Language around 5,000 BC

The Globe




Southwest Asia

The usual conclusion from either glottochronology or pants' seats is that the PIE (Proto-Indo-European) language community may have started to break up into several daughter language communities by 3000 BC, surely by 2500 BC and not before 5000 BC. (The Third Chimpanzee)

By such reasoning linguistic paleontology, even in the absence of any other evidence, would date the break-up of PIE as before 2000 BC but after 3300 BC. This conclusion agrees well with the one reached by extrapolating the differences between Hittite, Greek, and Sanskrit backward in time. If we wish to find traces of the first Indo-Europeans, we shall be safe to concentrate on the archaeological record between 2500 and 5000 BC, and perhaps slightly before 3000 BC. (The Third Chimpanzee)

The oldest Sumerian documents known to us were written, according to some, in the fourth millennium BC, or, according to others, in the fifth millennium; but whichever view be accepted, they prove that the art of writing was established among the Sumerians at a very early period. In other words, they had at that time learned to use pictographs solely for the sound of the word which expressed the idea they represent, without any actual reference to the object depicted. When the use of the cuneiform script died out in Mesopotamia is not known, but it is certain that it was used in Babylon until the end of the first century BC. (Babylonian Life and History)



Indus Valley






South America




North America



 [Their] ancient language appears to be unrelated to any other, but a case has recently been put forward that there are many striking similarities between it and Basque, a western European language that had also been thought to be unique. (Uriel's Machine)