Governance in Southwest Asia

Southwest Asia

The most detailed accounts of Advanced Beings contributions to human institutions come from the land of Babylon, what we can consider the "command center" of the Anunnaki regime. Examples range from Tell Hamoukar (discovered in Syria in 2000), an agricultural center established or reestablished after the Flood, to later settlements in the Indus Valley. Widely separated geographically, all contain evidence of the same foods, art, simple writing systems, and cultural practices. (Gods, Genes, and Consciousness)

One may reasonably conclude on the basis of the Sumerian, Egyptian, and biblical texts that kings and priests today follow in the footsteps of the gods. The king lists and accounts of early human rulers suggest that in Sumeria and Egypt humans did more than just imitate the gods. They apparently assumed the mantle of Advanced Being kingship, stepping into previously established roles and taking control of existing structures. Directly assuming the Advanced Being powers--crowning themselves, living in Advanced Being buildings and using royal devices--they obtained the same obedience and loyalty from citizens. (Gods, Genes, and Consciousness)

Perhaps the ziggurat and its monumental style of architecture can help us understand the nature of the god-human relationship. The ziggurat first appears in Sumerian history as the precataclysm E.KUR (meaning "house which is like a mountain") in Nippur. Anunnaki leader Enlil reportedly lived there and, with access to the DUR.AN.KI (meaning "Link Heaven and Earth"), commanded the Anunnaki colony's mission control center. The control center was reserved for the gods. Other inner areas were limited to the gods and their chosen priesthood. Anyone encroaching was punished. The ziggurat's size and magnificence showed who was king and lord. (Gods, Genes, and Consciousness)

After the Cataclysm, the Anunnaki who were assigned to rule Mesopotamian city-states had their headquarters in personal ziggurats. These were constructed and maintained by humans under Anunnaki supervision, but access was controlled. Archaeologists in the 1940s counted 33 ruins in 27 Mesopotamian cities. Babylonian texts mention active ziggurats, as in Lagash, as late as 2200 BC (This is compatible with the 2024 BC date mentioned elsewhere as the end of Anunnaki presence in many cities. (Gods, Genes, and Consciousness)

After Byzantine authority collapsed, orchards were abandoned and the population crashed, but land degradation continued as the remaining inhabitants became dependent on intensive grazing. The insatiable goats began to eat their way through the shrubs, herbs, and grasses. (The Third Chimpanzee)

Petra's ravaged landscape today is a metaphor for what happened to the rest of the cradle of western civilization. The modern surrounds of Petra could no more feed a city that commanded the world's main trade routes than the modern surrounds of Persepolis could feed the capital of a superpower such as the Persian Empire once was. The ruins of those cities, and of Athens and Rome, are monuments to states that destroyed their means of survival. Nor are Mediterranean civilizations the only literate societies that committed ecological suicide. The collapse of Classic Maya civilization in Central America, and of Harappan civilization in India's Indus Valley, are other obvious candidates for eco-disasters due to an expanding human population overwhelming its environment. While courses in the history of civilization often dwell on kings and barbarian invasions, deforestation and erosion may in the long run have been more important shapers of human history. (The Third Chimpanzee)

The following extracts illustrate the contents of this Babylonian Book of Wisdom: "As a wise and discreet man thou shalt belittle thy knowledge (or, capacity). Set a bridle in thy mouth; watch carefully thy speech. As the riches of men let thy lips be accounted rare. Let audacity for wickedness be an abomination unto thee. Utter not words of arrogance or lying counsel. The head of the man who worketh dissoluteness is dishonoured. Force not thyself into an assembly of men to tarry there; and seek not out the place where there is contention, For in the strife they will compel thee to come to a decision (i.e. to take a side), Thou wilt become involved in their seeking for testimony, And in a case with which thou hast nothing to do they will drag thee forward as a witness. Harm not in any way thine adversary. Recompense the man who doeth evil to thee with good. Oppose thine enemy with righteous dealing. (Babylonian Life and History)

After the god the king, in the earliest times, was absolute lord and master of the country and of all who lived in it, and in some capacities he was held to be "like God." He and his governors and nobles formed a small class by themselves and possessed great power. There seems to be little doubt that in Sumerian times the population was divided into two (or three) classes, but it was not until the reign of Khammurabi that these classes were sharply defined. His Code recognizes three classes, viz., the Amelum (or Awelum), the Mushkinu, and the Wardum. The Amelum included the king, his governors and nobles, the landed proprietors, the priests and the educated class, the higher officers of the Government, and the highly skilled handicraftsmen. All of these were regarded as "free men." Among the nobles a certain number, probably by reason of their age and experience, formed a small class by themselves, and they possessed very great influence. The Amelum enjoyed many privileges, but on the other hand, if they were fined because of an accident which chaused loss of life or limb to any man their fine was heavier than that impose on ordinary folk. The division between the highest class of the Amelum and the rest of the population was very sharply defined. From the texts belonging to the later period it is quite clear that the word Amelum lost its original significance, and that it was used for "man," "any man," "anyone," without the least regard to his position or property. The Mushkinu, or “serf”(?), lived in a special quarter of the city, and we know from the Code that he contributed less than the Amelum to the temples, and that all his fines and fees were on a lower scale than theirs. He was a free man, or partly so, and was, like the Amelum, compensated for property destroyed or for loss of limb. He was never put in the fighting line in war time, but served in the camps. Nothing is known as to his origin or mode of life in general, and it is difficult to find a word that will translate exactly the title mushkinu. In later times it lost its original significance, and its equivalent in Arabic, maskin, whence it has passed into European languages, means "destitute," "poor man," and even mendicant. The Wardum, or slave, was the absolute property of his master, whether acquired by purchase or born on his land; his head was generally shaved in a peculiar way, and he was branded. He was fed and housed by his master, who provided him with a wife, whose offspring was the master's property. He could own property, and many slaves lived as tenants on their lords' estates. A slave might buy his freedom, or be freed by his master, to serve in the temple, or he might receive freedom by marrying a free woman, or on adoption by his own or another master. To harbour a runaway slave, or to help him to escape, or to refuse to give him up on demand was a serious offence against the Law, and entailed a heavy fine. The Wardum was in Babylonia what the fallah was, and still is, in Egypt. The King and the temples owned slaves in large numbers, and the women as well as the men had to do much hard work on the land, both in clearing out the water channels and canals, and in sowing and reaping. In addition to bringing up their families, they often had to attend to the cattle belonging to the temple, and to cook and to brew beer, etc. But, like the men, they were allowed to hold property and embark in business, and as has always been the case in the East, many of them showed themselves to be capable businesswomen. Among the women-slaves of the temples was a class who dedicated themselves to the god, and in many respects they were the equivalents in Babylonia of the Vestal Virgins in Rome. They were virgins vowed to chastity, and a special quarter in the temple was provided for them. The Code decreed that they should neither keep a wine-shop nor enter one. Nabonidus made his daughter the head and directress of the temple-virgins of Ur of the Chaldees. (Babylonian Life and History)

The business of the temple and the management of its estates and properties were conducted by a staff of educated men, who were assisted by a large number of handicraftsmen of all kinds. The priestesses of the temple were presided over by the High Priestess, whose duty it was to direct and control as far as possible the women servants of the temple, and the "Ishtar Maidens," who dedicated themselves to the service of the goddess. (Babylonian Life and History)

The chief exports of Babylonia were grain, skins, oil, dates, pottery, and reeds for making mats, baskets, sandals, etc. Its imports were gold, which was brought from Nubia and the coasts of the Red Sea in the form of rings and bags of alluvial gold dust; silver, which came from the Taurus mountains, and was bartered in the form of rings and ingots; copper from Cyprus and Makan (Sinai); rock-salt, which was the purest known, from Northern Assyria; iron from the neighbourhood of the Black Sea, etc. Lead and tin were separated from silver by smelting. The Sumerians discovered that copper alloyed with tin or antimony increased in hardness, and both these substances were important imports. As there was no stone in Babylonia and very little wood, both had to be imported; hard stones, porphyry, diorite, quartzite, and sandstone were brought from Sinai and Egypt, limestone and basalt from Armenia and Northern Assyria, and marble from countries near the Mediterranean Sea. Large quantities of lapis-lazuli came from Persia… The Babylonian merchants, like many other Oriental peoples, dealt largely in slaves, and the slave trade must have yielded them large profits. The slave, both male and female, was regarded as a chattel, and as a beast of burden like the ox, or ass, or camel; Khammurabi valued the slave at 20 shekels. (Babylonian Life and History)

According to Thompson, Eridu and Ur and the neighbouring cities were occupied in pre-Sumerian times by a people who were entirely different from the Sumerians… Their original home seems to have been the Pamirs of the Hindu Kush. They made thin pottery, artistically painted (though it is doubtful if they were acquainted with the potter's wheel…They were an agricultural people, they tilled the ground with stone hoes, reaped their crops with clay sickles, and ground their corn on stone querns. The art of weaving was known to them, and their weapons consisted of bows and arrows, slings and stone axes. They used obsidian pins, and their women wore beads of carnelian(?) They could neither write nor carve stone. They lived, like the modern Arabs, in reed-huts or in mud-brick houses. Eridu did not stand on the sea shore, but on the margin of the tidal waters of the Euphrates lagoons, perhaps on one of the mouths of the Euphrates. (Babylonian Life and History)

The sameness of the Indus Valley and Mesopotamian civilizations was unmistakable. They were all of a piece. They were the businesssmen, the "calculators" of the ancient world. (Gods of the Cataclysm)

The information was sparse from the Indus Valley itself, so I drew inferences from the social structure of Sumer (according to Heras, a "colony" of the Indus civilization). There were basically three different groups: 1. The Amelu or Aristocracy: the king, the nobles, the priesthood, government officials, and regular soldiers, 2. The Mushkenu or Middle Class: merchants, farmers, artisans and other freemen, 3. The Slaves: war-captives, debtors, slaves who were the descendants of slaves. (Gods of the Cataclysm)

Little could Sitchin suspect that Ollantaytambo and Baalbek are the same distance from the Hudson Bay Pole and share the 110 phi latitude. The fact is that the largest stones used in construction in both the Old and New World are found at the, same distance to the Hudson Bay Pole. This worldwide geodesic pattern repeatedly emphasizes the importance of the geometric notion of the Golden Section married to the number 10. (The Atlantis Blueprint)

Such records as there are suggest that civilisation came to the Sumerians in Mesopotamia by sea from the east. It also came to Egypt by sea from the east. The river port from which civilisation could have spread is Mohenjo-daro, if the city is as old as Marshall and Sastri supposed. The people bringing it were Vedic Aryans, if the opinion of Sankarananda is to be believed, or Semitic, if the suggestion of Diodorus is valid. (The God-Kings & the Titans)

In 1956 Professor Samuel N. Kramer, one of the great Sumerologists of our time, reviewed the literary legacy found beneath the mounds of Sumer. The table of contents of From the Tablets of Sumer is a gem in itself, for each one of the twenty-five chapters described a Sumerian "first," including the first schools, the first bicameral congress, the first historian, the first pharmacopoeia, the first "farmer's almanac," the first cosmogony and cosmology, the first "Job," the first proverbs and sayings, the first literary debates, the first "Noah," the first library catalogue; and Man's first Heroic Age, his first law codes and social reforms, his first medicine, agriculture, and search for world peace and harmony. (The 12th Planet)