero in the place-value system, which was used to indicate the absence of units in any of the ordered positions. They were at least seven centuries ahead of Europe in this development. (The Genesis Race)

...Mesopotamia lacked metal ores. The Sumerians could not have accidentally discovered metallurgy without centuries of contact and experimentation with raw ores. These practices and skills must have been imported from elsewhere--and those who assisted the Sumerians must have been more advanced, more developed, and conscious of the impact of the gifts they bestowed. (The Genesis Race)

Sumerian clay tablets discovered by George Smith in the buried ruins of the ancient city of Nineveh in 1873 contain tables of advanced astronomical data. One table contained a numerical constant (195,955,200,000,000, since called the Nineveh constant) recognized in 1955 by Maurice Chatelain (French mathematician and space communications manager for the Apollo moon landing program). With it he discerned that Sumerians knew how to calculate the revolution periods of all the planets and their moons in our solar system (counted in seconds not days). The table was accurate to several decimal points, with each calculation corresponding to modern tables of U.S. astronomers, and encompassed a time span of more than six million years. (Gods, Genes, and Consciousness)

The time it takes for the Earth to complete one rotation on its axis, as contained in the tables, makes it possible to date the calculation. The Sumerian figure for the Earth's rotation varied slightly from the current cycle. We now know the Earth's rotation has been decreasing by 0.000016 seconds per year (established by the cesium clock used in modern astronomy). Taking the difference between the prehistoric rate of rotation and the current one and dividing it by the annual rate of decrease indicates when the tables were calculated: The tables engraved in clay established the Earth's precise rotation 64,800 years ago. (Gods, Genes, and Consciousness)

Fractions were and others were based on the sexagesimal system. The tablets dating from about 2300 BC show that the mathematicians of Ur understood Arithmetic and Geometrical Progression and the extraction of the square and cube roots. The Babylonians made observations of the five Planets, Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter and Saturn, and they were well acquainted with the 12 Signs of the Zodiac and the 36 Dekans; and they compiled lists of the fixed stars, and according to Diodorus, they knew that an eclipse of the moon was caused by the shadow of the earth falling on it. The Babylonians studied the heavens diligently, not so much to increase their knowledge of astronomy as to learn from the stars, which they regarded as gods, the will of heaven in respect of their king, their country, and themselves, and so became the founders of the science of Astrology. (Babylonian Life and History)

The art of healing was taught to mankind by Ea, the lord of wisdom, the centre of whose cult was Eridu, and we may therefore assume that it was the Sumerians who introduced the science of medicine into Mesopotamia. The use of medicines and the manner of applying them were taught to men by the goddess Nin-kharsag and the eight gods whom she created to heal special diseases. Other gods of medicine were Ninurta and his wife Gula, and Ninazu, the patron of physicians, and his son Ningishzida. The symbol of this last-named god was a staff round which a double-sexed, two-headed serpent called Sachan was coiled, and a form of this is the recognized mark of the craft of the physician at the present day. The serpent was chosen as the symbol of renewed youth and immortality because it cast its skin and so renewed its youth, and because of its longevity. (Babylonian Life and History)

Among the tablets that Smith brought back from Nineveh was one containing huge, preposterously large numbers. No mathematician, Smith did not attempt to find out what they meant, but eventually Chatelain translated them into decimals. One Babylonian number contained fifteen digits: 195,955,200,000,000. He soon discovered that the Nineveh number was not as arbitrary as it looked; it was 70 multiplied by 60 to the power of seven. With a flash of inspiration, Chatelain wondered if the Nineveh number could express time in seconds. On this assumption, he worked it out to 2,268 million days, or something over 6 million years. The indefatigable engineer now recalled the precession of the equinoxes, that wobble on the earth's axis that takes just under 26,000 years to complete its cycle. (also known as a Big Year). He tried dividing this into the Nineveh constant (as he called it), and immediately knew he was on the right track: it proved to be an exact number of precessional cycles: in fact. exactly 240 Big Years. Chatelain found himself wondering if the Nineveh constant was what astrologers and occultists had called 'the great constant of the solar system', a number that would apply to the revolution of all the bodies in the solar system, including moons. (The Atlantis Blueprint)

He proceeded to calculate the cycles of the planets in seconds (no doubt using the NASA computer), and found that each was an exact fraction of the Nineveh constant. If the Sumerians knew the Nineveh constant over 5,000 years ago, their scientific knowledge had to have even earlier origins. Chatelain went a step further. When he divided the Nineveh constant into solar years, then compared this with a modern astronomical table based on a caesium clock (which gives the most accurate estimation of the length of a second), he found a slight discrepancy in the sixth decimal place. It was only a twelve-millionth of a day per year, but it puzzled him. Then he saw the solution. Modern astronomical measurements tell us that the rotation of the earth is slowing down very slightly, so every year is getting shorter by sixteen-millionths of a second. The Nineveh constant proved to be totally accurate 64,800 years ago, and that suggested to Chatelain that it was first calculated 64,800 years ago--at a time when, according to anthropologists, our ancestor Cro-Magnon man had only recently appeared in Europe. (The Atlantis Blueprint)

... if Chatelain is correct, then both the Sumerians and the Maya also knew the exact length of the precessional cycle (the Nineveh constant is exactly 240 times this cycle) and the two vast Maya numbers discovered at Quiriga can be divided by the Nineveh constant. Furthermore, the Mesopotamians had linked their measures of time and space--in seconds of time and seconds of arc. 34,020 million days is not only the number of days in 3,600 Sumerian precessions of the equinox, but 3,600 tenths of a degree--consisting of 36,000 Egyptian feet of 0.308 meters--is the circumference of the world...The Mesopotamians had not only chosen as a unit of measure a foot that was earth-commensurate, it was also commensurate with the great Platonic year [the precessional cycle] of 25,920 years. (The Atlantis Blueprint)

The Sumerians have been credited with the invention of bronze. The alluvial soils of Mesopotamia bear no metals. So from the fourth millennium to their destruction in 1930 BC by the Amorites, the Sumerians despatched prospectors for metals who mined and sailed the seas of the world in search of them. Bronze became essential to the power-politics of the Middle East and India. Copper and tin in sufficient quantities were rare. (The God-Kings & the Titans)

It was Enki who first grouped the stars observable from Earth into "constellations," and divided the heavens in which the Earth circled the sun into twelve parts--what has since been called the Zodiacal Circle of constellations. ...the twelve zodiacal houses were known to the Sumerians millennia earlier by names and depictions that we use to this day.

1. GU.AN.NA ("heavenly bull"), Taurus.
2. MASH.TAB.BA ("twins"), our Gemini.
3. DUB ("pincers," "tongs"), the Crab or Cancer.
4. UR.GULA ("lion"), which we call Leo.
5. AB.SIN ("her father was Sin"), the Maiden, Virgo.
6. ZI.BA.AN.NA ("heavenly fate"), the scales of Libra.
7. GIR.TAB ("which claws and cuts"), Scorpio.
8. PA.BIL ("defender"), the Archer, Sagittarius.
9. SUHUR.MASH ("goat-fish"), Capricorn.
10. GU ("lord of the waters"), the Water Bearer, Aquarius.
11. SIM.MAH ("fishes"), Pisces.
12. KU.MAL ("field dweller"), the Ram, Aries. (The End of Days)

...some zodiacal associations can be clearly inferred from texts or drawings. Enki at first E.A, "He whose home is water") was clearly associated with the Water Bearer "Aquarius", and initially if not permanently also with the Fishes, "Pisces." The constellation that was named The Twins, "Gemini," without doubt was so named in honor of the only known divine twins born on Earth--Nannar/Sin's children Utu/Shamash and Inanna/Ishtar. The feminine constellation of "Virgo" (the "Maiden" rather than the inaccurate "Virgin"), like the planet Venus, was probably named at first in honor of Ninmah, was renamed AB.SIN, "Whose father is Sin," which could be correct only for Inanna/lshtar. The Archer or Defender, "Sagittarius," matched the numerous texts hymns extolling Ninurta as the Divine Archer, his father's warrior and defender. Sippar, the city of Utu/Shamash, no longer the site of a spaceport after the Deluge, was considered in Sumerian times to be the center of Law and Justice, and the god was deemed (even by the later Babylonians) as Chief Justice of the land; it is certain that the Scales of Justice, "Libra," represented his constellation. (The End of Days)

Among the tablets translated by Smith was a certain quantity that contained nothing but numbers, fantastically huge numbers, apparently derived from very complicated calculations. But in 1875 archaeologists did not care for numbers any more than they do today, and so these tablets with the mathematical signs were put aside and forgotten. I have not been able to find out to this day when and where somebody decided to study these mathematical tablets again; but the translation into our decimal system was finally published a few years ago, and one number stood out. It consisted of fifteen digits: 195,955,200,000,000. At that time I made some calculations which showed that the Nineveh number could also be expressed as 70 multiplied seven times by 60. (Our Cosmic Ancestors)

Then one day I remembered that the Sumerians, who were the ancestors of the Babylonians, who in turn were invaded by the Assyrians, used calculations based on multiples of sixty more than three thousand years ago. We still do not know for sure who the Sumerians were and where they came from; but we have found out that they were truly great astronomers who knew the revolution periods of all the planets of the solar system, including Uranus and Neptune. They were the ones who divided the day into 86,400 seconds with 24 hours of 60 minutes of 60 seconds each. Immediately the realization came to me that the number of Nineveh represented a very, very long period of time expressed in seconds! It did not take long to calculate that the number of Nineveh with its fifteen digits was equal to 2,268 million days of 86,400 seconds each. Then the thought flashed into my mind that the clever Sumerians were familiar, among other things astronomical, with the precession of the equinoxes - the turning of the terrestrial axis of rotation around the pole of the ecliptic. This movement has a cycle of 9.450 million days or about 26,000 years. When I divided the Nineveh number by the cycle of the precession of the equinoxes, also called the Big Year, I had the greatest surprise of my life! The sacred number of Nineveh divided exactly into 240 Big Years of 9.450 million days each. I saw that the fifteen digits on the clay tablet from Nineveh represented for the Sumerians two hundred and forty rotations of the seasons around the zodiac, expressing time in seconds, not days or years as our astronomers would do today. (Our Cosmic Ancestors)

...every period of revolution or conjunction of all the solar system bodies calculated with the constant of Nineveh corresponded exactly down to several decimal points with the values given in the modern tables of United States astronomers, and nearly so with the French tables which gave slightly different numbers for the planets Uranus, Neptune, and Pluto. I have not been able to find even a single period of revolution or conjunction of a solar system planet or satellite that would not be an exact fraction down to the fourth decimal point of the great constant of the solar system. For me that is sufficient proof that the Nineveh constant is a true solar constant and has full validity today as it had when it was calculated many thousands of years ago. (Our Cosmic Ancestors)

However, there is one case where a slight discrepancy shows up at the sixth decimal place if the Nineveh constant of 2,268 million days is divided into tropical years. The difference equals twelve millionths of a day per year, so slight that it took me quite a while to discover it; but it does not detract a thing from the full validity of the Nineveh number. On the contrary, this discrepancy gives us a marvellous opportunity to calculate exactly when the Nineveh constant was created. Modern astronomers and their caesium atomic clocks have told us that because of an infinitesimal slowing down of the Earth's rotation, the tropical year is getting shorter by sixteen millionths of a second per year. This helped me to calculate the true age of the Nineveh constant and led to the discovery that the great constant of the solar system accidentally found in the ruins of the royal library of King Assurbanipal must have been computed 64,800 years ago, give or take a few years. (Our Cosmic Ancestors)

The Sumerian system, called sexagesimal, combined a mundane 10 with a "celestial" 6 to obtain the base figure 60. This system is in some respects superior to our present one; in any case, it is unquestionably superior to later Greek and Roman systems. It enabled the Sumerians to divide into fractions and multiply into the millions, to calculate roots or raise numbers several powers. This was not only the first-known mathematical system but also one that gave us the "place" concept: Just as, in the decimal system, 2 can be 2 or 20 or 200, depending on the digit's place, so could a Sumerian 2 mean 2 or 120 (2 X 60), and so on, depending on the "place."(The 12th Planet)

The library of Ashurbanipal in Nineveh included a medical section. The texts were divided into three groups­-bultitu ("therapy"), shipir bel imti ("surgery") and urti mashmashshe ("commands and incantations"). Some skeletons found in Mesopotamian graves bore unmistakable marks of brain surgery. Sick persons in Sumerian times could choose between an A.ZU ("water physician") and an IA.ZU ("oil physician"). Sumerian medical texts deal into diagnosis and prescriptions. They leave no doubt that the Sumerian physician did not resort to magic or sorcery. He recommended cleaning and washing; soaking in baths of hot water and mineral solvents; application of vegetable derivatives; rubbing with petroleum compounds. Medicines were made from plant and mineral compounds and were mixed with liquids or solvents appropriate to the method of application. If taken by mouth, the powders were mixed into wine, beer, or honey; if "poured through the rectum"--administered in an enema--they were mixed with plant or vegetable oils. Alcohol, which plays such an important role in surgical disinfection and as a base for many medicines, reached our languages through the Arabic kohl, from the Akkadian kuhlu. (The 12th Planet)

The historian Diodorus Siculus, writing in the first century BC, confirmed the exactness of Mesopotamian astronomy; he stated that "the Chaldeans named the planets...in the center of their system was the Sun, the greatest light, of which the planets were 'offspring,' reflecting the Sun's position and shine." The scope of Mesopotamian astronomy on which the early Greek astronomers drew must have been vast, for even what archaeologists have found amounts to an avalanche of texts, inscriptions, seal impressions, reliefs, drawings, lists of celestial bodies, omens, calendars, tables of rising and setting times of the Sun and the planets, forecasts of eclipses. (The 12th Planet)

To keep track of the movements of the celestial bodies and their positions in the heavens relative to Earth and to one another, the Babylonians and Assyrians kept accurate ephemerides. These were tables that listed and predicted the future positions of the celestial bodies...the ephemerides, precise as they were, were not based on observations by the Babylonian astronomers who prepared them. Instead, they were calculated "from some fixed arithmetical schemes...which were given and were not to be interfered with" by the astronomers who used them. (The 12th Planet)

...the Mesopotamian astronomers were acquainted with the phenomenon of retrograde, the apparent erratic and snakelike course of the planets as seen from Earth, caused by the fact that Earth orbits the Sun either faster or slower than the other planets. The significance of such knowledge lies not only in the fact that retrograde is a phenomenon related to orbits around the Sun, but also in the fact that very long periods of observation were required to grasp and track it. Someone, much earlier than the Babylonians, possessed astronomical and mathematical knowledge far superior to that of later culture in Babylon, Assyria, Egypt, Greece, and Rome. (The 12th Planet)

But the Babylonians and Assyrians did not invent the calendar or the ingenious methods for its calculation. Their calendars - as well as our own - originated in Sumer. There the scholars have found a calendar, in use from the very earliest times, that is the basis for all later calendars. The principal calendar and model was the calendar of Nippur, the seat and center of Enlil. Our present-day one is modeled on that Nippurian calendar. (The 12th Planet)

They had a term - DUB - that meant (In astronomy) the 360-degree "circumference of the world," in relation to which they spoke of the curvature or arc of the heavens. For their astronomical and mathematical calculations they drew the AN.UR - an imagined "heavenly horizon" against which they could measure the rising and setting of celestial bodies. Perpendicular to this horizon they extended an imagined vertical line, the NU.BU.SAR.DA; with its aid they obtained the zenith point and called it the AN.PA. They traced the lines we call meridians, and called them "the graded yokes"; latitude lines were called "middle lines of heaven." The latitude line marking the summer solstice, for example, was called AN.BIL ("fiery point of the heavens"). (The 12th Planet)

...the Sumerians were the first to divide the heavens into three bands or "ways" - the northern "way" was named after Enlil, the southern after Ea, and the central band was the "Way of Anu" - and to assign to them various constellations. The present-day central band, the band of the twelve constellations of the zodiac, corresponds exactly to the Way of Anu, in which the Sumerians grouped the stars into twelve houses. The evidence, however, shows that the three Sumerian "ways" encompassed the complete skies of a global, not flat, Earth. (The 12th Planet)

The availability of three different methods of measuring distances between stars conveys the great importance attached to the matter. Yet, who among the men and women of Sumer needed such knowledge - and who among them could devise the methods and accurately use them? The only possible answer is: The Nefilim had the knowledge and the need for such accurate measurements. The texts leave no doubt: The mulmul - our solar system - was made up of twelve members. Line 20 of the so-called TE-tablet stated: "all in all, 12 members where the Moon and Sun belong, where the planets orbit."(The 12th Planet)

An Akkadian seal from the third millennium BC (above)...departs from the usual manner of depicting the celestial bodies. It does not show them individually but rather as a group of eleven globes encircling a large, rayed star. It is clearly a depiction of the solar system as it was known to the Sumerians: a system consisting of twelve celestial bodies. (The 12th Planet)

The 'Book of the Heavenly Luminaries' contains nothing less than a prehistoric blueprint to construct a calendar machine. The directions are as follows:

Step 1. Start on the spring equinox. This is the time when the morning and evening shadows on a standing stone form a straight line, and when the shadows of a pair of east-west aligned posts coincide both morning and evening. Set up a central viewing point and take a sighting on the position of the sunrise, and a sighting stone to mark the rising sun. In the evening set up a sighting stone where the sun sets (declination 0°).

Step 2. Count 30 sunrises and then fix another sighting stone at the points where the sun rises and a second one where it sets (declination plus 12°).

Step 3. Divide the distance between the each pair of markers into 12 equal segments, using smaller markers.

Step 4. Count another 30 sunrises and set another marker stone for the sunrise and the sun set (declination plus 20°).

Step 5. Divide the space between these two new pairs into eight equal segments, using smaller stones.

Step 6. Count another 30 sunrises and then mark the sunrise and sunset with a large stone marker (declination plus 24°). Step

7. Divide the space between these last two stones into four equal segments with smaller stones. Now to build the other half of the machine, wait until the autumn equinox, when the sun will again rise and set over the first markers. Carry out the same seven steps as the sun moves southwards, this time using the sun's negative declinations. After nine months you will have built a calendar machine which is also an accurate horizon-declinometer. (Uriel's Machine)

Sumerian texts...refer to the Great Pyramid as "The Great Weapon" and "the Great Affliction."(The Giza Death Star)

Gold in its monoatomic form is a fluffy white powder, still gold, but not metallic. This white powder, monoatomic form, according to Hudson, is a superconductor at body or room temperature and has very unusual properties. In the process of discovery he became aware that this is the form of gold sought by the alchemists as the means to immortality and the extraordinary powers of the human mind. The traditions say that it was known in the past but the technology had been lost over time. Research has shown Hudson that previous to the alchemical tradition the white powder of gold was known and used by the Hebrew priests who ingested it behind the temple veil and that the Hebrews had been taught the technique so that they could function as the producers for the Egyptian rulers. The Essenes had probably taken the technique of manufacturing it into the desert at the time of the destruction of the Temple at Jerusalem and used it as a central facet of their lifestyle. All evidence points to the Nefilim as the original source for the production of the white powder which they used themselves for longevity or relative immortality. This points to the fact that the primary Nefilim mission here on earth of mining huge quantities of gold was both to seed their planet’s atmosphere with a molecular form of gold as Sitchin has postulated and also to provide themselves a source of the monoatomic form as Hudson has suggested. (God Games)

In really early times the basic concepts of Egyptian astronomy and Sumerian astronomy were identical. (The Sirius Mystery

Babylonian astronomers were actually employing sophisticated geometric computational techniques to determine planetary positioning. ...the Mesopotamians had developed “abstract mathematical, geometrical ideas about the connection between motion, position and time that are so common to any modern physicist or mathematician.”   (The Anunnaki Connection)