Science in Egypt

To review John Taylor's findings: A pyramid inch is .001 inch larger than a British inch. There are twenty-five pyramid inches in a cubit and there were 365.24 cubits in the square base of the Great Pyramid. There are 365.24 days in a calendar year. One pyramid inch is equal in length to 1/500 millionth of Earth's axis of rotation. This relationship suggests that not only were the builders of the Great Pyramid knowledgeable about the dimensions of the planet, but they also based their measurement system on them. What else is unique about the Great Pyramid? Although it is a pyramid in shape, its geometry possesses an astounding approximation of the unique properties of a circle, or sphere. The pyramid's height is in relationship to the perimeter of its base as the radius of a circle is in relationship to its circumference. A perfectly constructed pyramid with an exact angle of 51 degrees 51'14.3" has the value pi incorporated into its shape. (Forbidden History)

The calendar used by post-cataclysmic Egyptians (per Diogenes Laertius, an early Greek historian) started counting about 51,214 years ago. Its year was based on 365 days, with two adjustments (like our leap year) made periodically for the actual time it takes for the Earth to revolve around the Sun. One slightly longer year occurred every 1,460 years and another occurred every 2,336 years. These two cycles coincide with the movements of the star Sirius and the planet Venus, something that could have been known only by advanced astronomers. (Gods, Genes, and Consciousness)

The Egyptian calendar's starting date, according to Maurice Chatelain, is within 400 years of perhaps the oldest Mayan date, recorded as 51,611 years ago on the Chincultic ceramic disk. These calendar starting dates preceded the Cataclysm. (Gods, Genes, and Consciousness)

Christopher P Dunn, the British toolmaker and engineer, has examined the Great Pyramid from the engineering point of view. His study led him to conclude--in an article called 'Advanced Machining in Ancient Egypt' that the Egyptian pyramids and temples 'reveal glimpses of a civilization that was technically more advanced than is generally believed'. Examining blocks that had been hollowed out with some kind of drill in the Valley Temple, in front of the Sphinx, he noted that the marks left in the hole showed that it was cutting into the rock at a rate of one-tenth of an inch for every revolution of the drill, and he concludes that this could not be achieved by hand. A hole drilled into a rock made of quartz and feldspar provided another strange observation. The drill had cut faster through the quartz than the feldspar, even though quartz is harder than feldspar. Dunn points out that modern ultrasonic machining depends on vibration, like the chisel of a pneumatic drill, which vibrates up and down. An ultrasonic drill vibrates tens of thousands of times faster. Quartz crystals, which can be used to produce ultrasonic sound, also respond to ultrasonic vibrations, which would enable an ultrasonic drill to cut through them faster. Does this suggest that there were ultrasonic drills in ancient Egypt? (The Atlantis Blueprint)

TV producer Boris Said--who, together with John West, made the documentary The Mystery of the Sphinx--had said in the promotion material of another documentary: Subsequent experiments conducted by Tom Danley in the King's Chamber of the Great Pyramid and in chambers above the King's Chamber suggest that the pyramid was constructed with a sonic purpose. Danley identifies four resident frequencies, or notes, that are enhanced by the structure of the pyramid, and by the materials used in its construction. The notes from an F sharp chord...according to ancient Egyptian texts were the harmonic of our planet. Moreover, Danley's tests show that these frequencies are present in the King's Chamber even when no sounds are being produced. They are there in frequencies that range from 16 Hertz down to 1/2 Hertz, well below the range of human hearing. According to Danley, these vibrations are caused by the wind blowing across the ends of the so-called shafts in the same way as sounds are created when one blows across the neck of a bottle. (The Atlantis Blueprint)

Whenever archaeologists stumble upon such anomalies, they are inclined to keep quiet about them, in case their colleagues accuse them of being too imaginative. Such was the case, for example, in the 1890s, when the great Flinders Petrie excavated a village called Naqada, on the Nile, and found pottery and vases of such sophistication that he assumed they must date from the Eleventh Dynasty, around 2,000 BC; he even coined the term 'the New Race' to describe this unknown people, whose artifacts seemed oddly unlike those of the Egyptians. But when he found more of their typical pottery in tombs dating from 1,000 years earlier, he decided to drop Naqada from his chronology rather than face the embarrassment of explaining how 'primitives' of an earlier civilization could produce work of such excellence. (The Atlantis Blueprint)

When Colonel Howard-Vyse was exploring the Great Pyramid in 1837, he instructed one of his assistants, J. R. Hill, to unblock the end of the southern 'air shaft' from the King's Chamber with gunpowder. Hill found an iron plate, 1 foot long, 4 inches wide and an eighth of an inch thick, embedded in the masonry of the pyramid. Re-examined at the Mineral Resources Department of Imperial College, London, in 1989, it was found to be iron that had been smelted at over 1,000 degrees Celsius. The ancient Egyptians were not supposed to understand the processes of smelting iron--all their iron ore came from deposits left by meteorites. But the plate was not meteorite iron--it contained too much nickel. It would seem that the Egyptians knew about smelting iron ore two thousand years before the iron age. Oddly enough, traces of gold were found on one side of the iron plate, indicating that it had been gold-plated. Of course, the gold may have been beaten on, but if Eggebrecht was correct about his statues, the plate may have been electroplated. (The Atlantis Blueprint)

...the designed height of the Great Pyramid - 481.3949 feet - bears the same relationship to its base perimeter (3023.16 feet) as does the circumference of any circle to its radius. It is fairly well known that the Pyramid was aligned by its architects to the cardinal points (with its north face directed north, its east face directed east, etc., etc.). Less well known is just how eerily exact is the Incision of these alignments - with the average deviation from true being only a little over 3 arc minutes (i.e. about 5 per cent of a single degree). Why did the builders burden themselves with so much extra work and difficulty when the effects of their additional labours would not be visible to the naked eye anyway? (Keeper of Genesis)

This system of measuring by degrees is not a modern convention but rather an inheritance of scientific thinking, connected to 'base 60' mathematics, that dates to the remotest antiquity. Nobody knows where, or when, it orginated. It seems, however, to have been employed in the geodetic astronomical calculations that were used to locate the Great Pyramid - for the monument is positioned barely a mile to the south latitude 30, i.e. almost exactly one third of the way between the north pole and the equator. In other words the monument turns out to be situated less than half an arc minute to the north of astronomical latitude 30, uncorrected for atmospheric refraction. Any 'error' involved is thus reduced to less than half of one-sixtieth of one degree - a hair's breadth in terms of the earth's circumference as a whole. There is no sign that the ancient Pyramid builders were in any way daunted by the task of maintaining such fastidious standards of symmetry on such a grand scale. On the contrary, as though willingly seeking out additional technical challenges, they went on to equip the monument with comers set at almost perfect right-angles. (Keeper of Genesis)

...the Great Pyramid stands at a point on the earth's surface exactly one third of the way between the north pole and the equator (i.e. astride latitude 30) and that its 'meridional' (i.e. north-south) axis is aligned to within three-sixtieths of a single degree of true north-south. It is a small but significant point that this alignment is more accurate than that of the Meridian Building at the Greenwich Observatory in London - which is offset by an error of nine-sixtieths of a degree. In our opinion, such precision constitutes a 'fact' which archaeologists and Egyptologists have never seriously considered, i.e. that the Great Pyramid, with its 13-acre footprint and six million tons of mass, could only have been surveyed and set out by master astronomers. (Keeper of Genesis)

By exactly mimicking the disposition of the belt stars in the sky in 10,500 BC the layout of the Pyramids on the ground thus not only sigmifies a specific epoc but also rather precisely and surgically marks the beginning of a precessional half-circle. The question reduces to this: is it a coincidence; or more than a coincidence, that the Giza necropolis as it has reached us today out of the darkness of antiquity is still dominated by a huge equinoctial lion statue at the east of its 'horizon' and by three gigantic Pyramids disposed about its meridian in the distinctive manner of the three stars of Orion's belt in 10,500 BC? Throughout the ancient world the moment of sunrise, and its conjunction with other celestial events, was always considered to be of great importance. At the spring equinox in 10,500 BC, as should by now be obvious, a particularly spectacular and statistically improbable conjunction took place - a conjunction involving the moment of sunrise, the constellation of Leo and the meridian transit of the three stars of Orion's belt. It is this unique celestial conjunction (which furthermore marks the beginning of the 'Age of Leo' and the beginning of the upwards precessional cycle of the belt stars) that the Great Sphinx and the three Pyramids of Giza appear to model. (Keeper of Genesis) the epoch of 2500 BC, when the Sphinx is conventionally assumed to have been built, it was the constellation of Taurus that housed the sun on the spring equinox. It is here that the crux of the problem lies. To state the case briefly:
1 The Sphinx, as we have seen, is an equinoctial marker - or 'pointer'.
2 On a site that is as profoundly astronomical as Giza one would naturally expect an equinoctial monument dating from the 'Age of Taurus' either to have been built in the shape of a bull, or at any rate to symbolize a bull. The Sphinx, however, is emphatically leonine in form.
3 It is a simple fact of precession that one must go back to the 'Age of Leo' beginning at around 10,500 BC, in order to obtain the 'correct' sky-ground symbolism. This, as it turns out, is the only epoch in which the due-east-facing Sphinx would have manifested exactly the right symbolic alignment on exactly the right day - watching the vernal sun rising in the dawn sky against the background of his own celestial counterpart. (Keeper of Genesis)

The point is that amongst all these astronomical and calendrical phenomena which concerned them so passionately, the Egyptians discovered the same thing I discovered in 1971 - that an 'ideal' year of 360 days was exceeded by the true year of 365 days, 5 hours, 49 minutes, by the number 1.014, which they had already presumably discovered in musical theory. And by coming across this number twice, they became convinced that the Comma of Pythagoras (which seems to have been known to the Egyptians as 'the tiny gap') was the most important secret number of the gods. The god Thoth was known as 'the Eighth', who 'completed the Seven', and he thus represented the Octave. (This is the mythological background to the widespread Greek tradition that Pythagoras added an eighth string to the lyre and 'completed the Octave'.) The musical fifth was represented by five gods including Isis and Osiris, known as 'the Five' ­ and they represented the five extra days which were added onto 360 to make 365; the fraction of a day added to them to give the true year was called Horus. The phallus of Osiris was Day 365, which it was necessary to add to the 364 days of a lunar year, and Horus completed the count by adding the period of slightly less than six hours to give an accurate year. There were temples and even cities dedicated to 'the Eight' and 'the Five'; for instance, the city of Hermopolis was actually called 'the Eighth', and its main temple was the 'Temple of the Eighth', the high priest of which was called, however, 'the great one of the five'. There was much more to it, naturally, too much for us to go into all the details here. (The Crystal Sun)

We thus see clearly that the 'eight-in-one', which is the description of the octave of the heptatonic diatonic musical scale ­ which has been conclusively demonstrated from cuneiform texts to have existed prior to 2500 BC in the Middle East amongst the Sumerians - was a fundamental concept from the very beginning of dynastic Egypt. The truth was that the Egyptians did not arrive at all these different years in succession, abandoning one after another as they refined their calculations. They knew about and celebrated them all simultaneously. The fact that the short 360-day year results in feast days slipping round by an entire year in the short space of only 72 years was celebrated as the 72-year circumnavigation of the heavens by the sun god Ra, who is addressed by 72 names in the Book of the Dead. Only the knowledge of the Comma of Pythagoras can explain why the Egyptians retained and honoured an obviously inaccurate 'year' of 360 days; they did this because it was inaccurate, but by being retained and compared with the accurate year, the Comma of Pythagoras could be computed. (The Crystal Sun)

...We will not find anywhere in the Greek or Roman worlds anything comparable to the precision of the measurements achieved by the Egyptians. Consequently, it must be inferred that the scientific knowledge of the Egyptians was very much above that possessed by the Greeks and Romans...a preoccupation with exactness in measurement was as obsessive with Egyptian technologists as it is with any modern physicist or astronomer...(The Crystal Sun)

We know that, unlike many other calendars, the Egyptian calendar was not based on movements of the Sun, the Moon, or even the planets Jupiter and Saturn, but on apparent motions of the star Sirius. This celestial reference point moves by 1° every 72 years, so that 15° correspond to 1,080 years, or 3 times 360. That tells us that the temple at Karnak was realigned with the star Sirius once every 360 years, so that the priests could maintain their line of vision on certain stars or constellations on certain days of the solar year. (Our Cosmic Ancestors)

At the average latitude of Egypt, the length of 1° of longitude is 96,000 m. If we divide this number by 320,000, we obtain a foot of 30 cm, the unit used to build the Pyramid of Kephren. One cubic foot of this basic unit has a volume of 27,000 cu cm, or 27,000 g of water. This is the weight of one Egyptian talent - 27 kg. But the Egyptian way to write it is 60 sep of 450 g each, or 600 deben of 45 g, or again 6,000 kite of 4.5 g. Besides, this is one of the oldest examples of use of the decimal system, if not the very oldest known today. (Our Cosmic Ancestors)

Then we had the mystery of the Great Pyramid of Cheops, which was based on three differnt mathematical principles, incompatible if expressed in decimals, but compatible when expressed as fractions. The pyramid was at the same time an astronomical observatory, a standard of weights and measures, and a standard of time. Both its volume and the length of the coffer in its royal chamber were based on the solar constant. (Our Cosmic Ancestors)

The Egyptians remain faithful to philosophic reason and make of measure an expression of Knowledge; that is to say that measure has for them a universal meaning linking the things of here below with things Above (vital equivalences), and not solely an immediate, practical meaning as in the CGS system of modern science, a simple system of quantitative equivalence. ...the Ancients...accorded all value to the measure and founded the universal Harmony on a basic measure particular to the man and to the place, thus variable and corresponding to life rather than to quantity. Opposing a conventional, rational CGS system, is a natural, vitally true philosophic system. What I've just said suffices to explain why the ancient Egyptians' Unit of measurement was always variable. In ancient Egypt, measure and proportions can be adapted to the purpose and the symbolic meaning of the idea to be expressed. The cubit will not necessarily be the same from one temple to another, since these temples are in different places and their purposes are different. (The Temple in Man)

As for the measurement of man, there is one proportion that can be considered as only slightly variable: ratio of the height to the arm span, or fathom (fathom implies circuit). And the tradition of the fathom has come down to us. It is the fathom that plays the greatest role in the measures of the Temple of Luxor, dedicated to the Incarnation of the Spirit, or the Creation of Man. Just as there is little difference between the cubits (the small cubit of 24 digits) of men normally large or small, so the fathom varies little among men who work a lot with their arms. In practice, a sailor can, with little error, measure his ropes and cables according to the size of his armspan, which will always be close to the meridian fathom at 45° latitude. That is to say that the fathom is at once an average human measure and a measure of the earth's circumference. A thousand fathoms (the nautical mile) equal one minute of an arc, the meridian arc now being established conventionally at 45 degrees latitude. (The Temple in Man)

The first five numbers, as well as all the prime numbers, are Entities, each having a value in itself, independent of enumeration. Thus it is that the numbers two, three, four, and five are Units and not compounds of Units. The Science of Numbers operates constantly in ancient Egypt's application of Measures. When speaking of Pharaonic Egypt, one must never say "always" and always avoid saying "never," because pharaonic science is the science of Life-moving, adaptable, founded on the knowledge of death, which produces life. (The Temple in Man)

The Ancients never "popularized" anything; to the uninitiated they provided only the minimal useful teaching. The explanation, the philosophy, the secret connection between the myth and the sciences were the prerogative of a handful of specially instructed men. (The Temple in Man)

Ancient Egypt accords the entire value to this Cause and not the object that has emanated from it. When the Ancients draw a figure, it is not the figure they look at, but what they are projecting of themselves onto this figure; physically, they view this figure as a shadow, a silhouette against the light of its absence. They detect its contours. When they draw a geometrical figure, it is not this figure which interests them, but the inexorable Law that prescribes it and the inevitable consequence that this law provokes. Thus, geometry takes on the same living characteristic of life as the images they carve or draw. (The Temple in Man)

An even bigger mystery surrounded the hollowing out of the sarcophagus, obviously a far more difficult enterprise than separating it from a block of bedrock. Here Petrie concluded that the Egyptians must have: adapted their sawing principle into a circular instead of a rectilinear form, curving the blade round into a tube, which drilled out a circular groove by its rotation; thus by breaking away the cores left in such grooves, they were able to hollow out large holes with a minimum oflabour. These tubular drills varied from 1/4 inch to 5 inches diameter, and from 1/30 to 1/5 inch thick... Of course, as Petrie admitted, no actual jewelled drills or saws had ever been found by Egyptologists. The amount of pressure, shown by the rapidity with which the drills and saws pierced through the hard stones, is very surprising; probably a load of at least a ton or two was placed on the 4-inch drills cutting in granite. On the granite core No 7 the spiral of the cut sinks 1 inch in the circumference of 6 inches, a rate of ploughing out which is astonishing...These rapid spiral grooves cannot be ascribed to anything but the descent of the drill into the granite under enormous pressure...(Fingerprints of the Gods)

Petrie could come up with no explanation for this conundrum. Nor was he able to explain the kind of instrument used to cut hieroglyphs into a number of diorite bowls with Fourth Dynasty inscriptions which he found at Giza: 'The hieroglyphs are incised with a very free-cutting point; they are not scraped or ground out, but are ploughed through the diorite, with rough edges to the line...' This bothered the logical Petrie because he knew that diorite was one of the hardest stones on earth, far harder even than iron. As the lines are only 1/150 inch wide it is evident that the cutting point must have been much harder than quartz; and tough enough not to splinter when so fine an edge was being employed, probably only 1/200 inch wide. Parallel lines are graved only 1/30 inch apart from centre to centre. In other words, he was envisaging an instrument with a needle-sharp point of exceptional, unprecedented hardness capable of penetrating furrowing diorite with ease, and capable also of withstanding enormous pressures required throughout the operation. (Fingerprints of the Gods)

They talk...about two long prior periods. In the first of these Egypt was supposedly ruled by the gods - the Neteru - and in the second it was ruled by the Shemsu Hor, the "Companions of Horus". Whoever they may have been, it was obvious that the original planners and architects of the Giza necropolis had belonged to a civilization which knew the earth to be a sphere, knew its dimensions almost as well as we do ourselves, and had divided it into 360 degrees, just as we do today. As near as makes no difference, therefore, the perimeter of the Great Pyramid's base is indeed 1:43,200 of the equatorial circumference of the earth. And as near as makes no difference, the height of the Great Pyramid above that base is indeed 1:43,200 of the polar radius of the earth. (Fingerprints of the Gods)

Nabta is the only practical place on the planet where people from Europe could have constructed an observatory right on the Tropic of Cancer! At Nabta, the noon sun is close to its zenith for about three weeks before and three weeks after the summer solstice, but on one day, and one day only, the sun's rays strike the ground absolutely vertically and upright stones will cast no shadow at all for several minutes. (Uriel's Machine)

This, of course, is exactly what one discovers in the Great Pyramid. In this respect, it constitutes a gigantic and super-sophisticated "phase conjugate mirror," picking up the incoming inertial vibrations of the aether as they have been "split" into the acoustic, electromagnetic, nuclear and gravitational vibrations of the earth, the solar system, and the Milky Way Galaxy, and modulating its output energy by the same vibrations in a deadly carrier wave of unheard of destructive potential. In this respect, the Great Pyramid might have constituted a gigantic and super-sophisticated "phase conjugate mirror," picking up the incoming inertial vibrations of the aether as they have been "split" into the acoustic, electromagnetic, nuclear and gravitational vibrations of the earth, the solar system, and the Milky Way Galaxy, and modulating its output energy by the same vibrations in a deadly carrier wave of unheard of destructive potential. (The Giza Death Star)

Beneath the Great Pyramid there are five massive stones or "sockets", four at each comer of the structure, and a fifth on the diagonal above the southeast comer. These sockets are a "ball and socket" joint familiar to modem engineering, permitting the building to rock and shift gently when the earth moves. This is the surest evidence, in and of itself, that the Great Pyramid is a coupled oscillator, for this feature is analogous to pressing down a key of a piano silently while striking another key to make it resonate freely. The Pyramid, in short, was designed to move. (The Giza Death Star)

The Great Pyramid is also the most accurately aligned building in the world. It is aligned to true north with only 3/60th's of a degree of error. Likewise, it is located at the exact center of the surface of the land mass of the earth, since the east-west parallel and the north-south meridian that both cross the most land intersect at only two places on earth, one in the ocean and another precisely at the Great Pyramid. That's not all. The average height of land above sea level is approximately 5449 inches, which is also the Pyramid's height. Stop and consider what this means. (The Giza Death Star)

So, what kind of weapon, after all, was the Great Pyramid, and how did it work? It was an extremely sophisticated "phase conjugate mirror" and "phase conjugate howitzer" designed to collect, amplify, and cohere the acoustic, electromagnetic, nuclear, and "aetheric" or gravitational energy of sub-quantum local (i.e. terrestrial, solar, and galactic) space-time to a target in such a fashion that each of these several different types of energy arrived at the target at the same time and exactly in phase, harmonically, with the target. The "aetheric" energy, since it is the energy of non-local reality, functioned as the carrier wave or beam for the other forms of energy, guiding them to the target through hyperspace. With proper "tuning" of the weapon, any target, anywhere on earth or nearby space, could be selected. This superluminal carrier wave accelerated the electromagnetic, acoustic, and gravitational energy to the target. Once the target had been selected and its harmonics were known, the weapon would have been tuned to hit it by properly tuning and configuring its missing internal components in conjunction with the other structures. Depending on what effect was desired in the target, one of two things could be done. A point in local space-time near or around the target would have been pulsed, releasing a violent discharge of electro-acoustical energy to the target. Accelerating the acoustical wave via this aetheric and electromagnetic discharge, a violent acoustic cavitation would be induced within the nuclei of its atoms until the target consumed itself in a violent nuclear reaction. And because of the nature of the weapon, any material would do to set off that reaction. Wood, steel, or plastic would have been just as violently blown apart as uranium 235 or Plutonium. Alternatively, the target could simply have been "slowly cooked", ionizing it altogether, a result no less violent, but considerably "cleaner". In either case, the pilot wave carries the electromagnetic and acoustic energy effortlessly into the nucleus, where those energies are accelerated to induce the cavitation. (The Giza Death Star)

...every aspect of Egyptian knowledge seems to have been complete at the very beginning. The sciences, artistic and architectural techniques and the hieroglyphic system show virtually no signs of a period of 'development'; indeed, many of the achievements of the earliest dynasties were never surpassed, or even equalled later on. (Serpent in the Sky)

In geography and geodesy there are no texts, but the work of a number of scholars has shown that the siting and dimensions of the Great Pyramid, and of tombs and monuments dating back to the First Dynasty, as well as the whole complex system of Egyptian weights and measures, could not have been achieved without precise knowledge of the circumference of the earth, of the flattening of the poles, and of many other geographical details. (Serpent in the Sky)

The technical skill of the Egyptians has always been self-evident. It is now equally evident that this was matched by a profound knowledge of harmony, proportion, geometry and design. And it is clear that all of this knowldge, technical and theoretical, was secret and sacred, and that these secrets were kept. (Serpent in the Sky)

In really early times the basic concepts of Egyptian astronomy and Sumerian astronomy were identical. (The Sirius Mystery

Abu Ghurob is a site that must be experienced to fully appreciate its importance. Hakim has always emphasized its importance to me as he believes it to be one of the the oldest occupation or ceremonial sites in all of Khemit (Egypt), if not the whole planet. There is no doubt it was a very sacred site to the Khemitians, both to the ancient and dynastic people, who constantly returned there on pilgramages for apparent ritual effects through the use of the area to create physical as well as spiritual effects through the use of vibrations which opened the senses and stimulated heightened awareness to "communicate" directly with the Neters. The indigenous tradtion teaches that the Neters themselves, in some sort of physical form, once "landed" and appeared in person at Abu Ghurob. This is why the Khemitians venerated and returned to this site for thousands of years in sacred pilgramges. The alabaster, granite, basalt and limestone created a harmonic rewsonance through sound vibrations to inicrease the heightened awareness and to further open the senses to "communicate" and be one with the Neters. These are the teachings of the indigenous Khemitian tradition, that these sites were used to benefit all the people, the Sesh, not for service solely of royalty as their burial places. (Land of Osiris)

My investigations indicate that the Khemitians built above ground aqueducts, and natural stone waterways and channels, and also drilled miles of underground tunnels through limestone bedrock, all for the same reason--Asgat Nefer, for the Harmony of Water. When both sources were active, the huge above ground Ur Nil, and the vast, extensive underground Ur Nil, the water was fully utilized in an elaborate system by the Ancient Khemitians as no people have ever done since. The ancient Khemitians understood the magic of water as the source of life and energy. It is why they chose igneous rocks to be the medium for utilizing the power of water. (Land of Osiris)

...water was the original medium and source of energy at the Giza Power Plant. When the Per-Neter was originally completed as a functioning power plant, well over 20,000 years ago, water was the source of the power, catalytically converted to oxygen and hydrogen in a beautifully controlled implosion reaction. (Land of Osiris)