Legends from Southwest Asia

Southwest Asia

The Bible claims that Moses received a new revelation, but even a new revelation was of necessity expressed in language and imagery that were already current. The Hebrew language was a Canaanite dialect, and Canaanite was a Semitic language, like Akkadian. Israelite religion, too, did not emerge in a vacuum. Its novel aspects came into being as modifcations of beliefs and practices that had been current for centuries. The Hebrew language uses the word El for God, and the term inevitably carried with it associations of the Canaanite high god. The biblical creation stories draw motifs from the myths of Atrahasis and Enuma Elish and from the epic of Gilgamesh. In short, much of the language and imagery of the Bible was culture specifc, and was deeply imbedded in the traditions of the Near East. (A Short Introduction to the Hebrew Bible

The recent debates about the Pentateuch show that the reconstruction of earlier forms of the biblical text is a highly speculative enterprise. Perhaps the main lesson to be retained is that these texts are indeed composite and incorporate layers from different eras. The biblical text is not a consistent systematic treatise. Rather it is a collection of traditional materials that places different viewpoints in dialogue with one another and offers the reader a range of points of view. (A Short Introduction to the Hebrew Bible

These tablets bore the Sumerian recordings of the teachings of advanced beings—ABs who claimed to have been from a twelfth planet. The Nibiru home body—a planet way beyond Pluto, like the Planet X of modern astronomers—was labeled the “twelfth planet” because the Sumerians considered the Sun and the Earth's moon, in addition to the nine planets, to be full-fledged members of the stellar family. The tablets contain descriptions of star movements in antiquity that could have come only from an off-planet perspective, not from sky-watching shepherds. The Sumerian record makes a persuasive argument that a large planet with an orbital period of 3,600 years (and with an apogee six times farther from Earth than that of Pluto) collided with a former planet in orbit between Mars and Jupiter (where Bode predicted) billions of years ago. (Children of a Living Universe)

[The] world conception...with its three "domains," with seven or nine skies, one above the other, and with corresponding "underworlds," with the "world-pillar" running through the center of the whole system, crowned by the "north Nail," or "World Nail" (Polaris), goes farther back than Indian and Iranian culture, namely to the most ancient Near East, whence India and Iran derived their idea of a "cosmos"--a cosmos being in itself by no means an obvious assumption. The shaman climbing the "stairs" or notches of his post or tree, pretending that his soul ascends at the same time to the highest sky, does the very same thing as the Mesopotamian priest did when mounting to the top of his seven-storied pyramid, the ziqqurat, representing the planetary spheres. ...a close look at shamanistic items always discloses very ancient patterns. For instance, the drum, the most powerful device of the shaman, representing the Universe in a specific way, is the unmistakable grandchild of the bronze lilissu drum of the Mesopotamian Kalu-priest (responsible for music, and serving the god Enki/Ea). The cover of the lilissu drum must come from a black bull, "which represents Taurus in heaven," says Thureau- Dangin. The striking of the drum covered with that specific bull hide was meant as a contact with heaven at its most significant point, and in the Age of Taurus (c. 4000-2000 B.C.) this was also explicitly said to represent Anu, now casually identified as "God of Heaven." But Anu was a far more exact entity. In cuneiform script, Anu is written with one wedge, which stands for the number 1 and also for 60 in the sexagesimal system (the Pythagoreans would have said, he stands for the One and the Decad). All this does not mean some symbolic or mystical, least of all magical quality or quantity, but the fundamental time measure of celestial events (that is, motions). Striking the drum was to involve (this time, yes, magically) the essential Time and Place in heaven. To sum it up--whether Shamanism is an old or a relatively young offshoot of ancient civilization is irrelevant. It is not primitive at all, but it belongs, as all our civilizations do, to the vast company of ungrateful heirs of some almost unbelievable Near Eastern ancestor who first dared to understand the world as created according to number, measure and weight.  (Hamlet's Mill)

But it is evident that the events of the Flood in the Era Epic, however vivid their language, apply unmistakably to events in the austral heavens and to nothing else. It becomes evident that all the adventures of Gilgamesh, even if ever so earthily described, have no conceivable counterpart on earth. They are astronomically conceived from A to Z--even as the fury of Era does not apply to some meteorological "Lord Storm" but to events which are imagined to take place among constellations. The authors of Sumer and Babylon describe their hair-raising catastrophes of the Flood without a thought of earthly events. Their imagination and calculations as well as their thought belong wholly among the stars. Their capacity for transposition seems to have been utterly lost to us earthlings, of the earth earthy, who think only of "primitive" images and primitive experiences, which could account for the narrative so intensely and humanly projected. Perhaps they are mutants from our type. These phantoms being now laid to rest, one finds oneself dealing with utterly unknown ancestors, whose biblical rages and passions have to be read in an entirely new context. To be sure, the planets are still neighbors: Mars, who is Era and Nergal, is only a few light-minutes away, Marduk-Jupiter about eight minutes, Saturn an hour. But they are all equally lost in cosmic space, their optical evidence, like that of ghosts, equally unseizable, equally potent or impotent in terms of present physical standards, equally and dreadfully present according to those other standards. Such is the fate of heroes, as they have been followed from Amlodhi onwards, whether they come as a spark hiding in a narthex like Prometheus, or fire from the wood splinters in Stag's hairs, or become a beam from Canopus- Eridu. Lost in the depths of the Southern Ocean, they were capable of giving the Depths of the Sea to our forefathers, and now are able to have the directional systems of our missiles lock on them for interplanetary flight-they remain points, circles, geometries of light to guide mankind past and future on its way. And so under the present circumstances it is necessary to leave Era's somber prophecy unfulfilled, relating as it does to a coming world age:

Open the way, I will take the road,
The days are ended, the fixed time has past.
But with it comes the clearest statement ever uttered by men or
gods concerning the Precession. Says Marduk:
When I stood up from my seat and let the flood break in,
then the judgement of Earth and Heaven went out of joint ...
The gods, which trembled, the stars of heaven--
their position changed, and I did not bring them back. (Hamlet's Mill)

The premise for considering that the Sumerian poems were oral in origin stems from the observation that they used a common set of formulas, despite their existence in widely differing recensions. Within a single version they generally employ the same traditional phrases and fixed sequences of words to express the same idea. (Noah's Flood)

The first such "father figure" recorded in the Sumerian tablets is Anu, the in-orbit commander of the Anunnaki colony. His Earth-based sons Enlil and Enki formed with him the first example of a ruling troika. All the leading Anunnaki required and received subservience, service, support, and sacrifice from the less-developed humans. They required deference and homage and acts of obeisance. For the most part, the dependent humans saw no option but to be docile and tractable, amenable to the instructions of their colonial rulers. (Gods, Genes, and Consciousness)

One way in which Sumerian religion and ideology has influenced modern cultures is in its influence on Judeo-Christian religious traditions. The biblical account of the Noachian flood, for example, is clearly related to Sumerian stories that predated the Old Testament by thousands of years. (Patterns in Prehistory)

Rigorous analysis of Genesis 1 and 2 makes one point clear right away: There were in fact two creations of humankind. This is a crucial distinction, for though, to my knowledge, biblical scholars and theologians have never made it, the early chroniclers of human history did, which is why they included two different sequences of creation in two separate chapters of this book of the Bible. (86)

We can begin by comparing these two creation sequences. Genesis 1 tells us that God created the elements of the universe in the following order: 1. Heaven and the earth 2. Light 3. Day and night 4. Expanse and waters 5. Dry land, earth and gathering waters, seas 6. Plants and trees 7. Stars, the Sun, the Moon, and the planets 8. Living creatures 9. Humans, both male and female (86)

But in Genesis 2:4-9 we are given a brand-new creation account in which God creates: 1. Man from dust 2. The Garden of Eden 3. Trees, two of which are the tree of the knowledge of good and evil and the tree of life After this, God does the following: 4. Divides the river into four rivers 5. Places man in the Garden of Eden to cultivate it 6. Instructs man that he may eat from any tree, "but from the tree of the knowledge of good and evil you shall not eat" 7. Forms "every beast of the field and every bird of the sky" 8. Causes Adam to fall asleep and takes a rib from his side 9. Fashions Eve from his rib (86)

To understand what the ancients were trying to tell us in this verse, we have to look closely at the preceding passage, Genesis 1:26. In it the Hebrew word used to refer to God suddenly changes from that used in the verses up to verse 26. It is no longer Yahweh but Elohim, a plural word for deity: "Then the gods said, Let Us make man in Our image, according to Our likeness; and let them rule over the fish of the sea and over the birds…and over every creeping thing…" (86)

Some theologians assert that "God made man in his image" actually means "God made man in his spiritual image," but the account of human origin in Genesis 1 is concerned with only physical creation-biology, not spiritualism. At this stage of creation humans are animals. God creates the earth and then the gods bioengineer humans, who are to live off the land very much as other creatures do. (86)

Genesis 1:29 explains God's (here, the gods') plan for human survival as it is presented to the first human: "Be fruitful and multiply…and rule over the fish of the seas and over the birds of the sky…Behold, I have given you every plant yielding seed that is on the surface of the earth, and every tree which has fruit yielding seed: it shall be food for you." Here, then, is all that an early human would need to live: animals, plants, and fruits. This establishes that these first humans were to live not as tillers of the soil but as hunter-gatherers. (86)

There is no explanation anywhere in the Book of Genesis for the existence of the second story of creation found in Genesis 2. A direct comparison of chapters 1 and 2, however, reveals that chapter 2 describes an entirely different sequence of creation and introduces an entirely different kind of human from that in chapter 1--a human who is more developed, who is capable of self-awareness, of acquiring new skills, embracing a whole new life. It is this human who, at the end of chapter 3, is sent from Paradise and compelled to change his hunter-gatherer existence to a farming way of life. (86)

Adam, the new prototype (the one who replaces the Neanderthal), is Homo sapiens sapiens. Ultimately, he will leave the garden of Eden and usher in the agricultural revolution. In Hebrew Adam means "the one who has a different purpose." That he is different is further revealed when he names the creatures around him--a detail entirely missing from Genesis 1 and one that indicates that Adam has rudimentary intellectual and language skills and later, when he receives a commandment from the gods regarding the two special trees they have planted in the Garden of Eden. (86)

In Genesis 2:9, we are told that God (the gods) "…caused to grow every tree that is pleasing to the sight and good for food," along with "the tree of life also in the midst of the garden, and the tree of the knowledge of good and evil"--two specimens that we know were considered special. Finally, in Genesis 2:15, man himself is situated in the garden: "Then the Lord took the man and put him into the garden of Eden to cultivate it and keep it." Here, the word cultivate implies that Adam is meant to act as caretaker in the garden--for its plants are clearly already established. (86)

Accounts of the gods instructing primitive human beings in the arts of agriculture and civilization can be found in the ancient cultures of Sumer, Mexico, and Peru. It seems obvious that Adam is taught how to cultivate the land in Eden. It is certainly clear that Adam, the gardener in the Garden of Eden, is allowed to eat from every tree but the two special trees, and there is no question that this is a test of Adam's capacity to obey orders, which he fails miserably. Once Adam shows his inclination to defy the gods' commandments by eating from the tree of knowledge, he is removed from the garden. But we might wonder at the gods' extreme reaction to Adam and Eve's disobedience. Why are they told to leave Eden as a result of their action? (86)

"Then the Lord God said, 'Behold, the man has become like one of Us, knowing good and evil; and now, lest he stretch out his hand, and take also from the tree of life, and eat, and live forever…'” The text continues with verse 23 and the removal of the couple from the garden. The reason that the gods sent them from Eden is very clear and stands in complete contradiction to mainstream Judeo-Christian theology: The gods of Genesis 2 and 3 do not want these humans to be immortal! (86)

What Genesis becomes at this point is the story of humans gaining awareness of the distinction between themselves and the rest of the animal kingdom. Eating from the tree of the knowledge of good and evil gives them the sudden realization that they are different from other animals. It gives them feelings of shame and guilt for the first time--the initial budding of the human conscience, which demonstrates that humans have free will (never possessed by animals)--and gives them an awareness of their nakedness. (86)

In Genesis 1 humans live as other animals do, though it is made clear that humans are superior and have potential dominion over the earth. In Genesis 2 the two humans are first presented as animals--"Man and his wife were both naked and were not ashamed" (Genesis 2:25)--as creatures who have not yet risen to the point of knowing they are any different from the rest of the animal kingdom (whose creatures have always been naked). Though we do not know I for certain, it is likely that this shift toward human consciousness occurred 40,000 years ago, when the Neanderthals inexplicably died out and modern humans became the dominant Homo sapiens species. Genesis 2 and 3, then, mark our first small steps toward civilization. (86)

In Genesis 3:23 a distinction is made between the garden and the world of nature outside the garden, which will be the home of Adam and Eve: "Therefore the Lord God sent him from out of the garden of Eden, to cultivate the ground from which he was taken." The word cultivate here implies that he will prepare the soil and plant from scratch. Adam and Eve are to become farmers, taking the first major leap toward civilization. (86)

In scientific terms, what we have in the first three chapters of Genesis is a bare-bones history of human development from the hunter-gatherer protohuman who was little different from the earth's animals to the Neolithic horticulturist. In this decoding we find that the first chapters of the Book of Genesis are aligned with the findings of modern science and the known path of human history. " (86)

…the sons of God saw that the daughters of men were beautiful; and they took wives for them selves, whoever they chose." (86)

According to the cuneiform texts, the gods taught these people all of this. The records claim that their technological breakthroughs, rather than coming by way of their own ingenuity, were handed to them by the gods--including how to write, set up irrigation canals, grow barley, and smelt metal. (86)

"Then the Lord said, 'My Spirit shall not strive with man forever, because he also is flesh.'" This clearly suggests that the gods are human and are aware that at some point "man"--the race they have created--is going to come into conflict with them, the inevitable result of a process they had sought to slow in the Garden of Eden by keeping humans from having access to the tree of life. They are aware of the potential and character of humans because humans are their progeny. (86)

"The Nephilim were on the earth in those days, and also afterward when the sons of God came in to the daughters of men, and they bore children to them. Those were the mighty men who were of old, men of renown." Nephilim has been translated as "giants" or as those who came down." The text suggests that they were either actual giants or that they had superhuman, or "giant," attributes. With this we are reminded of the tragedy of Cain's violent genetic legacy. The traits inherited from Cain and those present in the descendants of the interbreeding of humans and the "sons of God" appear, in 6:5, to have created severe problems--as if, perhaps, a genetic experiment had gone terribly awry: "Then the Lord saw that the wickedness of man was great on the earth, and that every intent of the thoughts of his heart was only evil continually." (86)

The situation is grim and the gods find man's behavior intolerable. Whatever the exact nature of events, circumstances are now out of control. The gods seem to have but one choice: "I will blot out man whom I have created from the face of the land, from man to animals to creeping things and to birds of the sky, for I am sorry that I have made them." (Genesis 6:7) (86)

The survivors then spread out and become ambitious, as we discover in 11:3: "'Come, let us make bricks and burn them, thoroughly.' And they used brick for stone, and they used tar for mortar." This development does not meet with the gods' approval. They monitor the work of the new population closely as they builders continued to speak among themselves about their plan and why they should execute it: "'Come, let us build for ourselves a city, and a tower whose top will reach into heaven, and let us make for ourselves a name; lest we be scattered abroad over the face of the whole earth.'” (Genesis 11:4) (86)

The gods come down to earth to inspect the city and tower the "sons of men had built" (11:5): "And the Lord said, 'Behold, they are one people, and they all have the same language. And this is what they began to do, and now nothing which they purpose to do will be impossible for them.'" (86)

It appears that the new race is evolving too quickly, something that the gods want to prevent, much as they had prevented Adam from eating from the tree of life. In 11:7 they decide upon a course of action: "Come, let Us go down and there confuse their language, that they may not understand one another's speech." (86)

One thing is clear in both the Enuma Elish and the Bible: Humans are inferior beings created in the image of the gods, with some of the blood of the progenitors mixed with their earthly animal blood. The gods determine their character and ultimate destiny, but humans do have free will. The gods give humans the gifts of higher intelligence and agriculture both in Genesis and in this Sumerian tablet: "According to our belief, our gods have made ready these cities and roads and institutions in them. They created us and said 'take your cities.'” (86)

The Sumerian deluge, which predates that of the Old Testament, is very similar to the Flood in Genesis; the Sumerian history tells us that the Ut-napishtim are the long-lived survivors of the disaster that wipes out the rest of humanity. (86)

The Sumerian accounts repeatedly refer to both the primary gods such as Enlil, Enki, Ninurta, and Ninhursig and the lower ranking working gods, the Anunnaki, among which they counted a pickax god, a brick-mold god, a metal smith god, and so on. But such distinctions do cause some confusion regarding what the Sumerians considered to be gods. Clearly, they were not gods as we think of them. They are depicted much more as humans who perform specific tasks or give exact instructions on how to perform them. Even though the Anunnaki operated as what we would consider supervisors or mentors, the Sumerians referred to these beings as gods. Either the Sumerian gods were advanced human advisers and teachers, as claimed in their cuneiform writing, or they were the creations of an ancient imagination. (86)

Yet the records of the early civilizations are quite clear about the origins of crops and agriculture: They were taught by the gods. In Genesis the gods place Adam in the Garden of Eden to cultivate it and throughout the scriptures he regularly instructs the Israelites concerning proper agricultural practices. The first truly agricultural society of Sumer used terms for farmer (engar), plow (apin), and furrow (absin) that were not of Sumerian origin but were credited by the Sumerians themselves as coming from Enki (pictured seated above) and Enlil: "Agriculture and the domestication of animals were gifts given to mankind by Enlil and Enki, respectively." Enlil first spread cereals “in the hill country" of the Fertile Crescent and made cultivation possible in the mountains by keeping the floodwaters at bay. The name of the mountainous land east of Sumer--which scientists say is the source of many crops--was E.LAM, which means "house where vegetation germinated."(The Genesis Race)

In the Bible the gods--a superior race of humans--intervene to transform Adam into an agriculturalist or tiller of the soil, and throughout the Old Testament these gods give the Israelites specific instructions on how to grow crops. (The Genesis Race)

But what do the Sumerians themselves have to say about their rare talents and gifts for processing and crafting various metals? Their tablets are very clear about how they learned these skills: The gods gave them the knowledge and taught them, just as the gods--the genesis race--laid out the site plans for the temples and ziggurats. The first step was to mark out a building's orientation and set its foundation stone. Then, as tablets tell, a ceremony was performed: "The king…'the Righteous Shepherd,' 'built the temple bright with metal,' bringing copper, gold and silver from distant lands. 'He built the Eninnu with stone, he made it bright with jewels; with copper mixed with tin he held it fast.'”(The Genesis Race)

The Sumerian tablets are rife with references to the Anunnaki, the working gods who presided over everything from making bricks and building temples to metalworking. Once again we must interpret the word gods. Is it possible that those we think of as Sumerian mythological heroes were, in fact, their extraterrestrial mentors and supervisors who had acquired their knowledge and advancements on their home planet? (The Genesis Race)

One of the tales contained in the Sumerian texts states that Enki got out of control chasing after and sexually harassing his half-sister Ninti (aka Ninhursag). In addition to breaking the Anunnaki protocol on consensual sex, he caused so much physical damage to her kingdom that a council of the gods had to be convened to sort out the mess. The Japanese have a similar story of their primary goddess Amaterasu being sexually pursued by her half-brother', Susanowo; as in the Anunnaki society, the child of a god by his half-sister becomes the next ruler. The royal family of Japan is believed to have descended from the progeny of this incestuous conception by the gods Amaterasu and Susanowo. (Gods, Genes, and Consciousness)

The association of Satan and his demons with serpent terminology and symbols supports the hypothesis that this icon was based on Enki, the Anunnaki god who supported human independence. In the Sumerian account, Enki the scientist not only helped genetically improve humans, he warned Noah of the impending flood and provided knowledge and technology to humans on many documented occasions. Remember, in the Bible, a serpent urged Eve to eat of the "tree of knowledge." Enki's symbol as a healer was the entwined serpents of a double helix (DNA today). According to several sources, Enlil and the "gods of Eden" have thereafter tried to stamp out the influence of Enki of Abzu (sometimes known as the Serpent or Lucifer). Enlil's followers, disingenuously referring to themselves as the "good brotherhood," reportedly taught humans to fear snakes in all forms. But their covert objective appears to have been keeping humans dependent by discrediting the Enki/Thoth/Hermes support of human freedom. (Gods, Genes, and Consciousness)

Mary Magdalene reported to the other disciples that Jesus told her in this encounter that the essence of his teachings dealt with seeking union with the divine through direct inner knowing (gnosis or self-knowledge). This requires inner preparation, introspection, and inner transformation. Jesus, as "teacher," told her: "All that is born, all that is created, all elements of nature are interwoven and united with each other .... There is no sin .... It is you who make sin exist, when you act according to the habits of your corrupted nature: This is where sin lies .... If you are out of balance, take inspiration from manifestations of your true nature." She concluded, "He is calling upon us to become fully human {anthropos}."(Gods, Genes, and Consciousness)

Before the intervention of the gods, humans found the food they needed in nature. Genesis 1 :29 describes the situation. Speaking to humans, the original creator says, "I give you all the plants that bear seed everywhere on Earth, and every tree bearing fruit which yields seed: they shall be yours for food." But after the gods intervention and the transfer of humans to E.DIN, the gods "planted a garden…and made trees spring from the ground, all the trees pleasant to look at and good for food" (Genesis 2:9), and then said in 2:17, "You may eat from every tree in the garden, but not the tree of knowledge .... " After being banished from E.DIN, humans were told (3:17), "With labor you shall win your food from [fields] all the days of your life."(Gods, Genes, and Consciousness)

The sovereign, on Nibiru or Earth, had the authority to establish cities and appoint the rulers of those cities, and divide resources among groups. Thus, the Anunnaki equivalents of "princes" were given thrones in the first Sumerian cities: Eridu, Bad- Tibira, Larak, Sippar, and Shuruppak. They ruled by divine decrees enforced by junior Advanced Beings who swore allegiance to their lords. Punishment for disobedience could range from banishment to execution (as explained in the 'Sumerian text, The Myth of Zu). (Gods, Genes, and Consciousness)

The Anunnaki dynastic order of succession was so precisely designed that positions in the Great Circle of Twelve (the most senior members of the ruling family) were known by their numerical values. Several Sumerian texts show them ranging from 60 for the supreme ruler (Anu) to 10 and 5 for the most junior male (Ishkur) and female (Ninhursag) respectively. Numbers in between included 55 for Anu's wife (Antu) to 50 and 40 for the male heirs (Enlil and Enki) in order of precedence. (Remember that the legitimate heir was always the first son born of the king by his half-sister.) (Gods, Genes, and Consciousness)

The Mesopotamian texts make it clear that layers of authority--from the gods to demigods, then to anointed humans and appointed officials--were created by the Anunnaki to keep themselves separate from the growing number of humans in the new civilizations. Humans were required to keep their distance, bow their heads when in the presence of the Anunnaki, and kneel as they approached the throne. Like modern dictators, Anunnaki used intermediaries to carry out their orders and demonstrate their authority. Others required humans to speak to them through a screen (as in the Catholic confessional booth). These and other practices exalted the Anunnaki to a super special status among naive humans. (Gods, Genes, and Consciousness)

Buddha, as would Jesus 500 years after him and Martin Luther many years later, rejected the established priesthood, discarding the Brahmanic caste, theology, and rituals. Pure Buddhism had no room for Advanced Beings as stand-ins between humans and the ultimate creative force of the universe. It had no room for gods, priests, prayers, rituals, or temples. Buddha, like Jesus, sought to liberate people from the go-betweens, setting individuals free from the formal dogma fostered by the god cults and religions. With no sense of dependence on supernatural gods, one did not need to appease them or pray for their help. (Gods, Genes, and Consciousness)

Genesis 11 describes the tale familiar to Jews, Christians, and Muslims alike. In it, humans decided to build a tower to reach the heavens. The gods reacted, saying in effect that if they let humans do this they would expect to do anything they set their minds to. To prevent that sense of empowerment and independence, the gods descended on the project, confused the local language, and scattered the group responsible for such uppity behavior. Many people consider this story a biblical metaphor designed to teach humans that they should not be at cross purposes with their god's religion. However, it appears to be more historical than metaphorical. (Gods, Genes, and Consciousness)

An older version of the tale apparently about the same event has one god involved, with human supporters, in a power play that offended the other gods. An Akkadian version of an earlier Sumerian text and a Babylonian source describe Anunnaki Marduk's desire to exercise Sumerian kingship in Babylon. His palace was to be a towering ziggurat (a huge structure of seven levels) that gave him ascendance over other gods. Its name was E.SAG.ILA, meaning something like "the house whose head reaches highest." But other gods had different plans. They wanted to transfer kingship to Erech and Ur from Kish and let Babylon fall in disfavor. They axed Marduk's plans and broke up his community of supporters. Thus, the humans who had been recruited by Marduk to build his tower were pawns caught up in the power struggles of squabbling gods. Sumerian texts suggest that on two occasions gods may have undermined human unity by forcing the adoption of different languages. But each Babel occasion actually arose as a result of conflicts among the gods. Sitchin believes one intervention (about 3450 BC) was to foil Marduk's attempt, using human labor, to achieve his own agenda described above. Another language-confusion event (about 2850 BC), he believes, reflected AB Ishtar and Enmerkar disputes over who would control kingdoms in Mesopotamia and the Indus Valley. If these interpretations are correct, then disputes among gods (not humans) had significant language consequences for their human subjects. (Gods, Genes, and Consciousness)

The cuneiform system-with more than 100,000 excavated tablets still untranslated and many more buried in the sands of Iraq recorded the well-known Epic of Gilgamesh, Hammurabi's legal code, business records, medical prescriptions, and historical texts. These historical texts have provided us with convincing details of what can only be interpreted at least as a form of Anunnaki hegemony over, and perhaps a colonization of, the Middle East. The volume of details about specific humans and gods and concrete events susceptible to verification makes a strong case for one group of flesh-and-blood gods that had a lasting impact on human history. (Gods, Genes, and Consciousness)

One of the most pernicious influences to have come out of the cults of West Asia was the arbitrary labeling of people as good (of the god) or evil (of the devil) based on their allegiance to different gods. That polarity has now been applied to anyone who is considered different for practically any reason. It has "justified" every conceivable form of man's inhumanity to man. (Gods, Genes, and Consciousness)

The Iranian Yima…, who was celebrated as king of the Golden Age throughout Persian literary history, appears as Yama in Indian texts as early as the Rig Veda and as the Giant Ymir of Scandinavian myth. (All of these names are apparently derived from the Indo-European root yemo, "twin.") Typically, death and disease were unknown to the reign of this First King, and both people and herds throve and increased to the point that Yima was required to enlarge the world three times to accommodate their numbers. The fall from grace of this sunlike monarch is variously explained. In one Iranian text the evil material existence seems to have been at fault; another blames Yima for introducing falsehood to his mind. The oldest source accuses him of giving the flesh of cattle to people to eat (to make them immortal…), which some have taken to mean the instituting of ritual animal slaughter or sacrifice. But whatever his sin, or sins, Yima's punishment is generally described as the loss of the kingly Glory, which fled from him in the form of a bird. Caught up first by the god Mithra and then by the legendary Persian heroes, the Glory became, one Iraniologist interprets the text “the object of contest between Aryan and non-Aryan forces. (Plato Prehistorian)

As told in the Persian Bundahisn, Gayomart and the bull lived in a state of divine bliss until the evil principle broke into the world, causing the death of the pair. When the bull died, its marrow flowed forth to create all the nourishing and healing plants; its semen was borne to the moon for purification and hence to the creation of all species of animals. From Gayomart's body came the metals (originally perhaps the mineral kingdom as a whole); from his own seed, purified in the sun, sprang the ten species of men. (Plato Prehistorian)

The shorter, simpler version, which is known as the "Bilingual Version" of the Creation Legend, is found on a tablet in the British Museum. It begins by describing a time when the house of the gods did not exist, when neither trees nor plants were in existence, when neither a house nor a city had been built, and when no being had been fashioned. That time was so far remote that the temple of Enlil at Nippur and the temple of Erech had not been built. Even Eridu, the oldest city in the land, had not been founded. No land was visible, the sea was everywhere. Then Eridu was formed, and Esagila, the sanctuary of Bel-Marduk at Babylon, was founded, and in due course both these sanctuaries were completed. Then Lugal-dul-Azuga, a form of Marduk, created the Anunnaki gods, who proclaimed the sovereignty of the city of Babylon in which they delighted to dwell. The world was created by Marduk, who formed it by kneading earth and spreading it over a mat made of rushes, which he laid on the face of the waters. This formed an abiding place for the gods of which they approved. Marduk then fashioned man, and the goddess Aruru with him created the seed of mankind. He created the beasts of the field and all the small creatures of the field. He created the rivers Tigris and Euphrates, and assigned to them their places in the land, and announced their names. He created vegetation, the plants that grow in the marshes, the seed-bearing plants and bushes, and the herbage of the field; lands, marshes and swamps; he created the cow and her calf, the ewe and her lamb, and the sheep of the field; gardens(?) and shrub-land. He created the he-goat and the wild goat. The lord Marduk built a dyke in the sea, he enclosed a swamp...he created plants and trees...he laid bricks and built up brickwork, he constructed houses and founded cities, he built cities and peopled them. He made the city of Nippur and built her temple E-Kur, he made Erech and built her temple E-Anna. (Babylonian Life and History)

The Babylonians believed that man had lived on the earth for some hundreds of thousands of years, and the length of the reigns of the 10 kings who flourished before the Flood they estimated at 241,200 years according to one list, and at 456,000 years according to another. According to Berossos, the period from the time of the first king to that of Alexander the Great was 468,000 years. Classical writers state that the Babylonians believed the world would last for one World-Year, i.e. 144 sars, or 518,400 years. Of this period, the kings before the Flood reigned 120 sars, or 432,000 years, and the period between the Flood and Alexander the Great was 36,000 years. Therefore when Alexander died there were about 50,000 years to run before the world could come to an end. The view of Berossos that the period between the Creation and the death of Alexander was 468,000 years finds an echo in De Divinatione of Cicero (1. 19), who speaks of records which the Babylonians had kept for 470,000 years, and Diodorus (II. 31) speaks of the astronomical observations which the Babylonians had made for 473,000 years. A belief existed that, when the World-Year was ended, the world would be destroyed by a universal fire which would be followed by a flood. It is probable that these views were derived from Babylonian sources, but the cuneiform texts now known contain no mention of them. (Babylonian Life and History)

The Zu bird, the symbol of storm and tempest, was a god of evil who waged war against Enlil, the holder of the "Tablet of Fate," whereby he ruled heaven and earth. Zu coveted this Tablet, and determined to take it and rule in his stead. Zu watched his opportunity, and one morning when Enlil had taken off his crown and set it down on a stand, and was washing his face with clean water, Zu snatched the Tablet from him and flew away with it into the mountains. Anu called on the gods to go out against Zu and take the Tablet from him, but one and all refused, and the affairs of heaven and earth fell into disorder. At length Lugal-banda announced his readiness to go and attack Zu and the gods sent him to do so and, with the help of Zu's wife, he obtained possession of the Tablet of Destiny. (Babylonian Life and History)

The Legend of the Descent of Ishtar into the Underworld, presumably to bring back Tammuz, was well known in the third millennium before Christ, and it is possible that it was acted as a sort of miracle play. When Ishtar arrived at the first gate of the Underworld she demanded admission. The porter announced her arrival to Ereshkigal, who ordered her to be admitted. As she passed through each of the Seven Gates, the porter removed from her some part of her apparel or some ornament, and when finally she passed into the presence of Ereshkigal she was naked. The two goddesses gazed upon each other with furious anger, and as Ereshkigal was mistress of the region, she ordered her minister Namtar to take Ishtar and shut her up in prison and to smite her with sixty kinds of sicknesses. As soon as Ishtar left the world, beast and man became unable to perform their natural functions, and the messenger of the gods went to Ea and described, with streaming eyes, what had happened in the world, and demanded his help. Ea listened and then fashioned a man addicted to love-making called Abushu-namir, and told him to go down into the Underworld, and to speak kindly to Ereshkigal, and to induce her to let him drink from the leather bottle of the water of life. Abushu-namir went down to the Underworld, and, when he had uttered this insolent request, was cursed, and was himself detained in the kingdom of the dead. But Ereshkigal understood that Ishtar was to be released, and, when Namtar had sprinkled her with the "water of life," and received a gift from her, set her and Tammuz free. As Ishtar retraced her steps and passed through the Seven Gates, the porter of each gave back to her the article of apparel, or the ornament, which he had taken from her previously. After their return to earth Tammuz was ordered to bathe in clean water, to anoint himself with scented unguents, and to array himself in festal attire, presumably as a preparation for his marriage with Ishtar. (Babylonian Life and History)

According to the Legend of Irra, Anu created seven devils and placed them under the authority of Irra to carry out his plan for the destruction of mankind. His minister Ishum tried to make him desist from his evil work. Nippur, Ur, Uruk (Erech), Der and Babylon were destroyed, and Irra in the form of a lion carried destruction wherever he went. Further, it was decreed that swamp land should be against swamp land, the Subarian against the Subarian, the Assyrian against the Assyrian, the Elamite against the Elamite, the Kassite against the Kassite, the Sutaean against the Sutaean, the Kutaean against the Kutaean, the Lullubaean against the Lulllubaean, one land against another, one house against another, one man against another, brother against brother--all were to be killed. Then shall the Akkadian (i.e. Babylonian) rise up and overthrow them all. Irra next sent Ishum to Khiklu, where he leveled the mountains and cut down all the trees. Finally the wrath of Irra was appeased, and Babylon was rebuilt, and her king ruled the whole world. The last fragment of the Legend contains the Song of Irra, in which the god describes his triumphs and power, and says that the singer of this song, the king who honours the name of Irra, the scribe who writes down the song, and the house in which a copy of it is kept, will always be protected by the god. (Babylonian Life and History)

The Legend of Adapa. Adapa, the son of Ea, and the first man, received wisdom from his father, but not immortality. He served as a priest in Eridu. Whilst fishing one day the south wind dashed his boat to pieces, and he was thrown into the sea; in revenge he broke the wings of the south wind. Seven days later Anu learned from his minister Il-abrat what had happened, and summoned Adapa to his presence. Ea, knowing Adapa's danger, told him to speak fair to the two doorkeepers of heaven, Tammuz and Gishzida, to put on the apparel of grief, and to express sorrow and regret for what had happened. Ea told Adapa that the doorkeepers would offer him the food and the water of death and a garment and unguent, and warned him neither to eat nor to drink; but he told him to accept the garment and to put it on, and the unguent and to anoint himself therewith. When Adapa appeared before Anu everything happened as Ea foretold. Anu was angry at first, but very soon told his doorkeepers to offer Adapa the food of life and the drink of life, and a garment and oil. When Anu saw that he would neither eat nor drink, he asked why he had not done so, and Adapa replied: "My lord Ea commanded, Eat not, drink not." Then said Anu, "Take him and carry him back to earth." Thus, apparently, through following Ea's commands, Adapa lost the gift of immortality which Anu was ready to bestow upon him. Ea, the All-wise, must have known that the food and the water of life would be offered to Adapa, and it would seem that he intentionally spoke of the food of death and the water of death in order to prevent Adapa becoming immortal like himself. (Babylonian Life and History)

In the Legend of Etana we have a remarkable account of an attempt made by man to ascend to heaven on the back of an eagle. The first fragment of the Legend tells how the wife of Etana was unable to bring forth the child she had conceived, and describes his distress. He knows of the existence of a certain herb that will I assist his wife if only he can get it, and he appeals to Shamash, the Sun-god, to help him to find it. Shamash advises him to consult a certain eagle, perhaps his totem(?). Now the eagle had at one time a friendship with a snake, but had broken with it, and had devoured the snake's young ones. The snake found an opportunity for revenge and stung the eagle and threw it into a pit. Shamash sent Etana up the mountain both to help the eagle and to find the herb that would help his wife to bring forth her child. Etana found the eagle, and when he had helped it to recover its strength, the eagle promised to take him up to heaven, so that he might appeal to the goddess of childbirth, and obtain the herb for his wife. Etana set his breast against the breast of the eagle, and laid his hands on the feathers of its wings, and the eagle began to fly up to heaven. After two hours' flight the land below them looked like a hill and the sea like a lake (or river). After another two hours' flight they arrived in the heaven of Anu, but the herb was not to be found there, and they continued their flight. After the third two hours' flight the earth was invisible to them, and Etana could not see the sea at all. Then Etana began to be exceedingly afraid, and he commanded the eagle to stop and let him return to earth; and at that moment he and the eagle fell to earth and were killed. The text of the Legend comes to an end with this statement. Of the fate of the child, who was presumably unborn, we know nothing. (Babylonian Life and History)

Many of the incantations and spells of which we have copies must have been composed in the prehistoric period, and they have survived because the beliefs that underlie them have never ceased to exist. The magical texts which we have show that at a very early period the professional magician began to collect and arrange his incantations, etc., in a definite order, according to the uses to which they were to be put and their contents. Each collection of magical texts had a special name. Thus the incantations directed against demons and devils filled a series of tablets, from 16 to 20 in number, called "Evil Devil." Another series of nine tablets dealt with the diseases that devils caused in the head of a man. The Maklu Series, which treated of the burning of waxen images and added the necessary incantations in about 1,550 lines, contained eight tablets; the Shirpu Series contained nine tablets. The oldest centre of the cult of Magic apparently was Eridu, and it seems as if Ea in Babylonia, like Ra in Egypt, was the original author of the most potent of the incantations, or "words of power," which were in daily use. The general editing of the magical texts seems to have taken place in the third millennium BC, for in the time of Khammurabi Magic had developed into an important and complicated science. Originally the oldest texts were written in Sumerian, but at a later period it was found necessary to add Semitic translations of them on the tablets, probably because the priests were unable to read Sumerian. It is clear from the arrangement of the texts in groups of four rhythmic lines that they were sung or chanted by the priests. (Babylonian Life and History)

The demons and devils that made the Babylonian's life a misery to him were many, but the forms of most of them and their evil powers were well known. Most of all he feared the Seven Evil Spirits, who were the creators of all evil. The first was the South Wind, the second a dragon, the third a leopard, the fourth a viper, the fifth a raging beast, the sixth a whirlwind, and the seventh a storm (hurricane). These evil spirits were created by Anu, and as Plague-gods they were the beloved sons of Bel and the offspring of Ninkigal. They "rend in pieces on high, bringing destruction below; they are the children of the Underworld. Loudly roaring on high, gibbering below, they are the bitter venom of the gods…(Babylonian Life and History)

The Babylonians did not usually resort to prayer to the gods or appeal to the good spirits when afflicted by evil spirits, but went to the priest, who often assumed the character of a god, and who exorcised the devils by reciting incantations…(Babylonian Life and History)

The section of Babylonian Literature dealing with Divination and Omens is very large, and can be little more than referred to here. The object of all divination was to find out about the future and the will of the god or goddess to whom a prayer, which was I usually an incantation, was addressed; in fact, the suppliant wanted an answer to his prayer. This answer the priest had to give, and he could only do so by watching the behaviour of the figure he was burning, or the knots in a string which he was untying, or by the appearance of the entrails of the sacrifice which he had offered up on behalf of the suppliant. The omens derived from these enabled him to forecast the future. The priests kept a careful record of all omens, and the principal Omen Texts filled many scores of tablets. The omens tabulated number thousands. Besides the priests who used the cedar-wood staff and the bowl, there were many "prophets" in Babylonia who professed to be able to tell the future without reading the omens on the bodies of the birds or animals that were sacrificed. The use of the liver of an animal in divination dates from the earliest time, and it was believed that the science of reading the signs on it was the invention of Shamash. Omens were derived from the Sun, Moon, Stars and Planets, celestial phenomena, and especially from eclipses, monstrosities, human and animal, the birth of children and animals, members of the body, the actions of animals, etc. (Babylonian Life and History)

The wise man, when he felt old age coming upon him, set his house in order, made his son his heir, made arrangements as to the division of his goods among his family and kinsfolk, provided for his children by slave women and for their mothers, and then waited for death to come. Though he knew where he was to be buried he built no tomb for himself and hewed no sarcophagus, even if he was a wealthy man, but was content to think of being laid in the clay, the dampness which rotted everything quickly. He loved life, and hated death because he believed that the life he would live after death would be sad and dreary, and perhaps painful. In the next world he believed he would sit in darkness with the shades of other departed beings about him, and be clothed in feathers like a bird, and eat dust and feed upon clay. But every man wished to be properly buried in the earth, for it was believed that the spirit of the unburied man wandered about his village by night, eating whatever it could find to satisfy its hunger, and drinking dirty water to slake its thirst. The Underworld must therefore have provided food and drink for the spirits of the dead which dwelt there. (Babylonian Life and History)

When a Babylonian died it was the bounden duty of his family to ensure a proper burial. In the case of the poor man the ceremonies attending the burial of his body were short and simple; it was either buried naked or wrapped in a mat or cloth of some kind, and was laid in the earth within a few hours of his death. He who died during the night was buried at sunrise; he who died during the day, at sunset. In the case of the "master of a house," or a person of rank and position, a crowd of professional "wailers," or "mourners," who had been waiting for his breath to leave his body, surrounded the house and began to wail at the top of their voices and to chant compositions of a stereotyped character, in which the virtues of the deceased were proclaimed. In Lower Babylonia the body was sometimes buried in a sort of large baked, clay box, bowl, or coffin, usually oval or round in shape, and resembling somewhat the primitive coffins of Egypt. Sometimes the body was covered over with a large inverted baked clay pot or bowl, the equivalent of which is also found in Egypt. (Babylonian Life and History)

If I went back far enough, I would be in a world without male gods at all. In Neolithic times, there was no conception of a male anthropomorphic divinity! If I went back to the caves, I would be in the world of the all-encompassing, benign, all-powerful Magna Mater, the Great Mother. Between the time of the caves and the time of the Ras Shamra tablets and the invention of the Lilith legends, what had happened to cause the degradation of the goddess, her transformation from goddess to demon? The Babylonian creation epic, "Enuma Elish," told much of the story. (Gods of the Cataclysm)

The poem begins in heaven where Apsu, God the Father, and Tiamat, God the Mother (a Babylonian Anat-Tanit?) are living very peacefully. The first minor gods or god-children are born. They are noisy, troublesome, irritating pests, and Tiamat is bothered by them. Apsu decides to get rid of them by killing them, but one of these god-children, Ea, finds out about the plot and kills Apsu, fathers his own son, Marduk, and a battle follows between Marduk, Tiamat's grandson, and Tiamat herself: …Tiamat…prepares for battle against her adversaries. Her principal preparation is the bringing forth of monsters who are to help her in the fight. She crowns these monsters with halos so that they become equal to the gods. There are eleven species of monsters, including the Viper, the Dragon, the Sphinx, the Great Lion, the Mad Dog, the Scorpion Man, the Dragonfly, the Centaur, and the Lion Demons. (Gods of the Cataclysm)

When Tiamat's army sees Marduk, they are blinded by his splendor, and Marduk kills Tiamat by puffing her up with wind, then splitting her heart with an arrow, tearing her insides open. He crushes her skull, splits her into two halves, and out of these two halves of her body creates the sky and the earth. Then Marduk does a very unexpected thing: He puts the cosmos in order. He fixes the course of the year, the twelve months and days, determines which is north and which is south, and sets up regular paths for the sun and moon. (Gods of the Cataclysm)

As to the epic of Kharsag, it seems to tell a lengthy and detailed story that also has the ring of fact. For example, the story continues to tell how, after centuries of prosperity, harsh weather came to Eden, with storms, floods and bitter cold. Considered in the light of what we know happened at the end of the last Ice Age, after 14,000 BC, when the climate fluctuated wildly and periods of warming were suddenly replaced again with much colder conditions, it seems likely that Kharsag would find itself under siege to the weather. But it was more than just bad weather. There were tremendous storms, one of which O'Brien describes as the thousand-year storm, and the House of Enlil was destroyed by fire. Perpetual darkness fell, and heavy, non-stop rain caused flooding. Enlil said, 'My settlement is shattered...By water alone it has been destroyed.' But the final words of the lady Ninlil are perhaps the most significant: 'The Building of Learning is cut off...the creation of Knowledge is ruined.' Clearly, one of the major purposes of the settlement of Kharsag was to create knowledge. (The Atlantis Blueprint)

…Andrew Collins looks to the mythology of the people who live in the Bequa'a Valley. 'They say that Baalbek's first city was built before the Great Flood by Cain, the son of Adam, whom God banished to the "land of Nod" that lay "east of Eden", for murdering his brother Abel, and he called it after his son Enoch. The citadel, they say, fell into ruins at the time of the deluge and was much later re-built by a race of giants.' (The Atlantis Blueprint)

There appeared from the Red Sea in an area bordering on Babylonia a frightening monster, named Oannes ... It had the whole body of a fish, but underneath and attached to the head of the fish there was another head, human, and joined to the tail of the fish, feet like those of a man, and it had a human voice. Its form has been preserved in sculpture to this day ... This monster spent its days with men, never eating anything, but teaching me the skills necessary for writing and for doing mathematics and for all sorts knowledge: how to build cities, found temples, and make laws. It taught men how to determine borders and divide land, also how to plant seeds and then to harvest their fruits and vegetables. In short, it taught men all those things conducive to civilized life. Since that time nothing further has been discovered. At the end of the day, this monster, Oannes, went back to the sea and spent the night. It was amphibious, able to live both on land and in the sea ... Later, other monsters similar to Oannes appeared. (Underworld)

An extraordinary similarity concerns the presence of Seven Sages in both the Sumerian and Vedic traditions. In the case of Sumer the Seven Sages were depicted as amphibian, 'fish-garbed' beings who emerged from the sea in antediluvian times to teach wisdom to mankind. In the case of the Vedas the focus is not on the antediluvian period but on the flood itself and those antediluvians who are claimed to have survived it, namely Manu and the Seven Sages. What do we have so far? • Two groups of seven antediluvian sages, one in ancient Sumer, one in ancient India.
• Both groups are associated with fish symbolism of some sort - the Seven Sages of Sumer are themselves half men, half fish, and the Vedic Seven Sages take refuge on Manu's survival ship, which is towed by a gigantic fish through the raging waters of the deluge.
• Both groups of sages perform an identical function - which is to preserve the gifts of civilization and bring them to mankind in their respective areas.
• Both groups of sages set an example of asceticism and teach and promote the spiritual life.
• Paradoxically, both groups of sages also play an absolutely fundamental and extremely distinctive earthly role as king-makers and as advisers to kings. (Underworld)

The fragments of mythology and ritual that have come to light in southeast Africa, in the nuclear zone of the southern part of the Eritrean sphere, compel us to reconstruct an image that resembles that of the Sumerian and the Indian Dravidian lore of life and the gods as closely as one egg resembles another. The moon-god imaged as a great bull; his wife, the planet Venus; the goddess offers her life for her spouse; and everywhere, this goddess, as the Morning Star, is the goddess of war, as Evening Star a goddess of illicit love, and a universal mother besides; in all three zones (Africa, Dravidian India, and Sumer) the drama of the astral sky is the model and very destiny of all life, and when projected as such upon earth gave rise to what may have been the very earliest form and concept of the state - namely, that of a sacred, cosmic, priestly image. Is it too bold, given these circumstances, to speak of a Great Eritrean Culture Zone, which in ancient times comprised the shores of the Indian Ocean? (Primitive Mythology)

Today Gilgamesh is considered the most significant literary work to come out of ancient Mesopotamia, composed and recomposed over a span of two thousand years, with the words kept alive in the traditions of the singing bard long before they were committed to writing in the cuneiform glyphs. The many different renditions and the multiplicity of language families, Sumerian, Semitic, and Indo-European, in which the story was passed down through the generations attested that Gilgamesh attained the highest popularity of all the literary masterpieces originating from Mesopotamia. (Noah's Flood)

...the writers of Genesis appear to be straining to contain two very different ideologies: the old pantheism and the new monotheism. It is the role assigned to the singular God that sets the biblical flood story apart from all its predecessors and that changes the focus of the original history. The central Judaic religious ideology around which the Genesis flood story is woven is that there is only one God, who is almighty, purposeful, and good, and has a direct relationship with the one good man, Noah, the patriarch and progenitor of the generations that survive the flood. As in the earlier versions, the flood is visited on the people as a punishment, but their transgression in Genesis is distinctly a moral one. They are corrupt. God decides that only Noah and his family and selected animals and birds and plants should survive. Furthermore, he needs only one event to accomplish his task. "For my part, I am going to bring a flood of waters on the earth, to destroy under heaven all flesh in which there is a breath of life; everything that is on earth shall die." This is an omnipotent God. (Noah's Flood)

Not all of the more human qualities of the Mesopotamian gods were lost in the Genesis rendering. Enlil and Enki and the rest of the pantheon, dependent as they were upon humans to provide them with food and drink, were desperately hungry after the flood, and when they smelled the sweet savor of the banquet that the Mesopotamian hero had prepared, they gathered around it "like flies." So in Genesis, too, the Lord "smelled a sweet savour" of Noah's burnt offering. Enlil, perhaps feeling contrite, granted Utnapishtim and his wife the immortality of the gods. The Old Testament God, like the Mesopotamian gods, also seems to be a bit taken aback by the enormity of his deed and not only allows Noah to live for a very long time, but makes a covenant never to inflict such a flood on humankind again. (Noah's Flood)

The Aztecs of Mexico had a frequent and unpleasant practice of flaying a man alive in religious ceremonials, the priest thereafter wearing his skin over his own. There are figures displaying this. Flaying a man alive was also a common Assyrian punishment later taken over by the Persians and used extensively by them. Marsyas was the Phrygian or Middle East god flayed alive at the behest of Apollo. Cambyses slew Sisamnes...flayed him from head to foot, and made his skin a covering for the judgment seat. Are we to imagine the Mexicans spontaneously invented this ritual or did they copy it? (The God-Kings & the Titans)

Here, each year, the marriage of heaven and earth took place, a nuptial described by Herodotus as it was still occurring in his day: In the midmost of the other is still to this day the sacred enclosure of Zeus Belus (in Babylon), a square of two furlongs each way, with gates of bronze. In the centre of this enclosure a solid tower has been built, of one furlong's length and breadth; a second tower rises from this, and from it yet another, till at last there are eight...In the last tower there is a great shrine; and in it a great and well-covered couch is laid, and a golden table set hard by. But no image has been set up in the shrine, nor does any human creature lie therein for the night, except one native woman, chosen from all women by the god, as say the Chaldeans, who are the priests of this god. (The God-Kings & the Titans)

Of their gods, 'there was first, El, the supreme god and king, personified at times as a bull. El lived in the west, in the fields of El, and appears, too as a sun-god. He had a wife, Asherat-of-the-sea, conceived of, besides, as the mother-goddess. The Greeks compared El to their Kronos and the Romans to Saturn - which was merely the Roman name for Kronos. El was especially the god of Byblos. The Phoenicians said he was the son of Uranus. He ruled over Byblos and Phoenicia generally. (The God-Kings & the Titans)

The Sumerian theogeny runs thus. (The God-Kings & the Titans)

...some zodiacal associations can be clearly inferred from texts or drawings. Enki at first E.A, "He whose home is water") was clearly associated with the Water Bearer "Aquarius", and initially if not permanently also with the Fishes, "Pisces." The constellation that was named The Twins, "Gemini," without doubt was so named in honor of the only known divine twins born on Earth--Nannar/Sin's children Utu/Shamash and Inanna/Ishtar. The feminine constellation of "Virgo" (the "Maiden" rather than the inaccurate "Virgin"), like the planet Venus, was probably named at first in honor of Ninmah, was renamed AB.SIN, "Whose father is Sin," which could be correct only for Inanna/lshtar. The Archer or Defender, "Sagittarius," matched the numerous texts hymns extolling Ninurta as the Divine Archer, his father's warrior and defender. Sippar, the city of Utu/Shamash, no longer the site of a spaceport after the Deluge, was considered in Sumerian times to be the center of Law and Justice, and the god was deemed (even by the later Babylonians) as Chief Justice of the land; it is certain that the Scales of Justice, "Libra," represented his constellation. (The End of Days)

And then there were the nicknames comparing the prowess, strength, or characteristics of a god with an animal held in awe; Enlil's, as text after text reiterated, was the Bull. Without doubt, the constellation of the Bull--Taurus­-honored and symbolized Enlil. Its name, GUD.ANNA, meant "The Bull of Heaven," and texts dealing with an actual "Bull of Heaven" linked Enlil and his constellation to one of the most unique places on Earth. It was a place that was called The Landing Place--and it is there that one of the most amazing structures on Earth, including a stone tower that reaches to the heavens, still stands. (The End of Days)

...it was Marduk who set the example that the "Sons of the gods" followed:

And it came to pass
when the Earthlings began to increase in number
upon the Earth and daughters were born unto them­-
That the sons of the Elohim
saw the daughters of The Adam
that they were compatible;
And they took unto themselves wives of whichever they chose.

The Bible clearly cites such intermarriage--the "taking as wives"--between young "sons of the gods" (sons of the Elohim, the Nefilim) and female Earthlings ("daughters of The Adam") as God's reason for seeking Mankind's end by the Deluge: "My spirit shall no longer dwell in Man, for in his flesh they erred...And God repented that He had fashioned the Adam on Earth, and was distraught, and He said: Let me wipe the Adam that I have created off the face of the Earth."

...it was Enki himself who began to copulate with female Earthlings and have children by them, and it was Marduk, Enki's son, who led the way to and set the example for actual marriages with them ... (The End of Days)

Apocryphal texts inform us that when Noah, the biblical hero of the Deluge, was born, much about the baby and the birth caused his father, Lamech, to wonder whether the real father had not been one of the Nefilim. The Bible just states that Noah was a genealogically "perfect" man who "Walked with the Elohim"; Sumerian texts, where the Flood's hero is named Ziusudra, suggest that he was a demigod son of Enki. (The End of Days)

It was thus that one day Marduk complained to his mother that while his companions were assigned wives, he was not: "I have no wife, I have no children." And he went on to tell her that he had taken a liking to the daughter of a "high priest, an accomplished musician" (there is reason to believe that he was the chosen man Enmeduranki of Sumerian texts, the parallel of the biblical Enoch). Verifying that the young Earthling female--her name was Tsarpanit--agreed, Marduk's parents gave him the go-ahead. The marriage produced a son. He was named EN.SAG, "Lofty Lord." But unlike Adapa, who was an Earthling demi­god, Marduk's son was included in the Sumerian God Lists, where he was also called "the divine MESH"--a term used (as in GilgaMESH) to denote a demigod. He was thus the first demigod who was a god. Later on, when he led the masses of humans in his father's behalf, he was given the epithet-name Nabu--The Spokesman, The Prophet--for that is what the literal meaning of the word is, as is the meaning of the parallel biblical Hebrew word Nabih, translated "prophet."(The End of Days)

Several extra-biblical books, designated The Apocrypha, such as the Book of Jubilees, the Book of Enoch, and the Book of Noah, record the incident of the intermarriage by the Nefilim and fill in the details. Some two hundred "Watchers" ("Those who observe and see") organized themselves in twenty groups; each group had a named leader. One, called Shamyaza, was in overall command. The instigator of the transgression, "the one who led astray the sons of God and brought them down to Earth and led them astray through the Daughters of Man," was named Yeqon... It happened, these sources confirmed, during the time of Enoch. Speaking of the offspring of those intermarriages, the Bible makes two admissions: the first, that the intermarrying took place in the days before the Deluge, "and therafter too"; and secondly, that from the offspring "came the heroes of old, the men of renown." The Sumerian texts indicate that post-Diluvial heroic kings were indeed such demigods. But they were the offspring not only of Enki and his clan: sometimes kings in the Enlilite region were sons of Enlilite gods. (The End of Days)

An interesting variant on such demigod-as-king practices was the case of Eannatum, a Sumerian king in Ninurta's Lagash during the early "heroic" times. An inscription by the king on a well-known monument of his (the "Stela of the Vultures") attributes his demigod status to artificial insemination by Ninurta (the Lord of the Girsu, the sacred precinct), and to help from Inanna/Ishtar and Ninmah (here called by her epithet Ninharsag):

The Lord Ningirsu, warrior of Enlil,
implanted the semen of Enlil for Eannatum
in the womb of [ ... ].
lnanna accompanied his [birth],
named him "Worthy in the Eanna temple,"
set him on the sacred lap of Ninharsag.
Ninharsag offered him her sacred breast.
Ningirsu rejoiced over Eannatum-
semen implanted in the womb by Ningirsu.

Clearly, then, after the Deluge the Enlilites too accepted both the mating with Earthling females and considered the offspring "heroes, men of renown," suitable for kingship. Royal "bloodlines" of demigods were thus begun. (The End of Days)

A stela found in Palestine depicts an elderly deity sitting on a throne and being served a beverage by a younger deity. The seated deity wears a conical headdress adorned with horns--a mark of the gods, as we have seen, from prehistoric times--and the scene is dominated by the symbol of a winged star--the ubiquitous emblem that we shall increasingly encounter. It is generally accepted by the scholars that this sculptured relief depicts El, the senior Canaanite deity (left). El, however, was not always an olden lord. One of his epithets was Tor (meaning "bull"), signifying, scholars believe, his sexual prowess and his role as Father of the Gods. His principal son was Baal--again the personal name of the deity, as well as the general term for "lord." As the Greeks did in their tales, the Canaanites spoke of the challenges by the son to the authority and rule of his father. Like El his father, Baal was what the scholars call a Storm God, a God of Thunder and Lightning. A nickname for Baal was Hadad ("sharp one"). His weapons were the battle-ax and the lightning­spear; his cult animal, like El's, was the bull, and, like El, he was depicted wearing the conical headdress adorned with a pair of horns. Baal was also called Elyon ("supreme"); that is, the acknowledged prince, the heir apparent. But he had not come by this title without a struggle, first with his brother Yam ("prince of the sea"), and then with his brother Mot. (The 12th Planet)

...there appeared to be some indication from early Zoroastrian sources that a kind of fall of the ahuras, or 'shining ones', had preceded the appearance of Zoroaster on earth, for according to one commentator the prophet 'dashed to pieces the bodies of the angels, because they had made an evil use of them for wandering on the earth, and especially for amatory dealings with earthly women'. (From the Ashes of Angels)

There is every reason to believe that the Judaic concept of the Fall of Man, the Serpent of Temptation and the fall of the angels derive either directly or indirectly from Zoroastrian or pre-Zoroastrian sources. (From the Ashes of Angels)

The reader of the Shahnameh is introduced to a new sub-dynasty of kings, said to have ruled in a region named Sistan, thought to have been in eastern Iran - although geographical connections with the real world are of little value here. The first story of importance concerns a king named Sam, the son of Nariman. He marries a beautiful woman who becomes pregnant and gives birth to a boy. Yet, on the child's exposure to the outside world, her husband's cries of joy change to sheer horror and revulsion as he realizes the infant's unearthly appearance: his body is said to have been 'as clean as silver';" his hair is described as being 'as white as an old man's', and 'like snow';' his face is 'like paradise' and as 'beautiful as the sun';" his eyes are black; his cheeks are 'ruddy and beautiful' 'like the rose of spring', while his form is as 'straight as (a) cypress tree'. (From the Ashes of Angels)

...the idea of snakes growing from the shoulders of Azhi Dahaka appears to have been a direct borrowing from the mythology of neighbouring Mesopotamia. Here a serpent god named Ningiszida, who bore the title 'Lord of the Good Tree', was depicted in art with snakes rising out of his shoulders in exactly the same manner as the demon tyrant had been portrayed in Armenian and Iranian mythology. Ningiszida's role varied - in some accounts he is a guardian of underworld demons, while in others he guards the gate of Anu (or An), the Sumerian concept of heaven. In all these capacities he was undoubtedly linked to the Hebraic concept of the Serpent of Eden - the good tree being either the Tree of Knowledge of Good and Evil or the Tree of Life. Also in Armenia are a number of prehistoric megaliths, or standing stones, that take the form of serpents which are known as vishaps, or dragons, showing the immense antiquity of this cult. More importantly, at least one Armenian scholar has associated this archaic worship of the vishap with the Sumero-Babylonian cult of the snake. (From the Ashes of Angels)

...the Armenians actually claim descent from a race of giants under the leadership of Hayk, whose name is equated with the Armenian word for 'gigantic'. (From the Ashes of Angels)

One Yaresan account tells how Azazel secured the services of the Serpent and the Peacock before entering paradise to tempt Adam and Eve into sin. Once inside the terrestrial garden, Azazel transformed himself into a handsome angel and encouraged Eve and then Adam to partake, not of the forbidden fruit, but of the forbidden wheat - an apparent symbol of material wealth among the Yaresan. As a result of his intervention, the first couple were expelled from paradise along with Azazel, the Serpent and the Peacock. This myth clearly demonstrates how the Kurds linked the fall of humanity with both the Serpent and the Peacock Angel, who are both seen as animal forms of the Fallen Angel. Once again, these are the most important totemic symbols of the Watchers. ...this brought home the overwhelming link between serpents, predatory birds, divine wisdom and kingly glory among the indigenous tribes of Kurdistan. (From the Ashes of Angels)

In another rendition of the same story, a hundred genies are dispatched by Solomon to search out a hundred of the world's most beautiful maidens for his personal harem. Having achieved this quota, Solomon then dies and the hundred genies decide to settle down with the maidens amid the inaccessible mountains of Kurdistan. The offspring of these marriages result in the foundation of the Kurdish race, 'who in their elusiveness resemble their genie forefathers and in their handsomeness their foremothers'. 'It is because of this story that the title "children of the djinn (i.e. genies)" is occasionally applied to the Kurds by their ethnic neighbours.' Why should the Jews of Kurdistan have possessed such stories about their gentile neighbours? Why should they see them as descendants of the djinn, who were never considered to have possessed corporeal bodies? And why should they have suggested that the Kurds bore physical resemblances to these djinn? They believed the djinn had settled in this mountainous region, and so they must have felt that the ancestors of the Kurds migrated to the region at some early stage in the history of the world. (From the Ashes of Angels)

For some reason, the Kurdish Jews assumed the djinn to have come from Jerusalem and the virgins, or maidens, from Europe. Why was this? And what constituted these alleged physiological similarities with the race of djinn? Did this suggest that the 'children of the djinn' bore both Watcher traits and white 'European' features? Certainly, there are two distinct races in Kurdistan - one olive skinned and of medium height and build with dark eyes, and the other much taller, with fair skin and, very often, blue eyes. E. S. Drower noticed this on her visit to the Yezidi village of Baashika in the Iraqi Kurdish foothills during 1940. She reported that 'many we saw in the village' were 'tall, well-built' men with 'fairish' faces of 'an almost Scandinavian type', adding that: 'Amongst the children of the village some were as flaxen-fair and blue-eyed as Saxons.' (From the Ashes of Angels)

With this knowledge it becomes clear that the Yezidi women feared that their own children would develop features akin to those of the djinn, or the fallen race, and that in an attempt to prevent such ill-fated births precautionary measures would be taken. Why should this fear of changelings exist so strongly among the Yezidi? The answer can only be that such 'demon' babies were once commonplace among Kurdish families, hinting at the rather disconcerting possibility that they could have been genetic throwbacks to a time when two quite separate racial types intermarried to produce offspring bearing the features of either parent, perhaps explaining why the offspring of the djinn and the maidens 'in their elusiveness resemble their genie forefathers and in their handsomeness their foremothers'. (From the Ashes of Angels)

After many painstaking hours of dedicated work, Barton became more and more excited about the contents of the cylinder's inscription, which was written in unilingual Sumerian. Arranged in nineteen columns on the eight fragments were, he believed, 'the oldest known text' from Sumeria, and 'perhaps the oldest in the world'.It featured many of the ancient gods, including Enlil, Enki, the god of the watery abyss, as well as a little-known snake goddess named Sir. She seemed to be synonymous with Enlil's spouse, Ninlil or Ninkharsag, leading Barton to conclude that Nippur had once been a cult centre for this ancient snake goddess.' As each new tablet was completed, more and more pieces of a slowly emerging jigsaw began to fit into place. Much of the texts appeared to tell the story of a race of divine beings known as the Anannage (a-nun-na(ge), or the Anunnaki (a-nun-na-ki), the great, or princely offspring, or sons, of heaven and earth, who arrive in a mountainous region and set up camp in a fertile valley. They call the' settlement edin, the Akkadian for 'plateau' or 'steppe', as well as 'gar-sag, or Kharsag, a term meaning, according to O'Brien, either the 'principal, fenced enclosure' or the 'lofty, fenced enclosure'. (From the Ashes of Angels)

The Anannage gradually develop an agricultural community that includes land cultivation, field systems, plant domestication, and the creation of water-irrigation ditches and channels. Sheep and cattle are placed in covered pens, and cedar-wood houses are constructed as dwellings. Among the larger building projects undertaken by the Anannage is the construction of a reservoir to provide Kharsag with a more advanced form of land irrigation, as well as the erection of larger edifices, such as the Great House of the Lord Enlil, which stood on a rocky eminence above the Settlement. The texts also speak of a 'granary', the 'building [of] roads', 'a maternity building for mothers', and a place known as 'the Building of Life in the High Place'. In the valley surrounding the settlement are apparently 'loftily-built tree plantations', 'lofty cedar-tree enclosures' and orchards planted with trees that have a 'three-fold bearing of fruit'. (From the Ashes of Angels)

The Kharsag tablets...apparently detailed how the community had thrived for an immensely long period of time. Harvests were usually plentiful, with some excess grain being produced. It would even seem that they allowed outsiders into the community as both partners and helpers to 'share the bounty'. The principal founders of the settlement were fifty in number, the main leaders being Enlil, the Lord of Cultivation; and his wife Ninkharsag, the Lady of Kharsag, also known as Ninlil. Repeatedly she is referred to as 'the Shining Lady' and, more significantly, as 'the Serpent (Sir) Lady' - the title that had led Barton to assume she was some kind of snake goddess worshipped at Nippur. Also included in the group were Enki, Lord of the Land, and Utu, or Ugmash, a sun god. The Anannage possessed a democratic leadership, although a chosen council of seven would apparently come together when major decisions were made concerning the future of Kharsag. Just occasionally the supreme being, Anu, whose name means 'heaven', or 'highlands', would join the council to advise on their deliberations. (From the Ashes of Angels)

...one text speaks of a major epidemic that appears to have swept through Kharsag, for it explains: The stone jars were pressed down with grain [i.e. there had been a good harvest]. The Serpent Lady hurried to the Great Sanctuary. At his home, her man - the Lord Enlil - was stricken with sickness. The bright dwelling, the home of the Lady Ninlil, was stricken with sickness. Sickness...sickness - it spreads all over [the settlement]...Our splendid Mother - let her be protected - let her not succumb Give her life -let her be protected from the distress of sickness...There is no rest for this Serpent; from sickness to fever...Even Enlil and Ninlil's own son, Ninurta, is struck down by the mystery illness. His mother calls for all light to be shut out, both day and night until the child regains its health. Those affected do finally get better, although strict new laws are introduced in an attempt to ensure that there is no repeat of this mystery sickness, for as the text explains: In Eden, thy cooked food must be better cooked. In Eden, thy cleaned food must be much cleaner. Father, eating meat is the great enemy - thy food at the House of Enlil'. (From the Ashes of Angels)

Later tablets spoke of a 'winter of bitter cold', unlike anything Kharsag had ever seen before. For a time the Anannage managed to hold out in the bleak arctic-like conditions, but more cataclysms were to follow. First there came a 'great storm'. Then there was further destruction from flooding, presumably after the snow and ice melted. A storm-water course was quickly constructed that stretched from the heights of the mountains to the edge of the plantations, and for a time this worked, keeping out the rising flood waters. Yet then an even harsher winter came upon them, and this would appear to have been the final straw, for as the tablet records: The demon cold filled the land; the Storm darkened it; in the small households of the Lord Enlil, there were unhappy people. The House of Destiny was covered over; the House of the Lord Enlil disappeared [under snow]...The four walls protected the Lord from the raging cold. The fate of the Granary rested on its thick walls - it was preserved from disaster, from the power of the storm-water...The flood did not destroy the cattle. Warm clothes, communal gatherings and good cheer kept the remaining Anannage alive. Fires raged in enormous fireplaces, and it seemed they might survive the long winter, but then another disaster struck. The vineyard workers apparently made the decision to open the reservoir's sluice-gates in an attempt to 'irrigate morning and night'." Yet the 'firm, deep watercourse was destructive; its noise was great; the power of its flowing was frightening...in the night, many strong houses which the Lord had established, were flooded...'(From the Ashes of Angels)

The penultimate tablet speaks of even greater devastation, essentially by storms, but there is reference also to lightning destroying the shining house of Lord Enlil, and of the repeated presence of darkness ('darkness hung over the hostile mountains'and 'the goats and sheep bleated in the darkened land'). The final tablet speaks of mass disaster and lamentation. In the wake of the continual darkness, broken only by frequent thunder-storms, there came perpetual rain. The reservoir filled up and overflowed, quickly flooding the irrigated fields and then, finally, the low-lying parts of the settlement. Those buildings on higher ground were again said to have been struck by lightning, prompting Enlil and Ninlil, and presumably other Anannage, to try and contain the damage being inflicted on what remained of Kharsag. Yet the end was at hand. The Anannage knew they were fighting a losing battle, forcing Enlil to admit: 'My Settlement is shattered; overflowing water has crushed it - by water alone - sadly, it has been destroyed.' (From the Ashes of Angels)

The significant aspect of this poem is the section entitled 'The Forest Journey', where Gilgamesh and Enkidu approach the cedar forest for the first time. It is said to have stretched before them 'for ten thousand leagues in every direction', and as the text reveals: Together they went down into the forest and they came to the green mountain. There they stood still, they were struck dumb; they stood still and gazed at the forest, at the mountain of cedars, the dwelling place of the gods [author's emphasis]. The hugeness of the cedar rose in front of the mountain, its shade was beautiful, full of comfort; mountain and glade were green with brushwood'. (From the Ashes of Angels)

The links between Dilmun and the headwaters of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers did not end there. The god Enki, who along with his wife was said to have been the first inhabitant of Dilmun, was seen as god of the Abzu - a vast watery domain beneath the earth from which all springs, streams and rivers have their source. In this capacity he was guardian protector of Sumer's two greatest rivers, the mighty Euphrates and Tigris, which were usually depicted as arched streams of water, either pouring out of his shoulders or emerging from a vase held in his hand. Fish are depicted swimming up these streams, like salmon attempting to reach the source of a river. (From the Ashes of Angels)

...these accounts...might well preserve more ancient traditions in which both male and female Anannage, or Watchers, were able to combine in sexual union with mortals in a co-ordinated manner to produce semi-divine progeny that were classed either as part divine, part demon and/or part human, depending on how they were perceived by the royal family. If so, then it might help explain why certain kings appended their name with a star-shaped ideogram signifying that they were a 'god' - dingir in Sumerian and ilu in Akkadian - or why individuals such as Gilgamesh were said to have been lillu, 'a man with demon-like qualities'. (From the Ashes of Angels)

Bird-men like those of the Kutha tablet feature again in the following account of the descent of the goddess Ishtar into the underworld, for as she explains herself:

I descend, I descend to the house of darkness, to the dwelling of the god Irkalla:
To the house entering which there is no exit,
to the road the course of which never returns:
To the house in which the dwellers long for light,
the place where dust is their nourishment and their food mud.
Its chiefs also are like birds covered with feathers
and light is never seen, in darkness they dwell.
In the house my friend which I will enter,
for me is treasured up a crown;
with those wearing crowns who from days of old ruled the earth,
to whom the gods Anu and Bel have given terrible names.
The food is made carrion, they drink stagnant water. (From the Ashes of Angels)

The Amesha Spentas of Iranian lore are undoubtedly to be equated, not just with the seven archangels, but also with the seven adityas, or suryas, found in the Hindu Rig Veda; one of whom, the sun god, is named as Surya. Ancient Indian myth and legend records that the suryas' evil enemies were the ahuras (spelt asuras), who were giants, skilled in the magical arts. Like the Watchers of the Book of Enoch, the Vedic ahuras were condemned for having misused the secret wisdom of the gods - casting them in the role of malevolent spirits comparable with the fallen angels of Judaeo-Christian tradition. (From the Ashes of Angels)

In prehistoric Susa it was the Watchers' goat-like aspects that would appear to have been best preserved in visual art, but elsewhere in the ancient world it would seem to have been their connection with the vulture that became the mainstay of early religious iconography. In Yezidi and Yaresan tradition they were personified as the Ancient One, the Peacock Angel, and as the black serpent Azhi Dahaka or Sultan Sahak. In Sumeria they were mythologized as bird-men and serpent gods such as Ningiszida, while elsewhere in the Near East the vulture attributes of the Watchers became the ultimate symbol of the Great Mother, particularly in her aspect as the goddess of death and transformation. Constantly archaeologists have unearthed stylized goddess figurines from the neolithic age with abstract bird-like qualities, such as long beaks, short wing-like arms and wedge-shaped tails. These have been found in such far-flung places as Crete, Cyprus, Syria, mainland Greece, in the Balkans and Danube basin of eastern Europe, at Mohenjo-Daro in the Indus Valley and as far east as Baluchistan in central Asia. Many also possess strange, slit-like eyes, like those of the serpentine clay heads found by Robert Braidwood and his team at Jarmo in Upper Iraq. (From the Ashes of Angels)

Time has dealt the Watchers a cruel blow. From being seen as extraordinarily advanced teachers of humanity, like those encountered by Enoch on his visit to the seven heavens, they quickly degenerated from angels of light into loathsome devils and demons of the underworld. (From the Ashes of Angels)

I had learned of one local tradition I thought might shed light on the matter. It was very ancient and spoke of 'gods of the lake, with fish tails, called Chullua and Umantua'." In this, and in the fish-garbed figures, it seemed that there was a curious out-of-place echo of Mesopotamian myths, which spoke strangely, and at length, about amphibious beings, 'endowed with reason' who had visited the land of Sumer in remote prehistory. The leader of these beings was named Oannes (or Uan). According to the Chaldean scribe, Berosus: The whole body of [Oannes] was like that of a fish; and had under a fish's head another head, and also feet below, similar to those of a man, subjoined to the fish's tail. His voice too, and language, was articulate and human; and a representation of him is preserved even to this day...When the sun set, it was the custom of this Being to plunge again into the sea, and abide all night in the deep; for he was amphibious. In the day-time he used to converse with men; but took no food at that season; and he gave them an insight into letters and sciences, and every kind of art. He taught them to construct houses, to found temples, to compile laws, and explained to them the principles of geometrical knowledge. He made them distinguish the seeds of the earth, and showed them how to collect fruits; in short, he instructed them in every thing which could tend to soften manners and to humanise mankind. From that time, so universal were his instructions, nothing has been added materially by way of improvement... Surviving images of the Oannes creatures I had seen on Babylonian and Assyrian reliefs clearly portrayed fish-garbed men. (Fingerprints of the Gods)

Like the Hopi Indians of North America, the Avestic Aryans of pre- Islamic Iran believed that there were three epochs of creation prior to our own. In the first epoch men were pure and sinless, tall and long lived, but at its close the Evil One declared war against Ahura Mazda, the holy god, and a tumultuous cataclysm ensued. During the second epoch the Evil One was unsuccessful. In the third good and evil were exactly balanced. In the fourth epoch (the present age of the world), evil triumphed at the outset and has maintained its supremacy ever since. In those days Airyana Vaejo enjoyed a mild and productive climate with seven months of summer and five of winter. Rich in wildlife and in crops, its meadows flowing with streams, this garden of delights was converted into an uninhabitable wasteland of ten months' winter and only two months summer as a result of the onslaught of Angra Mainyu, the Evil One: The first of the good lands and countries which I, Ahura Mazda, created was the Airyana Vaejo...Then Angra Mainyu, who is full of death, created an opposition to the same, a mighty serpent and snow. Ten months of winter are there now, two months of summer, and these are cold as to the water, cold as to the earth, cold as to the trees...There all around falls deep snow; that is the direst of plagues...' (Fingerprints of the Gods)

The Avestic scriptures leave us in no doubt about this. Earlier they describe a meeting of the celestial gods called by Ahura Mazda, and tell us that 'the fair Yima, the good shepherd of high renown in the Airyana Vaejo', attended this meeting with all his excellent mortals. It is at this point that the strange parallels with the traditions of the biblical flood begin to crop up, for Ahura Mazda takes advantage of the meeting to warn Yima of what is about to happen as a result of the powers of the Evil One: And Ahura Mazda spake unto Yima saying: 'Yima the fair...Upon the material world a fatal winter is about to descend, that shall bring a vehement, destroying frost. Upon the corporeal world will the evil of winter come, wherefore snow will fall in great abundance...' 'And all three sorts of beasts shall perish, those that live in the wilderness, and those that live on the tops of the mountains, and those that live in the depths of the valleys under the shelter of stables.' 'Therefore make thee a var [a hypogeum or underground enclosure] the length of a riding ground to all four corners. Thither bring thou the representatives of every kind of beast, great and small, of the cattle, of the beasts of burden, and of men, of dogs, of birds, and of the red burning fires.' 'There shalt thou make water flow. Thou shalt put birds in the trees along the water's edge, in verdure which is everlasting. There put specimens of all plants, the loveliest and most fragrant, and of all fruits the most succulent. All these kinds of things and creatures shall not perish as long as they are in the var. But put there no deformed creature, nor impotent, nor mad, neither wicked, nor deceitful, nor rancorous, nor jealous; nor a man with irregular teeth, nor a leper...' (Fingerprints of the Gods)

...in Mesopotamia, the Noah figure Utnapishtim was instructed by the god Ea 'to take the beginning, the middle and the end of whatever was consigned to writing and then to bury it in the City of the Sun at Sippara'. After the waters of the flood had gone, survivors were instructed to make their way to the site of the City of the Sun 'to search for the writings', which would be found to contain knowledge of benefit to future generations of mankind. (Fingerprints of the Gods)

The fundamental difference between Mosaic Judaism and the religion of the Canaanites is that the Canaanite deities were closely associated with astronomical phenomena and with the processes of nature. Their festivals were concerned with annually recurring cycles of the seasons, rather than with the various historical events that underpinned the theology of the followers of Moses. Much that was borrowed from Canaanite religion was later swept away in various Yahwistic reform movements; but much remained as part of the religion of Israel. We believe that the earliest form of Judaism was created out of an amalgam of different ideas that came directly from Egyptian and Canaanite beliefs. The ideas from Egypt were, broadly speaking, assembled under a tradition centred on Moses, and those from the Canaanites on ideas that centred on Enoch. As the two traditions quickly combined, the rituals of the Canaanite festivals marking the cycle of the seasons were merged into the celebrations of the historical achievements of the Moses' tradition. (Uriel's Machine)

...Jesus was very specifically said to have been born in a grotto, under the light of a blazing star at the winter solstice (the time of the Newgrange Venus incursion occurs once every eight years at the winter solstice). The Old Testament tells more about the nature of these stone circles. And Elijah took twelve stones ... And with the stones he built an altar in the name of the LORD: and he made a trench about the altar, as great as would contain two measures of seed ... and he filled the trench also with water. In this biblical passage we have a clear description of a henge being dug around the circle of stones, which was then filled with water. (Uriel's Machine)

Concerning Eve and the tree of knowledge, it is interesting that among the myths of Sumer there is the story of the goddess Inanna, who nurtures a tree in her "pure garden." "In its base a snake-that-knows-no-charm has made its nest ... in its trunk a demon-maiden has built her home." But the "demon-maiden" didn't make it into Genesis-she got left on the cutting-room floor. (162)


"The divine beings": In the ancient world everyone, including the Hebrews, believed in the existence of multiple gods and demigods. Nowhere in Genesis does it say that the god of the chosen people is the only god. He is their god. In the Hebrew he is called "Yhwh" (Jehovah) by one of the original writers, and "Elohim" by another. Other times he is called "El-Shaddai," which may mean "god- of-the-mountain." In chapter 14, Abraham swears an oath to "EI Elyon," the "god most high" of the Canaanites. Every tribe, every city-state, had its "god most high" in its pantheon of gods, demigods, demons, and spirits. (The Book of Genesis Illustrated by R. Crumb)

As each soul is redeemed, it travels back to the source of the divine Light, which slowly, as more and more souls return to it, becomes whole again. Eventually, when all souls have returned, the physical universe, being now completely without Light, will end. Therefore, this "eschatology of Light" synthesized from Egyptian, Persian, and Hebrew elements can be seen as the framework supporting a variety of Gnostic traditions. These traditions included the new messianic forms of Judaism that became Christianity. (The Mysteries of the Great Cross of Hendaye)

Knowledge of the backward march of the precession caused by the earth's tilt constituted the great secret of many ancient cultures as different as Greece and the Maya of Mexico. A Talmudic example makes this even clearer: "The storm wind hangs [talah] between the arms of God like an amulet." The hanging is, of course, the Teli. The storm wind is the slowly backward-turning spiral of precession and a good metaphor for the mystical experience itself. The prophet Nahum (1:3) declares, "His way is in the whirlwind," and Psalms 50:3 agrees that to experience God is to plunge into the tempest that surrounds Him. The arms of the universe are the unmoving Teli, the ecliptic and galactic axes, from which the initiatory spiral of the equinoxes is suspended like an amulet. It is hard to overestimate the value of the knowledge of one's location in space and in time that these three axes provided. It would also seem as if these axes were creating an address for Earth, the purpose of which remains a mystery. (The Mysteries of the Great Cross of Hendaye)

The metaphor that is being repeatedly driven home here is that of the mighty serpent who springs from the sky down to the earth, who penetrates the earth, and who brings a prolonged winter upon the world so severe that it is “dark” (“most turbid, opaque” according to some translations) at midday, and even the fleeting summer months are too cold for human life. Once again, the whole scenario seems very accurately to describe the terrible conditions that would have afflicted the world after the Younger Dryas comet spread its trail of destruction across at least 50 million square kilometers, brought on “a vehement destroying frost,” and threw such quantities of dust into the upper atmosphere, together with smoke from the continent-wide wildfires sparked off by airbursts and superheated ejecta, that a turbid, opaque darkness would indeed have filled the skies, reflecting back the sun’s rays and perpetuating something very like a nuclear winter for centuries. The Zoroastrian texts leave us in no doubt that these conditions posed a deadly threat to the future survival of civilization. It was for this reason that Ahura Mazda came to Yima with his warning and his instruction to build an underground shelter where some remnant of humanity could take refuge, keeping safe the seeds of all animals and plants, until the dire winter had passed and spring returned to the world. Moreover the account reveals very little that seems “mythical,” or that obviously derives from flights of religious fancy. Rather the whole thing has about it an atmosphere of hard-headed practical planning that adds a chilling note of veracity. (Magicians of the Gods)

In the largest part of the place thou shalt make nine streets, six in the middle part, three in the smallest. To the streets of the largest part thou shalt bring a thousand seeds of men and women; to the streets of the middle part, six hundred; to the streets of the smallest part, three hundred. If it seems fanciful to imagine that we might, in an almost high-tech sense, be looking at the specifications of a seed bank here, then how are we to assess other “technological” aspects of the Vara—for example its lighting system? As well as making a door to the place, and sealing it up with the golden ring already given to him by Ahura Mazda, Yima is also to fashion “a window, self-shining within.” When Yima asks for clarification as to the nature of this “self-shining” window Ahura Mazda tells him cryptically, “There are uncreated lights and created lights.” The former are the stars, the moon and the sun, which will not be seen from within the confines of the Vara during the long winter, but the latter are “artificial lights” which “shine from below.” Yima did as he was instructed and completed the Vara which, thereafter, “glowed with its own light.” (Magicians of the Gods)

Interestingly the translator explains, in a footnote drawn from various ancient learned commentaries on the text, that the human inhabitants of the Vara “live there for 150 years; some say they never die.” Moreover, and particularly intriguing, the births of offspring to every couple do not result from sexual union but “from the seeds deposited in the Vara.” Other hints of a mysterious lost technology connected to Yima include a miraculous cup in which he could see everything that was happening anywhere in the world and a jeweled glass throne (sometimes described as “a glass chariot”) that was capable of flight. (Magicians of the Gods)

Noah’s Ark, like Yima’s Vara, is to have a “window,” is to be closed with a “door” and is to consist of three levels: The Ark was illuminated by a precious stone, the light of which was more brilliant by night than by day, so enabling Noah to distinguish between day and night. (Magicians of the Gods)

Curiously the ancient Iranian traditions contain a prophecy also, for it is said that Yima will return, and will walk again among men, when: the signs foreshadowing the last of days appear. Of these the worst will be a winter more terrible than any the world has seen before when it will rain and snow and hail for three long years. (Magicians of the Gods)

The first thirty-seven lines of the University of Pennsylvania tablet are missing so we do not know how the story begins, but at the point where we enter it the Flood is still far in the future. We hear about the creation of human beings, animals and plants. Then another break of thirty-seven lines occurs after which we find that we have jumped forward in time to an epoch of high civilization. We learn that in this epoch, before the Flood, “kingship was lowered from heaven.” Then comes the reference to the foundation of Sumer’s antediluvian cities by an unnamed ruler or a god: After the lofty crown and the throne of kingship had been lowered from heaven, He perfected the rites and the exalted divine laws … Founded the five cities … in pure places, Called their names, apportioned them as cult centers. The first of these cities, Eridu … The second Badtibira … The third Larak … The fourth Sippar … The fifth Shuruppak …(Magicians of the Gods)

When we rejoin the narrative after a third thirty-seven-line lacuna, the scene has changed bewilderingly. Although the Flood is still in the future, the foundation of the five antediluvian cities is now far in the past. It is apparent from the context that in the intervening period the cities’ inhabitants have behaved in such a way as to incur divine displeasure and that a convocation of the gods has been called to punish mankind with the terrible instrument of an earth-destroying flood. At the moment where we pick up the story again, a few of the gods are dissenting from this decision and expressing their unhappiness and dissatisfaction with it. Without preamble, a man called Zisudra is then introduced—the Sumerian archetype of the Biblical patriarch Noah. The text describes him as “a pious, god-fearing king” and allows us to understand that one of the gods has taken pity on him. The name of this god has not survived in the University of Pennsylvania tablet, but the Schoyen fragment gives us a clue when it reveals that Zisudra was not only a king but also a priest of the god Enki This god, os whom we will hear more later, tells Zisudra:

Take my word, give ear to my instructions: A flood will sweep over the cult centers. To destroy the seed of mankind, Is the decision, the word of the assembly of gods. A text break of forty lines follows which scholars deduce, from the many later recensions of the same myth, “must have continued with detailed instructions to Zisudra to build a giant boat and thus save himself from destruction.” When the story resumes, the cataclysm has already begun: All the windstorms, exceedingly powerful, attacked as one. At the same time the flood swept over the cult centers. For seven days and seven nights the flood swept over the land, and the huge boat was tossed about by the windstorms on the great waters. (Magicians of the Gods)

Throughout the cataclysm the skies remain dark. Then, on the eighth day, the sun breaks through the clouds, and the rains and raging storms cease. Opening the “window” of his survival ship, Zisudra looks out over a world that has changed forever and sacrifices an ox and a sheep to the gods. An infuriating lacuna of thirty-nine lines follows, presumably telling us about the place where Zisudra makes landfall and the steps that he takes thereafter. When we pick up the story again, near the end of the text, we find him in the presence of the high gods of the Sumerian pantheon, Anu and Enlil, who have repented of their earlier decision to wipe mankind entirely from the face of the earth and are now so grateful to Zisudra for building his ark and surviving the Flood that they decide to make him immortal:    Life like a god they gave him; Breath eternal like a god they brought down for him, Zisudra the king, The preserver if the name of the vegetation and of the seed of mankind. (Magicians of the Gods)

This last point—that the seven antediluvian sages were “conjurers,” “sorcerers,” “warlocks,” “magicians”—is driven home repeatedly in the cuneiform texts. But at the same time, associated with their magical abilities are obviously practical, technological or even scientific skills. Thus they were masters of “the chemical recipes,” they were medical doctors, they were carpenters, stone cutters, metal workers and goldsmiths, and they laid the foundations of cities. Indeed, in later times, all crafts used in royal building and renovation projects were attributed to knowledge that had originated with the antediluvian sages. (Magicians of the Gods)

The cuneiform tablets of ancient Mesopotamia also shed at least some light on the containers that the Apkallu sages are so often depicted as holding. They are referred to as banduddu—“buckets,” and are presumed to have held “holy water.” Very often, too, the sage holds in his other hand a cone-like object. These are referred to in the inscriptions as mullilu—meaning “purifiers.” In the same scenes the sages frequently appear in conjunction with a stylized tree or sometimes with the figure of a king, or sometimes both. By sprinkling the tree with holy water the sages imparted to it their own sanctity, upheld the cosmic harmony and thus ensured the correct functioning of the plans of heaven and earth. (Magicians of the Gods)

Thanks to the advice and teachings of these extraordinary sages, these magicians of the wisdom-god Enki, we learn from the cuneiform texts that human civilization achieved rapid technological and scientific advances and entered a phase of “exceptional splendor and plenty, the golden age before the flood.” All seemed to be for the best, in the best of all possible worlds. But as the millennia passed, mankind fell out of harmony with the universe and with the deities—and with one deity in particular, the great Enlil, described as “the King, supreme lord, father and creator,” and (perhaps giving more sense of his personality) as a “raging storm.” Although the sky god Anu was technically ranked first in the Sumerian pantheon, he was usually a rather remote, impotent figure. Enlil was his second in command but in fact responsible for most “executive decisions.” Enki—nominated in some texts as Enlil’s younger brother—was ranked third. (Magicians of the Gods)

…both the Biblical and Mesopotamian accounts agree that Armenia was the place of refuge for the survivors of the Flood. Berossos, however, adds some important details missing from the Old Testament story. These are, first, the reference to Sippar, which, as we’ve seen, was one of the five antediluvian cities remembered in Sumerian traditions; secondly, the intriguing information that writings or archives from antediluvian times (“all the tablets, the first, the middle and the last”) were buried at Sippar before the Flood struck; and thirdly that the survivors were to return to Sippar when the waters had receded in order to dig up the buried tablets and “turn them over to mankind.” What is envisaged here, therefore, is nothing less than a renewal of civilization after a global cataclysm—a renewal in which antediluvian knowledge was to be recovered and repromulgated. The Seven Sages, however, would no longer have any part to play in the spread of that knowledge. The cuneiform texts tell us that they had been sent back to the depths of the Abzu at the time of the Flood and ordered never to return. Other sages “of human descent”—though in one case described as being “two-thirds Apkallu”—would take their place, some continuity would be maintained and civilization would rise again. (Magicians of the Gods)

“Watchers” is a general term referring to angels. Among them are bad angels. They want to have sex and make babies with beautiful human women and while they’re at it, as we can gather from passages quoted earlier, they’re going to teach mankind a thing or two about metals, and the constellations and the course of the sun and the moon (or the ecliptic as this “course”—this “path”—is known to astronomers today). As the first step in implementing their plan these bad Watchers descend upon Mount Hermon, which happens to be in ancient Canaan, now Lebanon, and only 45 miles (73 kilometers) from Baalbek.
Meanwhile there are good angels, “the Holy Angels who watch”—among them Uriel, Raphael, Raguel, Michael, Saraquel, Gabriel and Remiel. And it’s these good Watcher angels who appear to Enoch in a dream and give him that message of death and destruction to take to the bad Watcher angels on Mount Hermon. …the Watchers are getting sex—lots of sex!—and it seems this is what annoys Enoch the most. (Magicians of the Gods)

There were giants in the earth in those days; and also after that, when the sons of God came in unto the daughters of men, and they bare children to them, the same became mighty men which were of old, men of renown. That’s the King James Version, but other translations give the original word Nephilim, that the KJV translates as “giants,” and we read: The Nephilim were on the earth in those days—and also afterward—when the sons of God went to the daughters of humans, and had children by them. They were the heroes of old, men of renown. …the Nephilim are people of “great size,” the references to them as “giants” in the King James and other versions of the Bible therefore make complete sense, and the “translation” that Sitchin gives is obviously bogus. (Magicians of the Gods)

There is nothing in the Book of Enoch that says the Nephilim fell or were cast down or came down from heaven in any way. And they [human women] conceived from them [the Watchers] and bore to them great giants. And the giants begot Nephilim, and to the Nephilim were born Elioud. And they were growing in accordance with their greatness. (Magicians of the Gods)

Three gods were held in high esteem by the Sumerians. The first, Enlil, was known as the lord of the air and the king of kings. He was the most worshipped and feared because he wielded the most destructive weapon: the power of the Flood. “The word of Enlil is a breath of wind, the eye sees it not. His word is a deluge which advances and has no rival.” Enki, the second great god, was the lord of the earth and the god of waters. The Sumerians believed Enki saved them from the Flood. He overheard the birth of a conspiracy between the flood god, Enlil, and the third powerful god, the sky god, An, in which they planned to destroy mankind. Enki determined that he would save one man and his family from the coming disaster. He chose Ziusudra, a king and priest living on the island of Dilmun. A Babylonian myth records Enki’s words: “Destroy thy house, build a vessel. Leave thy riches, seek thy life. Store in thy vessel the seeds of all life.” (Atlantis Beneath the Ice)

We learn the fate of Ziusudra’s ark from the original Sumerian tale, which states, “When for seven days and seven nights, the Flood had raged over the land, and the huge boat had been tossed on the great water by the storms, the Sun-god arose shedding light in Heaven and Earth. Ziusudra made an opening in the side of the great ship. He let the light of the hero Sun-god enter into the great ship. Before the Sun-god he bowed his face to the ground.” The vessel comes to rest on the top of a mountain in the Middle East. Like Noah, Ziusudra and his family must begin life anew. (Atlantis Beneath the Ice)

In 1899, the lost Sumerian culture offered up another legacy. A team of American archaeologists were excited when they unearthed thirty-five thousand tablets from a treasure trove that contained the written records of the world’s oldest known civilization. They were from Nippur, the ancient Sumerian city dedicated to the flood god, Enlil. Such a rich find could reveal the very roots of civilization. According to the tablets, those roots were to be found in a place called Dilmun, a mountainous island in the ocean. Most of Dilmun’s people had perished when the sky god conspired with Enlil to destroy humankind. The survivors escaped the Flood in a great ship (in which they stored “the seeds of all life”), sailing to a mountain near Nippur. The tablets said that Dilmus, the island paradise from which they had fled, lay across the Indian Ocean toward the south -- toward Antarctica. (Atlantis Beneath the Ice)

The Haida and the Sumerians share a remarkably similar story of their origins. The basic elements of the Haida myth are: Long ago, our ancestors lived in the world's largest village. Life was carefree until the chief of the heavens decided to destroy humankind by changing the sky and bringing a worldwide flood. Survivors escaped in giant canoes, which took them to a new home, where they landed on a mountaintop. A new era began. The basic elements of the Sumerian myth are strikingly similar: Long ago our ancestors lived on the island paradise of Dilmun. Life was carefree until the flood god Enlil decided to destroy humankind by changing the sky and bringing a worldwide flood. Survivors escaped in a large ship which took them to a new home, where they landed upon a mountaintop. A new era began. (Atlantis Beneath the Ice)

The Sumerians’ vocabulary contains hundreds of nautical terms. They also share with the Haida unique stories about amphibious god ancestors with tails. The god Oannes was half man and half fish. During the day Oannes taught the Sumerians how to write and the other arts of civilization before returning to the sea as night fell. (Atlantis Beneath the Ice)

From the Akkadian-Sumerian clay tablets we know that Ea “Enki” created a huge fountain (A pond, a lake, a river) in the garden of Idin (Eden). The Bible told us that Yahweh created a spring in the Garden of Eden (The same garden) which gave birth to four ancient rivers, called the Euphrates, the Hiddekel, the Pishon and the Gihon. Numerous Mesopotamian slabs and seals depicted Ea “Enki” as an imposing god seated on a high throne with four or five streams of water (in the form of rivers) emanating from and/or around his shoulders. One of the characteristics and attribute of Ea is “The God of water”, frequently associated with “Apsu” which means in Sumero-Akkadian, ground-water. Numerous Mesopotamian clay tablets depicted Ea “Enki” as a god inhabiting the “Apsu”, and “Apsu” is where he dwells. As such, he is the universal creator, for water was needed to create the world. In the Koran, we find a reference made to Allah as the creator of the universe, because he created water. (The Origin of the Name of God and His True Edentity)

Yahweh took on the attributes and feats of Sumerian and Phoenician gods. Yahweh, assimilated the personas and feats of Mesopotamian gods before Yahwehism was born. Anunnaki gods and Enki's motifs and attributes appeared in Genesis as Yahweh-Elohim’s attributes. And later on, Christianity and Islam ascribed the Babylonian Anunna and Enki's motifs and epithets to Christ and Allah. Professor Kramer pointed out the “Bible's indebtedness to motifs found in Sumerian (Anunnaki’s texts) literature of the 4th-3rd millenniums B.C. (Canaanite early Bronze Age)”. He noted that “Enki the “Crafty God” is alive and well today, his feats and epithets having been ascribed and assimilated to later gods.” (The Origin of the Name of God and His True Edentity)

One scholar of note, Michael Heiser, has examined the same data as Sitchin and come to the conclusion that the Nibiru symbol is always that of a "star," and does not represent a "planet." His work is thorough and compelling.

Another tablet expounds on Nibiru as a star representing some sort of crossing point and reads, "let him/it [Nibiru] be the holder of the crossing of heavens and Earth." It suggests that this star plays some pivotal role between the fixed stars, "heaven," and "Earth," again implying that it moves differently from all of the other fixed stars - meaning that it may not precess as all other stars do. This is exactly what we would expect if precession (the apparent movement of all the stars around the sky) were driven by a companion star or sun, that is, one that is gravitationally bound to our Sun. Any companion star to our Sun would cause our Sun to curve through space, due to the gravity that it would exert on our Sun. Needless to say, if our solar system were curving through space, this would reorient the Earth (and other planets) relative to the flxed stars. If this were the case, then this one star, the Sun's binary companion, would be seen to be "crossing" all the other stars and causing or "driving" precession. In other words, if a binary companion to the Sun were known to the Sumerians, then it would flt the Nibiru description quite accurately, and seem to move independent of the apparent backward precessional motion of the rest of the stars. It would represent that "crossing point," meaning Nibiru could be the Sun's companion star, the "driver" of precession. 

Given the fact that the cuneiform symbols for Nibiru are consis- tent with that of a unique star, and the descriptions of its motion appear to be consistent with how a binary companion would move relative to other stars, it is logical to conclude that Nibiru is our companion star - not a planet, and not a pole star. (Lost Star of Myth and Time)

In the Sumerian civilization, the classic Epic of Gilgamesh describes a dream of Gilgamesh where the hero is drawn irresistibly to a "heavy star" that cannot be lifted despite immense effort. This star "descends from heaven" to him and is described as having a very "potent essence" and being the "God of heaven." In the epic, Gilgamesh's companions were 50 oarsmen in the great ship Argo (this is the constellation bordering Canis Major, where Sirius is found). These elements comprise almost a complete description of Sirius B: a super-heavy, gravitationally powerful star made of concentrated super-dense matter (essence) that happens to orbit Sirius proper in 50 years. This story also hints at the possible movement toward our Sun and Earth ("descends from heaven") as well as the potential influence ("potent essence") of the companion star.  (Lost Star of Myth and Time)

Unlike previous characters, Abraham did not become the source of a whole tribe that took his name; instead his personal god, 'the god of Abraham' became the distinguishing characteristic of his future people. We find it truly amazing that one Sumerian man's psyche has formed the basis for the three great monotheistic religions of the world. (The Hyram Key)  

It is clear that Gilgamesh was the god-name to which this king was associated. His royal appellation, however, was Lugulbanda. To take the similarities with Egypt one stage further, Abraham was the first recorded shepherd King of Egypt and, in turn, the Sumerian king-lists say that Lugulbanda was the first of the Shepherd Kings of Sumer. It was King Lufulbanda, in his dual role as the god Gilgamesh [Orion], who fought the Sumerian theological battple with the followers of Taurus and became the shepherd King; the first Sumerian follower of the new era of Aries. This is why the epic of Gilgamesh was written: it was not an epic tale of a king as such, but an ancient bi-millennial celebration of the movement of the stars. The peoples of Egypt and Sumer were inextricably linked by their religion, but perhaps the transition period between the constellations went a little smoother in Sumer than in Egypt. (Jesus: Last of the Pharaohs)

Having made these historical/biblical associations, I was subsequently interested to find that David Rohl - in his controversial book Legend - has made exactly the same observation for the more ancient patriarchs. He has found evidence that the patriarchs from Adam to Noah can be found in the Sumerian king-lists by exactly the same method as I have independently applied to the later patriarchs: the technique of syllable swapping. There is a possibility that the early patriarchs were of royal Sumerian stock and their descendants emigrated to Egypt, just as the historical record seems to indicate. In this scenario, the later biblical patriarchs from Noah onwards then became pharaohs of Egypt. (Jesus: Last of the Pharaohs)

This new interpretation of Jesus' ministry reveals an entirely new character in Jesus from the one peddled by the Church--with a royal, and yet very human, face. Here was a man who suffered frustration with his followers; was capable of flashes of anger; was skilled in political duplicity; and yet detested and was forced to flee the crowds. He was a man of wealth and influence, with royal blood. In light of the facts - namely that Jesus considered himself to be fathered by the gods; that he was a descendant of the Hyksos pharaohs of Egypt; that he was wealthy and aristocratic; that he was acknowledged as being a priest and the King of the Jews, and that he married his sister in the royal tradition - was he not one of the long line of holders of the knowledge of Thoth - the 'last of the pharaohs'? In fact the Bible seems to have been written in the sure knowledge that Jesus was an Egyptian pharaoh in exile, and this evidence is to be found in his crucifiction and possible burial. (Jesus: Last of the Pharaohs)

The Dogon and the Egyptians spoke of civilization coming from the Sirius System, and the Babylonians spoke of it coming from the heavens; the Dogon and the Babylonians agreed on the amphibious nature of the beings who did this. All the traditions seem agreed that they 'ascended to the heavens' and left the Earth. But there is no guarantee that they went back to Sirius. (The Sirius Mystery)  

In the ancient legends of the Sumerians and Babylonians about the god Enki (Ea). who was the god who warned mankind about the Deluge so that the Ark could be constructed, Enki was said to sleep in a freshwater receptacle or chamber shaped like the Ark, called the Abzu. ...the god Enki is described as behaving like an amphibian: 'Enki, in the swampland, lies stretched out. The context indicates that this is his normal position, since he continues to lie stretched out in the swampland for a considerable time while his vizier goes in and out. (The Sirius Mystery)  

Note the recurrence in Sumer of 'Anu' in both Anu and the Anunnaki, and in Egypt with both Anpu (Anubis) and Anukis. In all these cases Sirius is involved. Both the Sumerians and the early Egyptians derived their primeval gods from some common but exceedingly ancient source. The similarity between the two companies of gods seems to be too close to be accidental . . . (The Sirius Mystery)  

The chief god of Sumer, named Anu, was pictured as a jackal, which is a variation of the dog motif and was used also in Egypt for Anubis, the dog and the jackal apparently being interchangeable as symbols. The Egyptian form of the name Anubis is 'Anpu' and is similar to the Sumerian 'Anu', and both are jackal-gods. The connections betweeen Egyptian and Sumerian words in sacred contexts becomes so multifold that it is impossible to ignor the conntinuities between the two cultures. (The Sirius Mystery

Hence connected with Gilgamesh we find: (a) Fifty anonymous companions seemingly important only as a numerological element in the story and in later times discarded as useless. (b) A super-heavy star connected with An (also an Egyptian name of Osiris, husband of lsis who was identified with Sirius). (c) A description of the star as being composed of a 'concentrated essence' and of having extreme powers of attraction described in a manner reminiscent of gravitational attraction. These elements comprise almost a complete description of Sirius B: super-heavy gravitationally powerful star made of concentrated super- dense matter ('essence') with the number fifty associated with it (describing its period?) - and connected with An (Anu), which we know to be linked in Egypt (and Gilgamesh's 'Magan-boat' seems Egyptian) with Sirius. (The Sirius Mystery

The ancient gods and goddesses of Mesopotamia, like their counterparts elsewhere, were modelled on the human race: they were unpredictable, wilful, inscrutable, unreliable and often indulgent, and much of man’s attempts to communicate with them took account of such factors in prayer, ritual and behaviour. (The Ark Before Noah)

The universal flood was intended as an efficient kind of ‘new broom’ approach that would allow the gods to start recreating more appropriate forms of life afterwards in a clean and empty world. The god Enki (clever, humorous, rebellious) is appalled at the proposal and seemingly alone in anticipating the consequences, so he picks out one suitable human being to rescue human and other life.  (The Ark Before Noah)

The Mesopotamian Flood Story surfaces in three distinct cuneiform incarnations, one in Sumerian, two in Akkadian. These are the Sumerian Flood Story, and major narrative episodes within the Atrahasis Epic and the Epic of Gilgamesh respectively. Each incarnation has its own flood hero.  (The Ark Before Noah)

The curtain rises on a very strange world. Man has not yet been created, and the junior gods are obliged to do all the necessary work. They mutter and rebel, finally burning their tools. Their complaint is not without justification; the senior gods will see to it that man, Lullû, is created instead to do the work. The birth goddess Mami, also known as Nintu and Bēlet-ilī, is called in, but she declares that she cannot create this being alone, so the god Enki announces to all that their fellow god We-ilu will be slaughtered and man created. Mankind has now been doing the work for the gods, but, at the same time, reproducing itself enthusiastically without being subject to death. In their profusion mankind is extremely noisy. As Enlil puts it to his fellow gods, “The noise of mankind has become too intense for me, With their uproar I am deprived of sleep.”   (The Ark Before Noah)

The dreadful racket warrants a plague to wipe out mankind altogether. Ea (Sumerian Enki), one of the senior gods responsible for the creation of man, thwarts this plan. Enlil’s frustration increases and this time he resolves to wipe out human beings by starvation, so he withholds the rain. Again it is Ea who intervenes and reinstates the rain and restores life. Enlil’s third plan is to send an annihilating flood once and for all, and it is to circumnavigate this disaster that Ea instructs Atra-hasīs to build his ark and save human and animal life. The gods, ultimately, are pleased at Ea’s intervention. The Atra-hasīs family members are made immortal and human life is allowed to go on, although death is now added to the mixture, and barrenness, celibate priestesses and childbirth mortality are instituted for the first time to keep a cap on numbers.  ...the real issue at stake is overpopulation. The noise is due to excessive numbers of persons and the Flood is a remedy for an antediluvian world situation in which none of the population ever actually had to die.  (The Ark Before Noah)

The implications of comparing Babylonian and biblical flood accounts here are clear; the unfolded parallels between the stories demonstrate that they are closely connected textually and sequentially; the finished Hebrew is assuredly dependent on pre-existing Mesopotamian Flood Story literature. ...the story of the Flood in the Bible came into Hebrew from an older story in Babylonian cuneiform. We have seen, too, that the stories of the infants Moses and Sargon in their respective coracles reflect a similar borrowing, the Bible first developed into the work that we have today in the period, location and circumstances of the Babylonian Exile, as a direct response to that Exile.  (The Ark Before Noah)

...it can be argued that the Babylonian Exile, far from being the disaster it is usually judged, was ultimately the process that forged what became modern Judaism.  The development of the Hebrew Bible introduced something new into the world. For the first time scripture came into existence, a finite text corpus with beginning and end on which religious identity was predicated. (The Ark Before Noah)

Atrahasis I: 223–30 Mankind according to this account is composed of three divine constituents out of the sacrificed god We-ilu: flesh and blood and reason (ṭēmu). Clay, mixed with flesh and blood and animated by ṭēmu, generates the human spirit and institutes man’s first and never-to-be-interrupted heartbeat. After death it is only the human spirit or eṭemmu that endures, while the body – the other two-thirds of ‘clay’ – returns to the earth. To me this discloses an unacknowledged Mesopotamian system of reincarnation. The bodiless, personality-bearing one-third matter that remains after death – equal in some way to female divinity – sustains the eṭemmu spirit in a recyclable state until needed for a new birth. It suggests the underlying conception of a finite number of human spirits in circulation, reflecting the idea that the material of life, like any other natural resource, and especially water, is not boundless. It does seem hard to divorce this spirit from what is usually referred to, in common understanding, as a soul.  (The Ark Before Noah)

Religion was the catalyst for everything prior to the Urban Revolution. To understand this concept is to grasp how vitally important religion was to the Sumerians. We can deduce that hunter-gatherers and pre-civilized cultures also highly valued ritual and spirituality. At some point though, most likely with the Sumerians, ritual became organized into a religion. Sumerians had a clear structure to their spirituality and rites. (The Anunnaki Connection)  

The Standard Babylonian Epic of Gilgamesh indicates that Gilgamesh attained great knowledge from a time before the flood and then brought it to his people: The texts point to the secret knowledge of Enki as the knowledge of a civilization before the flood, as well as the knowledge of medicinal plants. In the Epic, Gilgamesh visits Utnapishtim and brings back the secret antediluvian knowledge to civilization. Even Gilgamesh, as a powerful king, did not already have this knowledge. He needed to go to Utnapishtim, who had a direct line of communication with Enki in order to obtain these secrets.  (The Anunnaki Connection

In the tablet Enki and the World Order, Enlil collected a set of instructions intended for humans in various cities. He handed them over to Enki so that he might distribute them. These instructions were called mes. The mes were official decrees of the gods that would be the foundations to all attributes of a higher civilization. A me was a law, or set of holy instructions that guided technologies, religious and ceremonial practices, etiquette, and social institutions.  ...in Enki and the World Order, a form, function, and purpose are created on the planet Earth. The corporeal realm was formed, building the walls of both stone and culture. Enki, the lord of the Earth, is described as a “craftsman.” Such descriptions have led some to associate Enki with Lucifer. According to the legend, whoever possessed the Tablet of Destinies would have the divine right of kings. This would allow them to be the ruler of the universe, but that's not all. The tablet also granted the power of all past, present, and future knowledge. With this tablet, anyone can be a Watcher, for they would have the ability to “see” in all directions, just like the symbolic double-headed eagle. (The Anunnaki Connection)  

ANUNNAKI Their homeworld is Planet Nibiru, in a parallel dimension. The portal they use is located in the Orion zone, so that is why we associate them with this space quadrant. They come from a double star system and Nibiru orbits every 4000 years. The main star is named Immaru, and it is a small brown star host to many worlds. The sixth planet, Nibiru, has two satellites and resembles to Terra, in a higher density. “Anunnakene” means: human like. Although they are a Reptoid cold blooded life-form, they resemble Terrans but slightly taller (2.5 m / 8’) and more muscular. No hair, white skin. They have a very structured society in which females play an important role in politics and power, although the males rule above all. They reproduce by eggs. They are known to be among the most advanced societies regarding to genetic engineering. They play a lot with the genetics of conquered worlds and especially with children, trying to create servile hybrids helping their purposes anywhere in the galaxy. Anunnaki have been the source and spreading of great genetic biodiversity and racial confusion throughout this galaxy for these reasons. Great enemies of the Lyrans but as well of the Ciakahrr Empire. Technologically advanced and well equipped in warfare, their name is also feared in this galactic sector. There is a legend about them, about their creation. There was a time, a very long time ago, when conflict raged between Ashkera (Sirius B), and the Orion Empire. To resolve this fight, the male sovereign of Ashkera offered to mate with the Orion Queen and their offsprings were named after the first one, mix of the two races: Nibiru “divided from two”. They later on took the name of Anunnakene: “Human like”, given by the Orion Reptiloids, as they looked human but only in appearance. Their genetics was predominant reptiloid. They overcame the Reptilian race that was in power when they arrived on Terra and became the new rulers, provoking as well other settled colonies. The Reptoids that escaped went underground, and those who couldn’t escape, were called “Igigi” (“watchers”), by the Anunnaki and enslaved for 2500 years.The Ciakahrr (Draconians) had objected to the Anunnaki genetically modifying Terra’s hominids to become more evolved Human. The Anunnaki eventually left Terra but before they did, they genetically engineered a large group of human specimens to a diminished level of consciousness in order to have a race of slaves to mine mainly the gold and other resources for them. They used for a long time one other race: the Solipsi Rai from Zeta Reticuli, and are now having ties and agreements with the Terran based Reptilians to share the management of humans. These contracts come in the larger scale agreements with the Draconian and Orion empires regarding o the conquered worlds, slavery, food chain and genetic experimentations. As it is also done on any other conquered world, the Anunnaki left an elite contingent on Terra in order to control and manipulate, by creating elite human organizations, making the Anunnaki the deep underground hidden part of the military-industrial-extra-terrestrial complex. They work with, and against the Ciakahrr at the same time for the control of Terra, which interestingly reveals a breach in the plan: both work in cooperation to influence the long term human evolution and consciousness through systems and elite institutions, religious fundamentalism, patriarchal domination and a cult of greed and violence, but...they also are in competition against each other for the ultimate ownership of the planet, and this is where a big breach is. (A Gift from the Stars)

Philo of Byblos provides a fascinating account of the origins of the Phoenician race, wheom he asserts inherited their maritime capability from a dynasty of gods that founded the city of Byblos. These mythical individuals introduced civilized society, possessed 'light and other more complete ships', and gave birth to many sons and daughters who bore the names of later Phoenician city-states and countries throughout the eastern Mediterranean. Their leader was Cronus (Saturn), the son of Coelus or Ouranus, the father of the six Titans and their six female counterparts, the Titanides. (Gateway to Atlantis)  

In Greek myth the Nephilim are eqyated diredctly with the Titans, and Gigantes, or 'Giants', who waged war on the gods of Olympus and, like Cronos, were said to have been the offspring of Coelus and Terra. (Gateway to Atlantis)

So in summary we can say that the concept of the Duku—as handed down across the millennia, until it became a feature in the cosmological world of the Sumerians, Akkadians, and later Babylonians and Assyrians—most likely constituted an amalgam of sites that included Göbekli Tepe in the triangle d’or, and another now lost site in the vicinity of Bingöl Mountain in the Armenian Highlands. Kharsag, Eden, and Dilmun, as geologist and writer Christian O’Brien suspected, are all one and the same, and in Mesopotamian tradition it was here that the Anunnaki are said to have “made” humankind. (Gobekli Tepe: Genesis of the Gods)

After “3600 years” of digging out the Tigris and Euphrates river beds to create water channels, seen as “the lifelines of the land,” the Igigi decide they are not going to suffer this toil any longer and so rebel against the Anunnaki, who are under the leadership of Ellil (the Old Babylonian and Assyrian form of Enlil). Apparently, they set fire to their tools and lay siege to Ekur, Ellil’s mountain house, where the other Anunnaki are also to be found. On learning why exactly the Igigi are up in arms, the Anunnaki council decides to make the first humans in order to carry out all further manual work on behalf of the gods. The humans are created by the Anunnaki through the intervention of “far-sighted Enki” and some of the other Anunnaki. To achieve this, the god Illawela “who had intelligence” (the god Kingu in other accounts) is sacrificed, and the Anunnaki immerse themselves in his blood to purify themselves. Enki then provides clay to the womb goddess Nintu, also called Mami, who calls upon more womb goddesses to start molding together the blood of the god to create the first human beings “to bear the yoke . . . to bear the load of the gods.” From the god’s flesh a ghost comes into existence, so that the slain god might never be forgotten. In another version of the Mesopotamian creation myth, the first man is said to have been Adapa, a name reminiscent of Adam, the first man of Hebrew myth, who is modeled from clay that is the color of blood. In this instance it is not only Enki who provides clay for the creation of the first humans, but also his wife Ninkharsag, who is synonymous with Nintu and Mami. Together they mold together the blood and clay to create the likeness of the human form. (Gobekli Tepe: Genesis of the Gods)

One of the book of Enoch’s internal texts, known to scholars as the book of the Watchers, tells the story of the ‘îrîn, a name given to angels in certain Hebrew works of early manufacture and meaning something like “those who are awake” or “those who watch.” It is said that two hundred of their number came together in an assembly on top of a mountain and swore an oath of loyalty before descending to the plains below. Here they took mortal wives and revealed to them the secret arts of heaven. For this they became outcasts, rebels, and reprobates—the first fallen angels, a crime for which they were rounded up, incarcerated by the heavenly angels, and forced to watch the slaughter of their giant offspring, the Nephilim, a word that means “those who have fallen” or the “fallen ones.” (Gobekli Tepe: Genesis of the Gods)

There is good reason to suggest that the Watchers and Nephilim are simply different names for the same antediluvian population that thrived in the Bible lands prior to the Flood of Noah. These rebel Watchers, or fallen angels, bore no recognizable wings. In Enochian literature they are described only as tall in stature, with long, white hair, pale skin, ruddy complexions, and mesmeric eyes that quite literally shine like the sun. One crucial passage in a fragmentary text known as the Testament of Amram likens the visage of one Watcher to that of a “viper,” suggesting a long, narrow face of apparent serpentine appearance. That the setting for the events featured in the book of Enoch was eastern Anatolia, historical Armenia, where almost all the stories contained in the book of Genesis prior to the age of Abraham are played out. Not only is it the suspected setting for the fall of Adam and Eve in the Garden of Eden, but it is also where Noah’s ark came to rest; where Abraham was brought up in Ur of the Chaldees. (Gobekli Tepe: Genesis of the Gods)

The angels were said to have inhabited Paradise itself and so benefited, like Adam and Eve before the Fall, from the presence of the Tree of Life, which conveys eternal life to whoever or whatever is in its presence. The Tree of Life was anciently believed to have been an olive tree, an evergreen that gave forth a fragrance or perfume. (Gobekli Tepe: Genesis of the Gods)

See Explanation of Sumerian and Assyrian Tablets...

See Explanation of Sumerian and Assyrian Tablets...(Part II)

See Zecharia Sitchin's Sumerian Tale

See The Birth of Man

See The Great Flood

See Conflict Among the Gods

See Hittite Tales

See Sumerian Mythology

See The Epic of Gilgamesh

See The Holy Bible

See The Book of Enoch

See Old Testament\