Science around 3,000 BC

The Globe



During the 1950s, an Italian team of archaeologists led by professor Mario Liverani, from the University of Rome, explored the Libyan Sahara and, by chance, discovered the mummified remains of a young boy at the Uan Muhuggiag rock shelter a hundred miles west of the Nile Valley, which dated to 3500 BC. Although no other mummies have been found in this area, it is proof that the tradition of mummification is far older than originally believed. This Libyan mummy is a thousand years older than the first Egyptian mummy and the oldest ever found in Africa. In preparing the boy for burial, he was eviscerated and embalmed with an organic preservative, then wrapped in skins and insulated with leaves. The sophistication with which he was mummified suggests he was not the first, but rather the result of a long-standing tradition. (Before the Pharaohs)

Southwest Asia

The Sumerian civilization developed in the region around the Tigris and Euphrates rivers in what is now Iraq. Prehistoric peoples known as the Ubadians had originally settled in the region, establishing settlements that gradually developed into the ancient city-states of Adab, Eridu, Isin, Kish, Kullab, Lagash, Larsa, Nippur, and Ur. As the region prospered Semites from Syria and Arabian deserts moved in, both peaceful immigrants and as raiders. Then around 3250 BC a new group called Sumerians arrived and began to intermarry with the native population. These small dark-haired newcomers were intellectually and technologically highly sophisticated, and they spoke an agglutinative language that is unrelated to any other known language. No one knows where they came from. (Before the Pyramids)

As the Sumerians gained control, the country grew rich and powerful. They invented glass-working, the wheel, and writing: their language eventually became the language of the intellectual, just as Greek and Latin did at later dates. They also are credited with devising the second of time. Using exactly the same astronomy-based method of observing the turning of the Earth, The Sumerians were able to keep the length of their 1-second pendulum accurate across their entire history. In their case, the length of such a pendulum was, to all intents and purposes, a meter long, being 99.88 cm --- a unit called the ‘double-kush’. (Before the Pyramids)

The Sumerians also realized--or were told--that if different ores were blended together in the smelting process, a different type of copper could be made--one that flowed more easily, was stronger after forming, and was easy to cast. Thus we can credit them with the creation of the first alloy-bronze-which required far too precise a mix of tin and copper to be merely an accidental discovery. An ax head from 2500 BC was found to contain 11 percent tin and 89 percent copper. But tin, unlike gold or copper, is not found in nature. It exists in stannic oxide ore, which is hard, heavy, and inert. Smelting is required to separate out the tin, which means that the process to retrieve tin had to precede the creation of bronze--quite an involved and complicated road to walk, and certainly one that would require minds constantly trained on innovation and purposeful experimentation. And because casting is the only way to shape bronze, the Sumerians even fabricated standardized molds to create the ingots they distributed to their cities. Such rigor, creativity, and focus certainly add up to an amazing feat for a people so recently ensconced in the Stone Age. (The Genesis Race)

Though expensive, bronze was eventually used in a wide variety of things, from axes and awls to hammers, sickles and weapons, like daggers and swords. The wealthy were entombed with figurines, bracelets and pendants of bronze. Scholars have yet to learn how the ancient Mesopotamians got the idea of mixing tin with copper to produce a much stronger bronze. But excavations have produced tin-bronze pins, axes and other artifacts from as early as 3000 BC. (82)

After systematic explorations in the central Taurus Mountains of Turkey, an archaeologist at the Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago has found a tin mine and ancient mining village 60 miles north of the Mediterranean coastal city of Tarsus. …the mine and village demonstrated that tin mining was a well-developed industry in the region as long ago as 2870 BC. Dr. Yener said, "It had gone beyond the craft stages that characterize production done for local purposes only" To Dr. Guillermo Algaze, an anthropologist at the University of California at San Diego and a scholar of Mesopotamian civilizations, the discovery is significant because it shows that bronze metallurgy, like agriculture and many other transforming human technologies, apparently developed independently in several places. (82)

The mine, at a site called Kestel, has narrow passages running more than a mile into the mountainside, with others still blocked and unexplored. The archaeologists found only low-grade tin ore, presumably the remains of richer deposits that had been mined out. On the hillside opposite the mine entrance, the archaeologists found ruins of the mining village of Goltepe. Judging by its size, Dr. Yener said, 500 to 1,000 people lived in the village at any one time. Radiocarbon dating of charcoal and the styles of pottery indicated that Goltepe was occupied more or less continuously between 3290 and 1840 BC. It began as a rude village of pit houses dug into the soft sedimentary slopes and later developed into a more substantial walled community. (82)

Scattered among the ruins were more than 50,000 stone tools and ceramic vessels, which ranged from the size of teacups and saucepans to the size of large cooking pots. The vessels were crucibles in which tin was smelted, Dr. Yener said. Slag left over from the smelting, collected from inside the crucibles and in surrounding debris, contained not low-grade tin ore but material with 30 percent tin content, good enough for the metal trade. Then crucibles, set in pits, were filled with alternating layers of hot charcoal and cassiterite powder. Instead of using bellows, workers blew air through reed pipes to increase the heat of the burning charcoal. Tests indicated that this technique could have produced temperatures of 950 degrees Celsius and perhaps as high as 1,100 degrees (1,740 to 2,00 degrees Fahrenheit), sufficient to separate the tin from surrounding ore.

The identity of these highland mining people is unknown, but their pottery betrays cultural ties to societies in northern Syria and Mesopotamia. The Bronze Age could not continue forever, scholars say, in part because tin was so hard to get, contributing to the expense of the metal alloy. The age came to an end around ll00 BC, when iron, plentiful and accessible just about everywhere, became the most important metal in manufacturing. (82)

Among the tablets that Smith brought back from Nineveh was one containing huge, preposterously large numbers. No mathematician, Smith did not attempt to find out what they meant, but eventually Chatelain translated them into decimals. One Babylonian number contained fifteen digits: 195,955,200,000,000. He soon discovered that the Nineveh number was not as arbitrary as it looked; it was 70 multiplied by 60 to the power of seven. With a flash of inspiration, Chatelain wondered if the Nineveh number could express time in seconds. On this assumption, he worked it out to 2,268 million days, or something over 6 million years. The indefatigable engineer now recalled the precession of the equinoxes, that wobble on the earth's axis that takes just under 26,000 years to complete its cycle. (also known as a Big Year). He tried dividing this into the Nineveh constant (as he called it), and immediately knew he was on the right track: it proved to be an exact number of precessional cycles: in fact. exactly 240 Big Years. Chatelain found himself wondering if the Nineveh constant was what astrologers and occultists had called 'the great constant of the solar system', a number that would apply to the revolution of all the bodies in the solar system, including moons. (The Atlantis Blueprint)

He proceeded to calculate the cycles of the planets in seconds (no doubt using the NASA computer), and found that each was an exact fraction of the Nineveh constant. If the Sumerians knew the Nineveh constant over 5,000 years ago, their scientific knowledge had to have even earlier origins. Chatelain went a step further. When he divided the Nineveh constant into solar years, then compared this with a modern astronomical table based on a caesium clock (which gives the most accurate estimation of the length of a second), he found a slight discrepancy in the sixth decimal place. It was only a twelve-millionth of a day per year, but it puzzled him. Then he saw the solution. Modern astronomical measurements tell us that the rotation of the earth is slowing down very slightly, so every year is getting shorter by sixteen-millionths of a second. The Nineveh constant proved to be totally accurate 64,800 years ago, and that suggested to Chatelain that it was first calculated 64,800 years ago--at a time when, according to anthropologists, our ancestor Cro-Magnon man had only recently appeared in Europe. (The Atlantis Blueprint)

The new inspiration of civilized life was based, first, on the discovery, through long and meticulous, carefully checked and re­ checked observations, that there were, besides the sun and moon, five other visible or barely visible heavenly spheres (to wit, Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn) which moved in established courses, according to established laws, along the ways followed by the sun and moon, among the fixed stars; and then, second, on the almost insane, playful, yet potentially terrible notion that the laws governing the movements of the seven heavenly spheres should in some mystical way be the same as those governing the life and thought of men on earth. The whole city, not simply the temple area, was now conceived as an imitation on earth of the cosmic order, a sociological "middle cosmos," or mesocosm, established by priestcraft between the macrocosm of the universe and the microcosm of the individual, making visible the one essential form of all. The king was the center, as a human representative of the power made celestially manifest either in the sun or in the moon, according to the focus of the local cult; the walled city was organized architecturally in the design of a quartered circle (like the circles designed on the ceramic ware of the period just preceding), centered around the pivotal sanctum of the palace or ziggurat (as the ceramic designs around the cross, rosette, or swastika); and there was a mathematically structured calendar to regulate the seasons of the city's life according to the passages of the sun and moon among the stars - as well as a highly developed system of liturgical arts, including music, the art rendering audible to human ears the world-ordering harmony of the celestial spheres (Primitive Mythology)

...the wheel appeared. And we have evidence of the development of the two numerical systems still normally employed throughout the civilized world, the decimal and the sexigesimal; the former was used mostly for business accounts in the offices of the temple compounds, where the grain was stored that had been collected as taxes, and the latter for the ritualistic measuring of space and time as well. Three hundred and sixty degrees, then as now, represented the circumference of a circle - the cycle of the horizon - while three hundred and sixty days, plus five, marked the measurement of the circle of the year, the cycle of time. (Primitive Mythology)

The many varieties of metals and alloys for which Sumerian and Akkadian names have been found and the extensive technological terminology attest to the high level of metallurgy in ancient Mesopotamia. For a while this puzzled the scholars because Sumer, as such, was devoid of metal ores, yet metallurgy most definitely began there. The answer is energy. Smelting, refining, and alloying, as well as casting, could not be done without ample supplies of fuels to fire the kilns, crucibles, and furnaces. Mesopotamia may have lacked ores, but it had fuels in abundance. So the ores were brought to the fuels, which explains many early inscriptions describing the bringing of metal ores from afar. The fuels that made Sumer technologically supreme were bitumens and asphalts, petroleum products that naturally seeped up to the surface in many places in Mesopotamia. ...the technological use of these petroleum products began in Sumer circa 3500 BC...(The 12th Planet)

The Sumerians invented the second of time...the Sumerians must have used the Megalithic technique of measuring the spin of the Earth by tracking and timing Venus. Having applied a methodology from Megalithic Britain we had arrived at a matrix that interweaves the second of time, the Sumerian kush, the Sumerian base 60 system, the Sumerian 360-degree circle and the gesh (the basic Sumerian division of the day). The chances of all this happening with such perfection are as close to zero as anything could ever be! (Civilization One)

The full Sumerian time system is utterly sensational! Not only is it based on the Sun and the stars of the zodiac, it also takes in the cycles of the Moon. In an integer sense, the Moon takes 30 days to complete its circle around the Earth. That circle is split into 360 units, which are hours. Each of these hours is split by 60 and 60 again to create seconds of time. All of this fits with everything we know about number usage. The main difference between the Sumerian system and our present decimal system is that the Sumerians used a 60 and 10 base combined, whereas the decimal system employs a 10 base in all cases. (Civilization One)

The Sumerians/Babylonians used a system of mathematics that used base 60, which is the reason why we still have 60 seconds to the minute and 60 minutes to the hour. They also invented the 360-degree circle, which was also subdivided into minutes and seconds. In addition, they used a standard unit of length that is believed to be 99.88 centimetres – almost exactly equivalent to the modern metre. The Sumerians’/Babylonians’ double-kush of 99.88 centimetres was reproduced by means of swinging a pendulum with a beat of one second 240 times to define a unit of time they called a ‘gesh’. The Sumerians/Babylonians also developed an elaborate system of ritual timekeeping based on the movements of the Moon with 360 days per year, 360 hours per month and 360 gesh (240 seconds) per day. From their unit of length the Sumerians derived units of weight and capacity that are incredibly close to the kilo and the litre. To all intents and purposes it is fair to say that the metric system was in use more than 3,000 years before the French invented it. (Civilization One)

In this case the second and the kush appear to be very much more than a convenient abstraction because they have all of the characteristics of being fundamental to the realities of the Earth’s environment. They have value at a level never conceived of by modern science. We have come to the conclusion that it is more than reasonable to believe that the Sumerians, or more probably their unknown teachers, understood both the mass of the Earth, its orbital speed and even the speed of light, and they designed units that had an integer relationship with them all. (Civilization One)

We had found that the ancient Mesopotamian unit of measure called the se (barley seed) was a 360th of a double-kush, just as Sumerian records claim. Taking our lead from ancient texts that refer to weighing the world we were amazed to find that the mass of the Earth is almost perfectly 6 x 1028 Sumerian double-manas. This could be a coincidence but it is a perfect number in the Mesopotamian base 60 system of numbers. This also meant that one second slice of the Earth contains 1023 barley seeds. We next looked at the imperial pound as a potential Megalithic weight and compared it to the mass of the Earth. This produced the astonishingly accurate result where the modern pound weight is one 1,000,000,000,000,000,000,000th part of a slice of the Earth one Megalithic degree wide at the equator. For both the Sumarian and the Megalithic systems to produce results like this put coincidence out of the window and for the first time we began to theorize about the strange possibility of an unknown progenitor group of super-scientists we called ‘Civilization One’. We then looked at the speed of light through the atmosphere and found that it is almost exactly 600,000,000 kush per second. Next we looked at the speed of the Earth in its motion around the Sun and found that it was incredibly close to 60,000 kush per second. Once again, a perfect Sumerian number. The great mechanism of the solar system must have been measured a very long time ago and ancient units were derived from this super-knowledge from prehistory. (Civilization One)


According to the Egyptologist Walter Emery, the stone vessels of Egypt's archaic period (3100-2650 BC) were perhaps the Egyptians' greatest method for artistic expression. No other country, at that time or since, has achieved such precision. While the quality varied, stoneware was manufactured in vast quantities and with astonishing aesthetic design and technique. Every type of available stone was used. Specimens, dated to the first (2920-2770 BC) and second (2770-2650 BC) dynasties, have been found that are made from diorite, schist, alabaster, volcanic rock, serpentine, steatite, breccia, marble, limestone, mottled black-and-white porphyritic rock, purple porphyry, red jasper, obsidian quartz, dolomite, rock crystal, and basalt. Even with our modern industrial knowledge, we have yet to reproduce such items with the techniques or machinery they employed. Furthermore, stoneware such as this has not been found from any later era in Egyptian history. It seems, then, that the skills necessary to produce such meticulously crafted items were somehow lost. (Before the Pharaohs)

In the center of open bowls and plates, where the angle of the cut changes rapidly, one can see a clean, narrow, and perfectly circular line made by the tip of a cutting tool. Unmistakably, these tool marks were from lathe manufacturing (rotating an item on two spindles so the reduction of material is even on all sides). Delicate vases, made of brittle stone such as schist, were finished, turned, and polished to a flawless, paper-thin edge. One nine-inch bowl, hollowed out with a three-inch opening at its top, was flawlessly turned so that it balances perfectly on a rounded and tipped bottom. This tip is the size of an egg's rounded point, requiring a symmetrical wall thickness without any substantial error. Elegant items made from granite indicate not only an accomplished level of skill, but perhaps an advanced level of technology as well. Pieces made from granite, porphyry, or basalt cores were hollowed out with a narrow and flared opening, some of which have a long neck. (Before the Pharaohs)

In 1995 Dunn, armed with a six-inch precision straightedge, inspected the interior and exterior surfaces of two sarcophagi. The twenty-seven-ton lid of one of the sarcophagi, and the inside surface of the granite box on which it sat, was precisely square to .00005 inch--5/100,000 of an inch. He also verified that its corners were precise to 5/32 of an inch. According to Dunn, replicating the precision of the granite boxes in the Serapeum would be extremely difficult even today. More mysteriously, they had the knowledge and technology to lift, maneuver, and delicately place enormous blocks of stone weighing many tons, as well as the means to quarry and move millions of blocks over a long period of time. (Before the Pharaohs)

During the 1950s, an Italian team of archaeologists led by professor Mario Liverani, from the University of Rome, explored the Libyan Sahara and, by chance, discovered the mummified remains of a young boy at the Uan Muhuggiag rock shelter a hundred miles west of the Nile Valley, which dated to 3500 BC. Although no other mummies have been found in this area, it is proof that the tradition of mummification is far older than originally believed. This Libyan mummy is a thousand years older than the first Egyptian mummy and the oldest ever found in Africa. In preparing the boy for burial, he was eviscerated and embalmed with an organic preservative, then wrapped in skins and insulated with leaves. The sophistication with which he was mummified suggests he was not the first, but rather the result of a long-standing tradition. (Before the Pharaohs)

Mallery made the even more astonishing claim that the British Museum had sent some iron tools from Egypt to a metallurgist and was 'astounded to find out that the ancient Egyptians were using powdered metallurgy', a process that involves heating the metal to a temperature where it vaporises, after which it condenses in the form of a powder. The Egyptians obtained these temperatures, Mallery contended, by 'the same processes that made our atomic bomb possible'--atomic fission--'so 5,000 years ago the Egyptians were using the same processes that we thought we had discovered today to make the atom bomb'. Mallery added that 'the timing of the process agrees with the timing of the ancient maps'--in other words, perhaps 6,000-7,000 BC. Mallery was also convinced that he had found gold that was 100 per cent pure. (The Atlantis Blueprint)

We found that the Great Pyramid of Khufu was built using a measuring wheel with a circumference of one Megalithic Yard and a diameter of a half royal cubit. All of the pyramids main dimensions are a combination of Megalithic Yards, royal cubits and remens, all to the value of‘279’. The Ancient Egyptians also had a principal unit of area called the setat that was most commonly used in its quarter form. The area of a setat is exactly 4,000 MY2 and the quarter-setat is therefore precisely 1,000 MY2. (Civilization One)

There is no getting around the exactness we find in the granite crowns. They were not the result of random coincidence, but the application of tools and techniques that were far more advanced than the tools and techniques that are currently attributed to the ancient Egyptians. This is why I believe the crowns at Luxor are so important. They do not have the "feel" of products made by hand. They do not have the "feel" or the geometry of products made with simple and primitive machines or tools. And yet supposedly the crowns were crafted more than three thousand years ago. How could this be? How did the ancient Egyptians accomplish this? Why even conceive of such products if there were no tools to accomplish their making? What system of measure did they use? (The Lost Technologies of Ancient Egypt)

Are the striations on this statue and the Ramses at Luxor simply the result of dirty water running down the statue, or are they witnesses to a sophisticated method of cutting? For one thing, the parallel striations down the face into the neck are not the kind of marks that would be left by a sculptor using hand tools. We both concurred that these marks have all the characteristics of machining. (The Lost Technologies of Ancient Egypt)

We might conclude that usually, a sculptor who shaped a piece of granite into a human head with a hammer and chisel would expend enough effort to reduce the material to the required shape, and then would have only to polish away the tool marks. There doesn't appear to be any logical reason for a sculptor to make and leave these marks of superfluous cutting in such a hard material. These are more than a slip of the chisel and may be more the result of an unattended machining process than the work of a proud and highly skilled sculptor. (The Lost Technologies of Ancient Egypt)

Even if we ignore the seeming imprecision of the existence of tool marks on the Ramses' statues, we cannot ignore the exactness of their geometry. This degree of accuracy proves an important point. To achieve geometric perfection by hand involves an enormous amount of very careful grinding and polishing yet there are no scratches on the Ramses head that we would normally associate with grinding and polishing. Moreover, grinding and polishing would show more of the random direction of the artisan's stroke. It appears, from all the evidence that I have seen in Egypt, that the ancient artisans had achieved the net shape of their final product without leaving behind any areas that we could look at and identify as an area that required a little more polishing than another, which has long been the hallmark of crafting precision products by hand. In modern times, on the other hand, very exact surfaces can be cut on a machine, and tool marks are left to show the path over which the tool traveled. (The Lost Technologies of Ancient Egypt)

While there are over 100 known Ramses in Egypt, it is astonishing to learn that Amenophis III, also known as Amenhotep, had more than 250 statues crafted in his likeness. The amount of time it would take to accomplish all of this work in igneous rock is extraordinary. The statues of Egyptian pharaohs were crafted with symmetry--as though each sculpture was a stylized representation of only their most perfect image. The dimensions applied to the outline of the jaw on Amenophis III indicate a precision of plus or minus 0.06 inch, which on a human scale would be 0.01 inch, or half the thickness of a thumbnail. There can be no doubt that symmetry was the Egyptians' objective in creating these statues, and even if they did not achieve perfection, they came much closer than what could be accomplished by visual comparison. (The Lost Technologies of Ancient Egypt)

Exploring the tunnels of the Serapeum for the first time was both intriguing and frustrating. Along the dusty corridors were more than twenty-two large boxes. Each was cut from a solid block of granite, and remarkable to each was a feature that was characteristic of fourth-dynasty boxes. The inside corners have small radii, and such features are significant to engineers and craftsmen because of the added difficulty and time required to create a sharp inside corner in hard igneous rock that is made up of 55 percent silicon quartz crystal. In one of the crypts there is a granite box with a broken corner, and this box is accessible by means of steps down to the lower floor. The outside of the box appears to be roughly finished, but the glint of a high polish on the inside surfaces beckoned me to climb inside. I slid the parallel along the surface both horizontally and vertically, and there was no deviation from a true, flat surface. The flatness was similar to precision-ground surface plates that are used in manufacturing for the verification of exactly machined parts for tools, gauges, and myriad other products that require extremely accurate surfaces and dimensions. It just didn't make sense to think that the ancient Egyptians would pour such resources into manufacturing coffins while the mausoleum where the god Apis rested was rough cut and undecorated, except for a jumble of stelae with no pretense to geometric balance and harmony. As for the boxes, once the lid was on top of each of them, nobody would see the perfectly flat and polished surfaces or the conformity to orthogonal precision. (The Lost Technologies of Ancient Egypt)

In the case of the Serapeum, the list of tools and instruments that are necessary to create the granite boxes has grown. We can say with certainty that exact measuring instruments existed, for this work and the work at Luxor and Karnak could not have been accomplished without them. They are the most important and necessary tools for such work. The wooden squares, plumb bobs, and alignment instruments on display in the Luxor and Cairo Museums are incapable of giving even the most talented craftsman the information he needs to know that his work has achieved this kind of accuracy. (The Lost Technologies of Ancient Egypt)

For an engineer, a visit to the Giza plateau is a bewildering, perplexing, and thought-provoking test of education and experience. The ancient Egyptians were engineering wizards whose work never fails to impress, regardless of how many times we visit. When I was confronted in Khafre's pyramid, then, with an accurate stone artifact that was created in ancient times and found it similar to those that can be found in the inspection department of a modern manufacturing company, I was understandably shocked and excited. Before several witnesses, I slid this edge along the smooth interior of the granite box with my flashlight shining behind it and demonstrated its absolute flatness. Yet I was not prepared for what I found: I was astonished as I slid my square along and found it fit perfectly on the adjacent surface. On three corners, the square sat flush against both surfaces. The fourth corner had a gap that was detected by the light test, though its variance from being a true square may have been no more than 0.002 inch. Why go to extreme trouble to create a box with perfectly flat inside surfaces as well as go to extraordinary lengths to make sure the inside corners are square--to within a tolerance normally expected of modern machinists and toolmakers? (The Lost Technologies of Ancient Egypt)

Though Denys Stocks and Mark Lehner have recently demonstrated how the ancient Egyptians may have cut granite using primitive methods, these demonstrations do not come close to explaining the remarkable exactness, geometry, and tool marks cut into the stones found on the Giza Plateau and at other sites in Egypt. As we wander around the Giza Plateau, we find this precision in the most unlikely places. For instance, a single diorite block in the south-eastern wall of the Valley Temple duplicates the accuracy found on the inside of Khafre's pyramid box. In the Valley Temple there are several places where the inside corners comprise blocks that wrap around to create a part of the adjacent wall. This suggests that the blocks were positioned and then the inside walls were cut to specific dimensions.  (The Lost Technologies of Ancient Egypt)

What is remarkable and important about the Valley Temple contoured block is that it shows that the ancient Egyptians crafted not only flat surfaces, but also contoured surfaces, with uncommon precision. Sliding the12inch straight edge along the crown of the convex radius there, I could not detect any variation, which would be revealed by light showing through the straight edge's interface with the stone. To discover not only strict constraints in the design, but also the adherence to machine-like precision on a granite block that is designed merely to look elegant and attractive provides more evidence in the emerging picture of lost technology in ancient Egypt. This presents a bit of a conundrum, for there are no tools whatsoever in the ancient Egyptians' toolbox that can be used to replicate what has been crafted in igneous rock, and which imposes its majesty on our consciousness. (The Lost Technologies of Ancient Egypt)

Visitors to the Temple of Denderah today are greeted with a highly eroded and damaged work of art that was originally crafted and assembled with all the precision and craftsmanship we might expect from a modern manufacturer who is blessed with advanced tools for cutting, measuring, and assembly.  The walls, ceiling, and columns are put together with such exactness that we can only sit back in awe of such an incredible accomplishment. (The Lost Technologies of Ancient Egypt)

Where Amun's left buttock meets the bench both Amun and Mut are sitting on, I detected an undercut that was about 2 inches in length. An ancient craftsperson would have had to invest a considerable amount of time and painstaking effort to create such a feature by hand. It could nor be created suddenly by the slip of a stone or copper or bone or wood--the cutting materials cited in the archaeological record. Intriguingly, along the length of the undercut are parallel striations that follow the path of the groove. The striations range from a distinct ridge to faint lines--and, as we have learned, these are known to machinists as witness marks or ghost marks. Their Presence on a surface indicates the use of a tool that leaves a consistent impression of its geometry on the surface of the material as it travels along a path, removing material as it goes. The appearance of such marks generally rules out free abrasives, which tend to create random patterns. (The Lost Technologies of Ancient Egypt)

The cornice/cowl intersection is a point in three-dimensional space that is created where three surfaces come together. In order for the condition to exist, the ancient Egyptians crafted identical capitals with precision, and then, maintaining similar precision, they mounted them on top of each column--the surface of which was perfectly flat and of the same elevation--with minuscule variation, column to column. Seen from below, these points are barely noticeable, and I doubt whether anyone would give it any attention if it varied one side to the other or if one capital was rotated so as to throw off the alignment slightly. It is quite possible that those who crafted the columns were not interested in this point, but that their tools were such that precision was copied from capital to capital, replicating the same geometry each time. It is astounding that even with precision crafted into the capitals and each one lined up for installation that the builders were able to position them with such accuracy. This surely has to be one of the most incredible accomplishments of the ancient Egyptians. (The Lost Technologies of Ancient Egypt)

...we are taught that during the three thousand years that the ancient Egyptians flourished on this planet, the tools used by men and women did not change. How could this be? The finely crafted and precise boxes inside the pyramids at Giza were supposedly created in the fourth dynasty, 2500 BCE, or forty-five hundred years ago. The finely crafted and precise boxes inside the rock tunnels of the Serapeum were supposedly created in the eighteenth dynasty, 1550-1200 BCE, or thirty-five hundred years ago. We are asked to believe that in a one-thousand-year span, the ancient Egyptians did not make any significant improvement in their tools and methods for cutting hard igneous rock. If there is any mystery to ancient Egypt, it is why a paradigm that was established one hundred thirty years ago still holds force among many Egyptologists and archaeologists. Although sophisticated tools made of iron or steel may not yet have been discovered in the archaeological record, what has been found is not adequate enough to explain how the artifacts were created. (The Lost Technologies of Ancient Egypt)

We can see another inexplicable feature of this stone. The smooth concave surface ends in another concave radius where this block had evidently broken away from another block. Nothing on this planet compares to ancient Egyptian stonework. It must be studied in the way that Dr. Peter Lu, of Yale University, studied ancient China. He concluded that the ancient Chinese must have used compound machines three thousand years ago. His research is systematic, logical, and hard to refute. He made this ground breaking discovery while studying jade burial rings from Tomb 1 of the Chu minister at Henan Xichuan Xiasi that had been carefully inscribed with what appeared to be equally spaced spiral grooves. A simple camera and computer-aided design program were the tools with which Dr. Lu was able to draw his inference. Replication of the spirals was accomplished experimentally by a mechanical scribing tool guided by precise linear and rotational motions. Because of the radial features, it became clear that only a large circular saw would have been able to create the two radii on this block.  (The Lost Technologies of Ancient Egypt)

Looking closer at the surface of the block we can see striations that are spaced between approximately 0.030 inch to 0.06 inch apart. These are a common feature on many artifacts found in Egypt, including some holes and the cores that were extracted from the holes. With respect to the tools that created these marks, Petrie describes cutting with saws in his 1883 book, The Pyramids and Temples of Gizeh, and he concludes that the ancient Egyptians must have had cutting materials harder than quartz and that the marks were created through the action of a single cutting point. (The Lost Technologies of Ancient Egypt)

We will travel to Giza to examine the basalt pavement to the east of the Great Pyramid that Petrie had examined. Taking an overall view of the pavement, we can see that many of the tool marks would not even be noticed if we were not looking for them or were not familiar with these types of surfaces. There are more than a dozen blocks in this pavement with all manner of saw marks. Some appear to be straight and others are curved, similar to those on the block at Abu Roash. The saw marks appear distinct and vary in pitch very little with each striation, for the most part, following a uniform path from one end to the other. (The Lost Technologies of Ancient Egypt)

This block is further evidence that efficient circular tools were used on the Giza Plateau, though we are still left to wonder about what they looked like, how they were driven, and from what material they were made. It seems bordering on the impossible to imagine such an operation being performed by ancient Egyptians, but what other method would create each of the following? 1. A compound radius 2. Parallel striations that follow an uneven path across the stone 3. A step about 4 inches away from the break. (The Lost Technologies of Ancient Egypt)

The wobble of the striations provides support for the proposed method, for it would be very likely that a saw blade that is approximately 37 feet in diameter would have some lateral movement. The evidence in the stone shows clearly that a tool with fixed cutting points was passed across the surface with a reasonable degree of regularity, given the distance between the striations--but seen from one end to the other, there is lateral movement in the striations, which indicates a wobble in the tool. Because the machines that cut the Chinese jade burial rings and the Egyptian granite blocks are no longer in existence, the evidence is considered circumstantial. Yet it provides us with a fairly accurate picture of at least their diameter, if not quite how they were driven or the materials used in manufacturing the saw. (The Lost Technologies of Ancient Egypt)

The ancient Egyptians created an abundance of evidence from which methods of manufacture can be inferred. As this evidence drove me to grapple with these concepts, I was stunned by their implications, and I tried to imagine what such a saw would look like, how it was installed on the Abu Roash Plateau, and how the stone to be cut was secured and moved through the blade. The radius on the stone indicated that it was cut slightly off the center line of the saw, which meant that the block was secured to a table that must have been 15-16 feet from the ground. It seems a bit extreme to have to haul blocks of stone 15 feet in the air to be able to cut them, but then it finally dawned on me that there are other features at Abu Roash and at Giza that may provide an answer to this mystery. Close to where this stone is located and cut into the bedrock there is a deep trench that is 39 feet long and 31.5 feet deep. Within an engineering context, it would not be far-fetched to propose that the empty trench in the vicinity of Abu Roash was originally used to accommodate the lower part of the saw's massive diameter. (The Lost Technologies of Ancient Egypt)

When we look at the trenches on the Giza Plateau and consider the enormous task of cutting millions of blocks of stone not just for the Great Pyramid, but also for the other pyramids on the site, the use of megasaws that can cut efficiently through granite and limestone to exacting tolerances somehow gives the manufacture of pyramids a different perspective--a perspective that allows a sense of comportment with engineering on an appropriately massive scale, and one that takes into account methods and machines that were equal to the task at hand.  (The Lost Technologies of Ancient Egypt)

Regarding the use of a single-point tool, Petrie writes: That the Egyptians were acquainted with a cutting jewel far harder than quartz, and that they used this jewel as a sharp pointed graver, is put beyond doubt by the diorite bowls within scriptions of the fourth dynasty, of which I found fragments at Gizeh; as well as the scratches on polished granite of Ptolemaic age at San. We therefore need have no hesitation in allowing that the graving out of lines in hard stones by jewel points, was a well known art. And when we find on the surfaces of the saw-cuts in diorite, grooves as deep as 1/100 inch, it appears far more likely that such were produced by the jewel points in the saw than by any fortuitous rubbing about of a loose powder. And when, further, it is seen that these deep grooves are almost always regular and uniform in depth, and equidistant, their production by the successive cuts of the jewel teeth of a saw appears to be beyond question. (The Lost Technologies of Ancient Egypt)

Considering that the pyramids were crafted with such precision, is it surprising to find circumstantial evidence that proves that exact and robust machine tools existed in prehistory? Such machines did not just saw blocks for the pyramids and temples, but they also crafted delicate and precise stonework, such as the Ramses statues and the stone bowl fragments discovered by Petrie.  (The Lost Technologies of Ancient Egypt)

Petrie 's drawing of Core 7 and his thorough description formed the basis of my analysis. Petrie describes it: On the granite core, broken from a drill hole (No. 7), other features appear, which can only be explained by the use of fixed jewel points. Firstly, the grooves which run around it form a regular spiral, with no more interruption or waviness than is necessarily produced by the variations in the component crystals; this spiral is truly symmetrical with the axis of the core. In one part a groove can be traced, with scarcely an interruption, for a length of four turns. Next the Egyptians adapted their sawing principle into a circular, instead of a rectilinear form, curving the blade round into a tube, which drilled out a circular groove by its rotation; thus, by breaking away the cores left in the middle of such grooves, they were able to hollow out large holes with minimum of labour. These tubular drills vary from 1/4 inch to 5 inches in diameter, and from 1/10 to 1/5 inch thick. (The Lost Technologies of Ancient Egypt)

If I consider all the evidence within the same engineering context without regard to the time each example was built, I am compelled to suggest that the ancient Egyptians had to have used sophisticated machines that cut diorite and granite with little difficulty. The evidence suggests that they had lathes and that the lathes were built with precise bearings that regulated the rotation of the spindle. The contoured blocks on the Giza Plateau suggest that they had machines that cut exact, three-dimensional shapes on three axes. The accidental grooves found in the statue of Amun and Mut in the Luxor Museum are proof of tools that do not exist in the archaeological record. These grooves provide evidence of rotary grinding wheels that were used to cut the fine details on the statues. (The Lost Technologies of Ancient Egypt)

Finally, there is the important question of precision. Chiseling and hand polishing a surface that compares to a surface produced by a modern machine when the object's purpose is to serve as an architectural element above a doorway, for example, does not make sense. It is completely unnecessary for the function it fills. The architectural elements found near the Valley Temple on the Giza Plateau and at the Temple of Denderah and other temples, however, were crafted by precise machine tools that produced precise products requiring no secondary finishing. (The Lost Technologies of Ancient Egypt)

Stories of an older civilization have long been maintained in the traditions of indigenous peoples, who refer to them as a time when gods ruled the earth. We are left, therefore, to consider the idea of an older culture that was more gifted in architectural design and execution than has been commonly accepted. There is no question that the Great Pyramid is the most sophisticated and precise of all the structures on the Giza Plateau, and, frankly, of all the buildings in the world. If we follow the idea of an older civilization, therefore, the pyramids would have already been there before the first dynasty of the ancient Egyptians. The Great Pyramid was, most likely, the zenith of construction on the plateau, and the other pyramids were likely built before it was. Yet something happened to the culture that built the pyramids, and when Khufu came on the scene, he naturally chose the most impressive structure--the Great Pyramid--as his own, and his heirs took turns in claiming the rest. Taking into account all the foregoing evidence, I will assert now, unequivocally, that what has been found in the archaeological record and used by experimentalists must be dismissed as grossly inadequate to the task of producing the marvelous artifacts of ancient Egypt. (The Lost Technologies of Ancient Egypt)

Indus Valley

"They also had a tremendous craft technology, if not the best craft technology in the Bronze Age," claims Jim Shaffer, of Case Western Reserve University. "In city after city, the Indus people built deep, brick-lined wells, smelted and cast copper and bronze, and made jewelry. (The Genesis Race)

In some cases this approach was so scientific that 'even today', as Jonathan Kennoyer admits, many aspects of Indus technology are not fully understood as scholars attempt to replicate stoneware ceramics from ordinary terracotta clay and to reproduce bronze that was as hard as steel. (Underworld)

The Indus Valley civilization or Harappa culture of the Indian subcontinent dating from about 2800 BC had a unit of length called the gaz that is very close indeed to the Megalithic Yard. (Civilization One)


It is a report from Reuters in Beijing dated June 6, 2002, and bore the title "Tunnels, Pipes, Tower, from 'ET Launch Site' Found in China." The article noted that a team of Chinese scientists was heading out to a remote area to investigate "a mystery pyramid that local legend says is a launch tower left by aliens from space." The article went on to describe the site as containing a 180-foot-tall pyramid and "rusty iron scraps, pipes, and unusually shaped stones" dubbed "ET relics." Soon after the publication of this report an investigative article by Jo Lusby and Abby Wan was published in City Weekend, a biweekly English-language publication printed in Beijing. It began: On the south bank of a saltwater lake sits a metallic pyramid said to be between 50 and 60 meters tall. In front of the structure lie three caves, each with triangular openings. The two smaller caves have collapsed, but the largest central cave is still passable. Inside, on the ground, lies a 40-cm length of pipe, sliced in half. Another red-brown pipe is sunk into the earth, only its lip visible above the ground. Outside the cave, half-pipes, scraps of metal, and strangely shaped stones are scattered along the southern bank of the lake. Some pipes run into the water; it is unknown what may lurk in the salty depths. The real mystery of this structure discovered in a desolate, barren desert next to a salt lake was noted after the rocks and metal samples from the site were analyzed. According to the official Qinhua News Agency, "results of preliminary rock and metal analysis show the pipes are 30 percent ferric oxide with a high content of silicon dioxide and calcium oxide; 8 percent of the sample's makeup was categorized as unidentifiable." The engineer who conducted the studies said the levels of silicon dioxide and calcium oxide point to the pipes having been on the mountainside for a long time--at least 5,000 years. Iron smelting, however, dates back only 2,000 years. (The Genesis Race)


In the Copper Age, a period that may have begun as early as 3,000 BC in the Alpine region, people searched for malachite, a copper carbonate that appears naturally as a bluish green efflorescence on rock and cliff sides. They scraped and flaked off the malachite and then smelted it in a crucible in a campfire. They increased the fire's temperature by blowing oxygen into it through bellows. The nearly pure copper would then be poured into a stone mold, for an ax, for example. (79)

In the 1960s, Thorn, a retired professor of engineering from Oxford University, established that the Ring of Brodgar and most other megalithic sites in western Europe were built using a standard unit of measure which he labbed the 'Megalithic Yard'. He also suggested that the reason for digging the henge at this spot was because it provides four major foresights to observe movements of the moon - known as the major and minor standstills - which are important to the prediction of its cycles. (Uriel's Machine)

The bottom line of his research was that nearly 4,000 years ago the Minoans had used a system of mathematics based on a 366 degree circle, that appears to be directly connected to the mathematics of the megalithic people who lived in western Europe 5,000 years ago. The Minoans seemed to be using a circle of 366 degrees with each degree subdivided into 60 minutes, and each minute further divided into 6 seconds. (Uriel's Machine)

Butler had started by studying the mathematical structure of the Phaistos Disc. It is engraved on both sides with a series of pictograms laid out inside spirals. Although no one understands the writing system, Butler found that the symbols on the disc are compatible with a 366-day calendar, which was so accurate that over a period of 40 years it would be out by only three days. He also noted that there seemed to be an indication on the disc that would allow even this small error to be corrected.He decided to see if this small measure of angle represented a useful distance on the Earth's circumference, and his first calculation showed it to be a little over 3 metres. This rang bells, because the Minoans used a unit of length called the Minoan Foot, which archaeologist have observed from their buildings was equal to 30.36 cm. Butler made some quick calculations and realized that 1,000 Minoan feet was equal to 366 megalithic yards. Not approximately ... exactly! He also noted that one megalithic second of arc was equal to 366 megalithic yards, or 1000 Minoan feet, on the Earth's surface. Each megalithic second of arc represents a distance of 366 megalithic yards on the Earth's surface and six of these comprise the distance a megalithic minute of arc covers on the Earth's surface - and is equal to 2,196 megalithic yards (a unit that Butler has called a megalithic mile). There are 60 megalithic minutes of arc to the megalithic degree, and therefore also 60 megalithic miles. Since there are 366 megalithic degrees to the circle, it follows that the circumference of the earth should be 60 x 366 megalithic miles, which comes out at 21,960 megalithic miles. Convert this number into kilometres and the result is 40,009.98 kilometres. The polar circumference of the earth is presently estimated to be 40,010 kilometres, so the megalithic people agreed with modern measurements to the last 20 metres! Such a precise match is unlikely to be mere coincidence. (Uriel's Machine)

So, it seems that some 4,000 years ago the Minoans of Crete had inherited a system from the megalithic peoples of western Europe, whereby one second of arc was the same as one second of time, and this could be expressed as a distance of 366 megalithic yards on the surface of the Earth. If one were to measure this distance accurately and mark it on the ground in an east-west direction, it actually represents the amount by which the Earth turns (at any given spot) in one megalithic second of time. In this way these prehistoric people reconciled time and distance into one form of measurement. In a remarkable way, megalithic mathematics integrates the speed of rotation of the earth with distance measured on the surface, so providing an ideal tool for navigation as well - a standard unit for building. (Uriel's Machine)

South America



Each day had a particular glyph and meaning ascribed to it, and at the end of the fifty-two-year cycle a renewal ceremony would be performed. The long count period lasted for about five thousand years. This was equivalent to an age. According to the Maya, humanity is in the fifth "Sun" or "Age." That will end about five thousand years from the beginning of their calendar, which started in 3011 BC and expires in 2012 AD. (Forbidden History)

The Mayans knew of the planets Neptune and Uranus by at least 3144 BC and, with the Sumerians, knew their periods of revolution around the Sun. Yet, we claim the planets were discovered in modern times by William Herschel (Uranus in 1781) and Johann Galle (Neptune in 1846). They were simply rediscovered. (Gods, Genes, and Consciousness)

The Calendar is called the Mayan Calendar (not Olmec) because the Classic Maya perfected all the aspects of it. They calculated how time influences history, and they left a clear and complex record of their discoveries. When they were developed enough to mythologize their origins, they linked the development of maize with their own origins in time in their creation account, the Popol Vuh. Today, corn remains a central focus of Maya culture and ceremony. The Long Count begins around 3113 BC, which happens to be the moment when complex temple-city civilizations suddenly arose in ancient Egypt, Sumer, and China. Since the Maya were also a culture with pyramids, hieroglyphs, mythology, and astronomy, and since their Calendar accurately describes the historical cycles of the development of civilization, why not assume their actual origins go back to the beginning of their Calendar, especially since maize was domesticated even earlier? This is an important point because all thirteen baktuns must be considered, especially the originating baktun, when complex civilizations began, which was 3113 to 2718 BC. (A baktun is a period lasting 394 years; baktuns are the main divisions of the 5,125 years of history that the Long Count describes.) The Long Count of 5,125 years is divided into thirteen cycles of about 394 years called baktuns; each baktun is divided into twenty cycles called katuns, which are composed of twenty 360-day-long tuns. Since the basic unit, the tun, is 360 days, time inches backward about five days each during nearly every solar year (a solar year consists of 365 days), which yanks one's mind right out of linear time. ...the acceleration of time through the expression of multiplying basic units by twenty is a key concept in the Calendar, and it started with multiplying one tun by twenty to get one katun. Then a katun is multiplied by twenty to get a baktun, a baktun is multiplied by twenty to get a piktun, and so on. Therefore the tun is the basic unit of time acceleration in the Calendar. (The Mayan Code)

The Maya had a highly sophisticated calendar and an advanced system of mathematics. From one stele at Quirigoa in Guatemala, the start of their calendar can be placed at approximately 3135 BC. Their own tradition stated that they were descended from four 'Becabs' who came over the sea to escape the Flood. On page 115 of J. Thompson's book, The Rise and Fall of the Maya Empire, is reproduced a drawing of four Atlas figures, who are the four Becabs, depicted here set at the four sides of the world to hold up the sky. They come from columns in the Castillo Chichen Itza. They are bearded and of European appearance. (The God-Kings & the Titans)

The oldest of the three Mesoamerican calendars is known as the Long Count: it counted the number of days from a "Day One" that scholars have identified as August 13, 3113 BC. Alongside this continuous but linear calendar there were two cyclical calendars. One, the Haab, was a solar-year calendar of 365 days, divided into 18 months of 20 days each plus an additional 5 special days at year's end. The other was the Tzolkin, a Sacred Calendar of only 260 days, composed of a 20-day unit rotated 13 times. The two cyclical calendars were then meshed together, as two geared wheels, to create the Sacred Round of fifty-two years, when these two counts returned to their common starting point and started the counts all over again. This "bundle" of fifty-two years was a most important unit of time, because it was linked to the promise of Quetzalcoatl, who at some point left Mesoamerica, to return on his Sacred Year. The Mesoamerican peoples therefore used to gather on mountains every fifty-two years to expect the promised Return of Quetzalcoatl. (In one such Sacred Year, 1519 AD, a white-faced and bearded Spaniard, Hernando Cortes, landed on Mexico's Yucatan coast and was welcomed by the Aztec king Montezuma as the returning god--a costly mistake, as we now know.) (The End of Days)

Anyone who wants to tackle the mystery of the Mayan calendar today has to solve three different problems: the starting date of this calendar, the length of the time span this calendar covered, and the duration of its short cycles. Opinions on all three questions differ widely. Originally, the dates proposed for the start of this long calendar were as much as 520 years apart. Recently this discrepancy has been reduced to 260 years and there are only two groups of American archaeologists who dispute each other. The team led by Herbert Spinden maintains that the long Mayan calendar started in 3373 BC. The team led by Edward Thompson thinks it began in 3113 BC. As the Mayas counted time, this 260 year difference represents thirteen periods of 20 years each that are called 'katuns', Twenty katuns, or 400 years, are equal to one 'baktun'. (Our Cosmic Ancestors)

North America