Governance around 14,000 BC


The archaeological record shows that a single culture, the Iberomaurusian, occupied the Maghreb region of North Africa from around 18/16,000 to 8,000 BC, during which time similar assemblages were to be found as far east as the Haua Fteah cave on the Cyrenaican coast. Not quite up to Egypt, but the proximity of Iberomaurusian deposits to the present coastline has suggested to investigators that many sites may have been drowned in the postglacial seas. (Plato Prehistorian)

Southwest Asia




Indus Valley





After reviewing the detailed findings presented in their 1997 book Dossier Malta Frendo concludes that the Mifsuds' claim, though revolutionary, is in fact correct and that their work has proved 'beyond any reasonable doubt' that human beings were present in Malta during the Palaeolithic as early as 15,000 to 18,000 years ago and that 'Malta's history is thus extended backward by eight millennia'. (Underworld)

South America




North America



The Australian Aborigones offer a wonderful subject for meditations on the nature of humanity. Consider: these people lived in what may have been nearly complete isolation for more than 40,000 years in an ecologically diverse continent, and when first encountered by Europeans in the 17th century, their technology hardly approached the sophistication of the Neanderthals: just simple stone tools and rudimentary wooden implements; and yet they evolved a kinship system and cosmology that most graduate students in anthropology have struggled to comprehend in all its complexity--and probably never do. (Patterns in Prehistory)