Science in Europe

We are confronting a mystery. The structured landscape of Rennes-le-Chateau and its association with the English mile (as well as the mile's apparent link with the dimensions of the Earth) are easily demonstrated, with a multitude of confirming instances. The measure and the geometry are evident. The patterns are repeatable. The designs are meaningful. All this was created in a remote past, upon which the phenomenon is shedding a new light. Berriman seems to be making the same point in Historic Metrology. His argument that prehistoric measurement geodetic in origin--that is, was derived from the size of the earth--is powerfully expanded at the very beginning of Chapter 1. He points out that although the Greeks did not know the size of the earth, the earth's circumference happens to be precisely 216,000 Greek stade (the Greek stade is 600 Greek feet, and the Greek foot is 1.0125 times as long as the English foot). If we want to find out how many Greek stades there are to one degree of the earth's circumference, we divide 216,000 stade by the 360 degrees in a circle, and the answer, significantly, turns out to be 600--the same as the number of feet in a stade. If we then divide by 60--to get the number of stade in 1 minute of the circumference--we get 10 stade. Change this to Greek feet--6,000--and divide again by 60, to find the number of Greek feet in 1 second, and we see that it is precisely 100. This simply cannot be chance. Distances do not normally work out in neat round figures. It is obvious that (a) the Greeks took their stade from someone else, and (b) that someone else knew the exact size of the earth. (The Atlantis Blueprint)

Here is another curiosity: the Romans had a land measure called a jugerum, which is five-eighths of an English acre (as the French metre is five-eighths of an English mile) and exactly 100 square English 'poles'. Again, we are faced with the idea that ancient measures are not dependent on the whim of some ancient king's land surveyor, but on a tradition stretching back into the dim past, and based on an exact knowledge of the size of the earth. (The Atlantis Blueprint)

'Do you know, a few years ago there were exceptionally heavy rains. A lot of water pooled on the flat ground up above at the top of the hill. Then suddenly a very strange hole opened in the ground and the same moment a huge pile of rubble dropped through into this chamber. It took a week to clear it out. But it wasn't a natural collapse. The hole turned out to be a triangular man-made shaft, with each side of the triangle measuring about half a metre, and it ran vertically about 20 metres through the ceiling of the chamber and all the way to the top of the hill. It had been blocked and filled up over time...' Such a shaft, like any vertical shaft, would have marked the biannual zenith passage of the sun - here with a spectacular glowing triangle at midday on the floor of the chamber. And it would have made a splendid fixed telescope at night for observing stars at the zenith. But what also interested me was the further hint that the shaft and the chamber offered of advanced rock-cutting and tunneling abilities amongst the ancient Maltese - abilities of which the Hypogeum may only represent a fraction. Indeed, there have long been rumours that a vast network of tunnels and passageways of unknown origin exists beneath Malta. Chris tells me about other alignments, notably some very precise lunar alignments that the temple also registers: 'All in all, when we consider the high precision of Mnajdra's alignments, and the many astronomical problems that were solved - way beyond what is required if the only objective was a simple agricultural calendar - we have to conclude that full-time professional observers must have been at work here for many, many years. Then you have to think about the problems of site-selection - and then many more years patiently observing to establish the required back-sights. (Underworld)

What it comes down to is that the people who built the Mnajdra complex, and all the other megalithic temples on Malta, worked with a fixed unit of measurement. This unit, of 0.83 metres, is identical to the 'megalithic yard' identified by the Scottish archaeoastronomer Alexander Thom and found throughout megalithic sites that he had surveyed from Calllanish in northern Scotland to Carnac in Brittany. (Underworld)

It is fortunate for us that Megalithic man liked, for some reason or another, to get as many as possible of the dimensions of his constructions to be multiples of his basic unit. We are thereby enabled to determine unequivocally the exact size of this unit. In fact probably no linear unit of antiquity is at present known with a precision approaching our knowledge of the Megalithic yard [of 2. 72 feet]....[The ancient Britons were a] civilization which could carry a unit of length [the Megalithic yard] from one end of Britain to the other, and perhaps much further afield, with an accuracy of 0.1 per cent...[Thorn's surveys had to] be made with the same accuracy as was used in the original setting out and it will be shown that some sites, for example Avebury, were set out with an accuracy approaching 1 in 1,000. Only an experienced surveyor with good equipment is likely to attain this kind of accuracy. (The Crystal Sun)

We see here that by 1967, Thorn had already established the implied necessity of telescopes in ancient Britain, if only to measure small lunar oscillations in the sky and for use in some form of theodolite to survey with an accuracy which was physically impossible without optical instruments. When Thorn says that the surveying accuracy was so great that the variation in muscle tension in the arm of the assistant surveyor holding the tape was sufficient to throw it off, then we know that this fanatical accuracy of the ancient British must have relied upon theodolites, for once again, as with the Egyptian pyramids, no other explanation is possible other than magic! (The Crystal Sun)

When we connect all of the sites with straight lines going from point to point in the following order: Delos, Matapan, Hermione, Delphi, Delos, Psathoura, Lesbos, Antandros, Delos, Sardis, Didyme, Camiros, Delos, Akra, Dia, Araden, and Delos, we have drawn a magnificent geometrical figure known as the 'Maltese cross', a sacred pagan sign since antiquity as well as the sign of the Crusaders who fought to liberate Jerusalem from the Infidels. What interests us now is how and why such a gigantic pattern was marked on the Aegean and surrounding lands. I do not believe that even today's land surveyors could so precisely mark such a gigantic figure of over 335 miles jumping from island to island and stretching over sea and mountains. Except from high up in the air, this Maltese cross would not be visible. To measure and mark all of the salient points, two very modern tools of mapping are an absolute necessity. First, a synchronous satellite orbiting at the Delos latitude of 37° 23' with a space velocity of 1,328 kmph. Then, to keep that satellite stationary over Delos, one of our newest devices that was perfected only a short time ago - a navigation and distance-measuring airborne radar with metallic reflectors installed at distances of 180 and 270 km around the two circles. (Our Cosmic Ancestors)

The differential mechanism of the Antikythera clock is of the flat type. It consists of one big crown gear, a pinion in the centre, and satellite gears between the pinion and the crown. These satellites are mounted on a rotating support that moves with an angular speed representing the difference between those of the big crown and pinion. For somebody who lived 2,000 years ago to have built this mechanism, would realily have been a superb achievement. The size of the whole calculator must have been equal to that of a portable typewriter of today, with two dials in the back and one in the front. This front dial had two concentric bands - one with the signs of the zodiac, and the other, a moveable one, with names of each month in Greek. A pointer that was moved by the mechanism indicated the position of the Sun in the zodiac for each day of the year. The two dials in the back seemed to indicate the phases of the Moon and the movements of the five planets known at that time - Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn. The mechanism was set in motion by a worm gear that had to be rotated by one turn every day, probably at noon. The last information available about this calculator is that it may have had five dials - two in the front and three in the back - and that all of them were adjustable. (Our Cosmic Ancestors)

The median latitude in the region of the megalithic temples in England gives to 1° of longitude the average value of about 66,325 m. When that is divided by 240,000, we obtain 1 ft. of 0.2764 m that was used to construct Stonehenge, and 1 cu. ft. of Stonehenge has the weight of 21,100 g, or cu cm, of water. This weight divided by 2,500 gives a unit of 8.44 g. No old coins of 8.44 g each have been found in England, but the Mycenaean gold stater weighed exactly 8.44 g. (Our Cosmic Ancestors)

...the peculiar sounding 5 1/2 yard rod length is just a necessary by-product of the starting point for this measurement system, which is Pi. For Pi-based measurements to be resolved into simple multiples of units, we have to use a multiple of 5.5 somewhere in the measurement system. The British Imperial Measurement System was not, therefore, just plucked out of thin air - it was a system based on Pi. This was a system that was made for Avebury, but perhaps slightly corrupted by a system that was made for the Great Pyramid. The use of these measurements is a further proof that the fractional value of Pi was known long ago; long enough to be the founding concept behind this ancient measurement system. (Thoth: Architect of the Universe)

This concept of limitation (gross body) and infiniteness (subtle body) belonged to two groups of Aryans. One of these groups settled in Greece and the other settled in the area now called India. The Greeks started observing the external field with the help of the gross body while the Indians were observing the inner field with their subtle bodies. The observation of this gross body gave science, technology, and material pleasures. The observation of the subtle body gave rise to discussions, realizations, persuasion, and the view of inner self. (Decoding Rig-Veda for the Knowledge of Science)

The man who really made archaeo-astronomy an accepted Science was Professor Alexander Thorn... He spent 30 years retirement from Oxford University surveying and studying megalithic sites. After examining some 600 sites and conducting a highly detailed survey of half of them, he produced a conclusion that upset the archaeological applecart. A statistical analysis of the sites shows that they were so carefully erected that we can from them deduce: (1) the inclination of the ecliptic (2) the inclination of the lunar orbit (3) the mean amplitude of the lunar perturbation and (4) the mean lunar parallax with an accuracy better than one arc minute. I have shown elsewhere that megalithic man had a highly developed knowledge of geometry. It now appears that his knowledge of how to apply it put him intellectually in line with the greatest civilizations of antiquity. Using statistical analysis, Thorn produced evidence to show that a standard unit of lengnth was used throughout the megalithic structures of much of western Europe. Thorn dubbed this universal unit of two feet 8.64 inches (82.966 centimetres) the 'Megalithic Yard'. So the ancient Indian 'gaz' was the same as a megalithic yard to an accuracy of one per cent and the Iberian 'vara' was less than half a percent different. (Uriel's Machine)

The 'Book of the Heavenly Luminaries' contains nothing less than a prehistoric blueprint to construct a calendar machine. The directions are as follows:

Step 1. Start on the spring equinox. This is the time when the morning and evening shadows on a standing stone form a straight line, and when the shadows of a pair of east-west aligned posts coincide both morning and evening. Set up a central viewing point and take a sighting on the position of the sunrise, and a sighting stone to mark the rising sun. In the evening set up a sighting stone where the sun sets (declination 0°).

Step 2. Count 30 sunrises and then fix another sighting stone at the points where the sun rises and a second one where it sets (declination plus 12°).

Step 3. Divide the distance between the each pair of markers into 12 equal segments, using smaller markers.

Step 4. Count another 30 sunrises and set another marker stone for the sunrise and the sun set (declination plus 20°).

Step 5. Divide the space between these two new pairs into eight equal segments, using smaller stones.

Step 6. Count another 30 sunrises and then mark the sunrise and sunset with a large stone marker (declination plus 24°). Step

7. Divide the space between these last two stones into four equal segments with smaller stones. Now to build the other half of the machine, wait until the autumn equinox, when the sun will again rise and set over the first markers. Carry out the same seven steps as the sun moves southwards, this time using the sun's negative declinations. After nine months you will have built a calendar machine which is also an accurate horizon-declinometer. (Uriel's Machine)

From the gaunt and impressive standing-stone circles of the island of Orkney in the far north of Scotland, right down to the giant avenues of stones in their frozen march across the fields of Brittany in France, Alexander Thom (1894-1985) spent each and every summer for almost five decades carefully measuring and making notes. Thom identified the use of a standard unit he called a ‘Megalithic Yard (MY), which he specified as being equal to 2.722 ft +/- 0.002 ft (0.82966 m +/- 0.061 m). He claimed that there were also other related units used repeatedly, including half and double Megalithic Yards and a 2.5 MY length he dubbed a Megalithic Rod (MR). On a smaller scale he found that the megalithic builders had used a fortieth part of a Megalithic Yard, which he called a ‘Megalithic Inch’ (MI) because it was 0.8166 of a modern inch (2.074 cm). (Before the Pyramids)

The ancient system of geometry had greatness running right through it. It divided the Earth’s polar circumference into 366 degrees and then subdivided each degree into 60 minutes of arc, with 6 seconds to each minute. And amazingly each second of arc is exactly 366 MY in length. How neat! We call this unit of 366 MY a Megalithic Second of arc (Msec). We know very well that the fully integrated megalithic system of measurements deals wonderfully with time, linear distance, mass and volume. In terms of the Megalithic Yard, this unit appears to have been created partly because it is perfectly integer to both the Earth and the Moon --- to an accuracy that is essential flawless. The full measuring system was also tied directly to the mass of the Earth. Many modern units of measurement, such as the British pound and pint, developed directly from the megalithic system and are still in use today. (Before the Pyramids)

In our opinion, henges were created to observe star movements by providing an artificial horizon – a horizon that was level and at a known distance.  And here was a powerful indication that the builders had used Thom’s Megalithic Yard to construct henges that divided the horizon up into 366 equal parts --- each 2 MY in length! This prompted a question of whether or not the location of the Thornborough henges is geographically significant in any really fundamental way. A quick check revealed that these henges stand on a very significant latitude. To a very high degree of accuracy they are placed at a point that is 1/10th of the planet’s circumference from the North Pole! (Before the Pyramids)

For the Thornborough henges to point to the Lincoln mount across the flattest 120 km in the UK and then to find that the two are exactly 1 Megalithic degree (366 x 60 x 6 MY) apart by longitude is beyond any conceivable chance of coincidence. (Before the Pyramids)

Our introduction to the giant henges brought us to an almost immediate realization that everything that we had suggested about the incredible megalithic measuring system was not only real, but unequivocally demonstrated to be real by the very dimensions of these massive structures so carefully placed on the landscape. Even more important was the fact that specific comments we had previously made about what we might ‘expect’ our ancient ancestors to have done with the megalithic system were also born out at both Thornborough and at Dorchester-on-Thames. These quite remarkable people knew the shape and size of the Earth. They carried out detailed experiments to qualify and to prove what they knew, and they managed to create a system of measurements based entirely on an intimate knowledge of the Earth, its dimensions, and its orbit around the Sun. (Before the Pyramids)

A distance of 1 Megalithic Second of arc of the Earth’s polar circumference is equal to 366 Megalithic Yards. If we divide the Minoan foot into this distance the result is 1,000. In other words the Minoan Foot is simply a decimalized version of the Megalithic Yard, in that it uses the same number of degrees for the Earth. (Before the Pyramids)

A piece of an aluminum gear was found in a coal mine in Vladivostok, Russia... The layer of coal it was found in was 300 million years old. The aluminum is 96 to 98 percent pure, which is a level of purity we’ve only been able to achieve recently. The other component in the alloy is magnesium. An aluminum-magnesium alloy is uncommon now and totally unheard of in the past.  (Humans are Not from Earth)

The unusual relationships between regional high points and the monuments at Brodgar, Stanton Drew, Loughcrew, Stonehenge, and Avebury offer a clear indication that the monuments were carefully located with landscape geometry in mind. The phi- and pi-digit measurcments indicate that the Neolithic motivation cannot be understood without recognizing the profoundly advanced megalithic science already recognized by Thom and numerous other researchers. Thom wrote, "They were intensely interested in measurements and attained a proficiency which as we shall see is only equalled today by a trained surveyor... They concerntrated on geometrical figures which had as many dimensions as possible arranged to be integral multiples of their units of length." And lacking pen and paper, they voiced their passion through their monuments. The ancient world is still alive with this topographical language: circles, mounds, and pyramids are geometric points identifying a geometric worldview. (Sacred Geometry of the Earth)