Science in Mesoamerica

All cultures certainly have a focus on time; however, the Maya had an obsession with it. They tracked and measured the synodic period of Venus, which is 584 Earth days. The 365-day Mayan calendar year was more precise than the Gregorian calendar. They devised three different calendrical systems: the tzolkin (sacred calendar), the haab (civil calendar), and the long count. The tzolkin is a cycle of 260 days (thirteen months of twenty days each) and the haab is the solar cycle. These two calendars were combined in an interlocking fashion to produce a cycle of 18,980 days, which was known as a calendar round, about fifty-two years. The longest cycle in Mayan cosmology is 26,000 years, which corresponds to the precession of the equinox. The Maya are either more ancient than science allows or they had more sophisticated technology than we know of. Perhaps someone passed down this knowledge to them? Is it coincidental that the beginning of the fifth Age was 3000 BC , which corresponds to the birth of the Jewish and Chinese calendars? (Forbidden History)

For quite some time researchers have been documenting the astronomical alignments of ancient archaeological and megalithic stone sites all over the world. But discovery of their geodesic alignment has been more recent. Geodesy refers to the theory and practice of surveying to determine the position of specific points on Earth's surface. It is distinguished from plane surveying in that it deals with areas whose dimensions are so great that the curvature of the Earth must be taken into account. Geometric geodesy involves the creation of a mathematical model of Earth, while physical geodesy studies Earth's gravity field. Geodesic studies are referred to in many practical fields of endeavor, including mineral resource location, reduction of the effects of natural hazards, cartography, and study of Earth's propagation of gravitational and electromagnetic energy. The discovery of the precise alignment of Mayan sites along the 90th parallel is significant because it demonstrates that the Maya were aware of Earth's curvature and knew the advanced formulas used in geodesy. (The Genesis Race)

Another key feature of Mayan geodesy lies in the precise alignment--with negligible deviation--of many of the major Mayan so-called ceremonial centers along the north-south axis of the 90th meridian. A list of important Mayan sites located along this meridian includes Dzibilchaltun, Uxmal , Sayil, Xpujil, Becan, Chicana, Calakmul, Uaxactun, and Tikal . It would be difficult to plan such a precise orientation without detailed geographical and geophysical knowledge. In modern geodesic analysis it would be achieved by surveying two points, called stations, many miles apart. The latitude and longitude of each would then be determined by astronomical means, and exact global-positioning coordinates would be derived. The precise placement of the Mayan sites indicates that they were surveyed and triangulated, implying knowledge of the spherical shape of Earth as well as of its landmass and oceans. (The Genesis Race)

We have, however, borrowed many features of the far more ancient Mayan and Sumerian numerical systems, each of which was ingeniously integrated with its culture's astronomical charts and calendars. Both the Sumerians (who followed a base-60 system) and the Maya invented the system of ordered position on a lateral string--which we still use today, referring to it as place value, or (place notation. In this system, the position of a numeral is crucial; for example, the difference between 1 and 1,000,000 is the difference between being poor and being rich. The Maya (who used a base-20 system) were the first to conceive of a systematic use of a symbol for zero in the place-value system, which was used to indicate the absence of units in any of the ordered positions. They were at least seven centuries ahead of Europe in this development. (The Genesis Race)

The Egyptian calendar's starting date, according to Maurice Chatelain, is within 400 years of perhaps the oldest Mayan date, recorded as 51,611 years ago on the Chincultic ceramic disk. These calendar starting dates preceded the Cataclysm. (Gods, Genes, and Consciousness)

The Mayan specialist David Kelley was interested in the Aztec calendar, which is closely related to the Mayan calendar (the Aztecs ruled a few centuries after the Maya). He had noted similarities between the 20 days of the Aztec calendar and those of an ancient Hindu lunar zodiac, which divided the sky into 28 mansions, corresponding to constellations. He noticed the storm god Rudra ruling a lunar mansion exactly halfway around the cycle from Apah, the water goddess; the Aztec calendar showed rain halfway around the cycle from the water goddess. And when Kelley set the two zodiacs side by side, he noted that the Aztec Death appeared opposite Yama, the Hindu god of death. The next Aztec day, Deer, corresponded to the Hindu deer god, Prajapati. The next day in the cycle at first seemed less similar, with the Aztec Rabbit appearing next to the Hindu soma, an intoxicating drink--until Kelley recalled that the Aztec rabbit goddess represents drunkenness. Moreover, she is also the moon goddess. Soma also rules the moon--in both Aztec and Hindu mythology, a rabbit instead of a man lives in the moon. And in Mexico, they do not say that someone is 'as drunk as a skunk', but 'as drunk as 400 rabbits'. Kelley now had no doubt that the Aztec zodiac and the Hindu zodiac had the same source, and that there must have been trans-Pacific contact. (The Atlantis Blueprint)

... if Chatelain is correct, then both the Sumerians and the Maya also knew the exact length of the precessional cycle (the Nineveh constant is exactly 240 times this cycle) and the two vast Maya numbers discovered at Quiriga can be divided by the Nineveh constant. As to the Mayan knowledge of astronomy, Peter Tompkins writes: The Mayan cycle of 942,890 days, or 2,582 years, turned out to be 130 Saturn-Jupiter conjunctions. (It also covers other cycles: 15 Neptune-Uranus, 1,555 Jupiter-Mars, 2,284 Mars-Venus, 6,522 Venus-Mercury, and 2,720 Saturn-Mars.) Twice this cycle, or 5,163 years, is 260 Saturn-Jupiter conjunctions, which gives a grand cycle with the same number as there are days in the Mayan sacred year. Odd would it be if the unit dispensed by Hunab Ku [the Mayan Creator] to the Maya were not equally earth-commeasurable. At Teotihuacan and at Palenque this ancient Middle-Eastern foot fits Cinderella's shoe as neatly as it did at Cheops. (The Atlantis Blueprint)

Chatelain says: 'The Mayas also knew of the precession of the equinoxes and the existence of Uranus and Neptune.' How did they know about Uranus and Neptune without telescopes, thousands of years before Western astronomers discovered them? The great Mayan specialist Sylvanus Griswold Morley observed: When the material achievement of the ancient Maya in architecture, sculpture, ceramics, the lapidary arts, feather-work, cotton-weaving and dyeing are added to their intellectual achievements--invention of positional mathematics with its concomitant development of zero, construction of an elaborate chronology with a fixed starting point, use of a time-count as accurate as our own Gregorian Calendar, knowledge of astronomy superior to that of the ancient Egyptians and Babylonians--and the whole judged in the light of their known cultural limitations which were on a par with those of the early Neolithic Age in the Old World, we may acclaim them, without fear of successful contradiction, the most brilliant aboriginal people on this planet. (The Atlantis Blueprint)

The great temple of the sun at Teotihuacan in Mexico was constructed with a baseline of ten megalithic yards, 27.2 feet squared: reasonably enough since the culture-heroes of Mexico and Peru were the culture-heroes of Spain and Britain. (The God-Kings & the Titans)

Anyone who wants to tackle the mystery of the Mayan calendar today has to solve three different problems: the starting date of this calendar, the length of the time span this calendar covered, and the duration of its short cycles. Opinions on all three questions differ widely. Originally, the dates proposed for the start of this long calendar were as much as 520 years apart. Recently this discrepancy has been reduced to 260 years and there are only two groups of American archaeologists who dispute each other. The team led by Herbert Spinden maintains that the long Mayan calendar started in 3373 BC. The team led by Edward Thompson thinks it began in 3113 BC. As the Mayas counted time, this 260 year difference represents thirteen periods of 20 years each that are called 'katuns', Twenty katuns, or 400 years, are equal to one 'baktun'. (Our Cosmic Ancestors)

The Mayas also knew of the precession of the equinoxes and the existence of Uranus and Neptune. They had calculated the periods of revolution and conjunction of different planets and discovered...some equivalent astronomical cycles, such as 65 revolutions of Venus which are equal to 104 solar years, or 327 revolutions of Mercury. They also used the cycle of 33,968 days to predict eclipses, and this cycle was equal to 5 lunar precessioins, 93 solar years, 196 eclipses, and 1,150 lunar months. Meanwhile, the Mayas had also discovered a cycle of 1,886,040 days that represented exactly 260 conjunctions of Jupiter and Saturn, 2,310 of Mars and Jupiter, 2,418 of Earth and Mars, and 3,230 of Earth and Venus. This particular cycle was the key to the mystery of the Mayan calendar. (Our Cosmic Ancestors)

I finally discovered that the Mayan chronology was based on several Great Cycles of 5,163 years, or 260 conjunctions each, counted in succession. For the Mayas the katun of 7,254 days was not only a measure of time but also an astronomical unit to express the synodic periods of revolution of planets, or the count of days needed for each planet to be aligned with the Sun and the Earth. For example, 5 katuns were equal to 313 revolutions of Mercury, 13 katuns were equal to 121 revolutions of Mars, or 27 katuns were equal to 7 returns of Halley's comet. It seems that, like the Sumerians, the Mayas were familiar with the constant of Nineveh - but in another form. Their time was counted in days, not seconds. (Our Cosmic Ancestors)

I would like to emphasize here that the first constant which the Mayas used equals exactly 3,600 Sumerian cycles of precession of the equinoxes of 9,450,000 days each. The reader can draw his own conclusions. But the number 3,600 certainly seems to be the root of all the astronomical calculations our ancestors made, as it is a basic number in the geometry of our planet. We have exactly 3,600 tenths of one degree in the circumference of the globe; and at the equator, each of these parts is equal to 36,000 Babylonian feet. (Our Cosmic Ancestors)

Most of the calendars of antiquity, no matter where, have been calculated from the movements of the celestial bodies, and the Mayan calendar is certainly not the only one that had been worked out from the conjunctions of Jupiter and Saturn. It is certainly interesting to observe how many important religious and political events coincide with the alignments of these two planets. The conjunctions of Jupiter and Saturn behind the Sun take place quite rarely. The last such event happened in 1881 and the one before that in 503 BC. Yet this cycle of 2,383 years was known to the astrologers many thousands of years before our era, as it repeated itself in the years 10,035; 7,652; 5,269; and 2,886 before Christ. The oldest date comes close to the time when the fabled Atlantis disappeared and the most recent seems to indicate the time of the Great Flood described in the Bible. (Our Cosmic Ancestors)

The Aztecs counted their time in the same way as the Mayas, by the conjunctions of Jupiter and Saturn, but their cycles and the departure dates of these cycles were different. If the translations of the Vatican codex are correct, we live now in the fifth cycle since the creation of the world. The first Aztec cycle, according to the same Vatican source, lasted 202 conjunctions of Jupiter and Saturn, or 4,012 years and ended in a fantastic deluge that drowned everything and everybody. The second cycle of equal duration ended again in a catastrophe of violent cyclones that brought total destruction. The third period of the Aztec calendar lasted 242 conjunctions of the two planets, or 4,805 years and was finished by volcanic eruptions that burned everything to a crisp. The fourth cycle of 253 conjunctions or 5,024 years ended in general famine and starvation. We live now in the fifth Aztec cycle which began in 781 BC and should end in our year 2020, significantly the same date as given by the Mayan calendar, though not telling us what to expect at that time. If we take the starting date of 781 BC and go back 17,852 years, the sum of the first four Aztec periods, we arrive at the same first year of the Mayan calendar - 18,633 BC. (Our Cosmic Ancestors)

Another mystery I tried to solve was that of the Mayan calendar. Once I knew the Nineveh constant and the exact periods of revolution and conjuction of planets, it didn't take long to find the only astronomical period that had a duration of about twenty years. I had more trouble with the starting date of the Mayan calendar, but I knew that it too had to be a date of conjunction between two planets other than Jupiter and Saturn. So I tried Uranus and Neptune and discovered the cycle of quadruple conjuction of 4,627 years that is hardly known. After that came the realization that the Mayas, who were obsessed with calculations using enormous numbers, used the number 34,020 million days - a number fifteen times greater than the Nineveh constant - and that this number corresponded exactly to 3,600 Sumerian cycles of precession of the equinoxes. (Our Cosmic Ancestors)

...[the Mayan calendar] calculated the solar year at 365.2420 days, a minus error of only 0.0002 of a day. Similarly, the Maya knew the time taken by the moon to orbit the earth. Their estimate of this period was 29.528395 days - extremely close to the true figure of 29.530588 days computed by the finest modern methods...the Maya were remarkably accomplished mathematicians. They possessed an advanced technique of metrical calculation by means of a chequerboard device we ourselves have only discovered (or rediscovered?) in the last century. They also understood perfectly and used the abstract concept of zero and were acquainted with place numerations. (Fingerprints of the Gods)

Many and perhaps all of the Maya cities were planned to reflect on earth the supposed design of the heavens ... In four places - Uxmal, Chichen Itza, Yaxchilan and Palenque - an almost complete zodiacal sequence can be recognized and sequences of varying extent are seen in many other places, including the temples and stele of Copan and Quirigua, the oldest-known Maya ruins...(Heaven's Mirror) American engineer named Hugh Harleston Jr. journeyed to Teotihuacan. What Harleston's investigations had shown was that a complex mathematical relationship appeared to exist among the principal structures lined up along the street of the dead (and indeed beyond it). This relationship suggested something extraordinary, namely, that Teotihuacan might originally have been designed as a precise scale-model of the solar system. At any rate, if the centre line of the Temple of Quetzacoatl were taken as denoting the position of the sun, markers laid out northwards from it along the axis of the Street of the dead seemed to indicate the correct orbital distances of the inner planets, the asteroid belt, Jupiter, Saturn (represented by the so-called 'Sun' Pyramid), Uranus (by the 'Moon' Pyramid), and Neptune and Pluto by as yet unexcavated mounds some kilometers farther north. (The Giza Death Star

Few mummies have been unearthed in ancient Mexico because of the corrosive humidity but we have indisputable proof of Mexican mummification nonetheless. One of the best examples is the mummifled figure in the sarcophagus at Palenque. Three features of this Palenque burial indicate an Egyptian influence: the jade mask on the face of the dead, the fact of mummification itself and the flared base of the sarcophagus. The Mexicans, like the Nubians, buried in a horizontal position, yet at Palenque the flared base is retained although it serves no function. In Colombia the inhabitants of Darien used to remove the viscera and fill the body cavity with resin, afterwards they smoked [that is, fumigated] the body and preserved it in their houses. The Muiscas, the Aleutians, the inhabitants of Yucatan and Chiapas also embalmed the bodies of their kings, of their chiefs and of their priests by similar methods. (They Came Before Columbus) is certain that the Mexican calendar conformed greatly with the Egyptian.