Governance in the Indus Valley

Indus Valley

Almost nothing is known of the time between the late Glacial Age at circa 15,000 BC and the beginnings of Mehrgarh at circa 7000 BC...The first period at Mehrgarh has fully-developed domestic architecture based on mud brick...So while undoubtedly an early village farming community, there is also a sense that the excavations there have not documented the beginnings of this tradition or the beginnings of food production and domestication in the region. It is certainly nothing like a terminal hunting-gathering site with the intensive collection of cereals, pulses and sophisticated hunting. These people were already farmers. (Underworld)

Summary of archaeological evidence about the origins of civilization in India:
1. Fully functional 'village farming communities' like Mehrgarh in the foothills of the Himalayas appear suddenly in the archaeological record somewhere around 9000 years ago. It's a bit of a mystery. No clear antecedents have yet been found. The original settlers came with seeds and already knew how to farm.
2. This happened in the midst of an epoch of cataclysmic global floods that saw huge areas of India's continental shelf inundated. The possibility, therefore, cannot be ruled out that the founders of Mehrgarh had previously lived on lands swallowed up by the rising seas.
3. There is an unbroken archaeological continuum between Mehrgarh I A around 7000 BC and the upsurge of Mohenjodaro and Harappa as great cities after 3000 BC. For some reason the rate of growth and development became particularly rapid between 2600 and 2500 BC - the mature phase of incredibly vigorous urban expansion - but you can see the roots even of this phase in many small and large details more than 4000 years older exposed in the excavations of the first habitation layers at Mehrgarh.
4. The paramount ritual image to have come down to us from Mohenjodaro and Harappa, and therefore likely to be connected in some way to this ancient heritage, recognizably portrays a rishi seated in an advanced yogic posture and seemingly deep in meditation. (Underworld)

In its early stages, Indian society lived by the Vedas (in which all beings and other parts of the universe were seen simply as manifestations of the one creative force, without the necessity of a formal priesthood). After the Aryan invaders imported the Indo-European system of god-worship, the informal groups of different professional became an official caste system. The priests of Aryan culture appear to have changed the Brahmin role in Hinduism from "learned one" to "arbiter of dogma." Subsequently, they claimed direct lineage from or access to the gods. (Gods, Genes, and Consciousness)

The sameness of the Indus Valley and Mesopotamian civilizations was unmistakable. They were all of a piece. They were the businesssmen, the "calculators" of the ancient world. (Gods of the Cataclysm)

India, with its vibrant spiritual culture, its armies of ragged pilgrims and its remarkable Vedas raises the possibility that the real origins of civilization could be very different - not driven by economics but by the spiritual quest that all true ascetics of India still pursue with the utmost dedication. Such a quest does not deny that the basic material requirements of the human creature must be met but seeks to limit our attachment to material things and in general to subordinate material needs to mental and spiritual self-discipline. In the sparseness, understatement and efficiency of Mehrgarh's most ancient period could it be that we are seeing the imprint of this essentially yogic ethic - which the Vedas anyway tell us was the ethic of most ancient India? And since archaeologists are now in universal agreement that there is an unbroken continuity of culture from Mehrgarh I around 9000 years ago all the way down to the great cities of the Indus-Sarasvati civilization around 4500 years ago, shouldn't we expect signs of the same yogic ethic to turn up there? (Underworld)

In the Rig Veda, the Aryans are always described in positive, light-filled, benevolent terms. They worship the bright, happy gods. They are religious, decent, civilized. In contrast to them, the non-Aryans--here referred to as Dasyus--are pictured as sensual, earthly, aberrant, perverted, exotic, antinatura1. They worshipped trees, snakes, and the phallus--the lingam. They didn't cook their food as the Aryans did, and their language wasn't minced and plotted and neatly controlled like the Aryans', but was cacophonous, crude, jarring. They are dark-skinned and flat-nosed in contrast with the white, aquiline-nosed Aryans. The dichotomy is very clear. On one hand we have the People of Light, the Aryans, the people of the sky-gods, Varuna, Agni, Indra, and on the other hand we have the evil People of Darkness, the non-Aryans, the subterranean earth people, the unclean. (Gods of the Cataclysm)

The Dravidians of the Indus civilisation originated from the east Mediterranean. (The God-Kings & the Titans)