Envolution around 8 million+ BC

The Globe

It is an inescapable fact of genetics that all people alive in the world are genetically related, and that at some point an individual existed whom we all claim as an ancestor. The only points of debate are how long ago that ancesor lived, and where. DNA data suggests all modern humans are genetic descendants of one small inbred group of prehistoric Africans. (Patterns in Prehistory)

This "African Eve Hypothesis" is based on the study of DNA taken from the mitocondria, which are features in human cells where energy to keep the cell functioning is produced. (Patterns in Prehistory)

In a typical modern chronology, the line that would lead to us split off from Old World Monkeys about 25 million years (m.y.) ago; from the gibbons, 18 m.y. ago; from orangutans around 14 m.y. ago; from gorillas some 8 m.y. ago... (Shadows of Forgotten Ancestors)

Man's ancestor apes are now placed at a staggering 25,000,000 years ago. (The 12th Planet)

7 – 8 million years ago Gorillas appeared.   7.2 million years ago The ape and hominin lineages diverged. The last known ancestor of both branches, Graecopithecus freybergi, lived in the eastern Mediterranean area around this time. Fossils have been found in Greece and Bulgaria. [12-06] This species could be the famous “missing link.”   5.8 million years ago Possibly the first hominin to walk upright: Orrorin tugenensis.   4.4 million years ago Another primitive hominin, Ardipithecus ramidus, lived in Ethiopia. Fossils were discovered there in the 1990s. Its pelvis was adapted for both tree climbing and walking upright. The position of its skull on its spine indicates it was bipedal. (Humans are Not from Earth)   


 Discoveries in East Africa reveal a transition to manlike apes (hominids) some 14,000,000 years ago. (The 12th Planet)

Southwest Asia




Indus Valley



In 1983, the Moscow News gave a brief but intriguing report on what appeared to be a human footprint in 150-million-year-old Jurassic rock next to a giant three-toed dinosaur footprint. The discovery occurred in the Turkmen Republic in what was then the southeastern USSR. Professor Amanniyazov, corresponding member of the Turkmen SSR Academy of Sciences, said that although the print resembled a human footprint, there was no conclusive proof that it was made by a human being. (The Hidden History of the Human Race)



South America




North America

...we discussed the numerous stone implements discovered in auriferous gravels of the Sierra Nevada Mountains of California. Human bones were also found in these gravels, which range from 9 million to 55 million years old. In February 1866, Mr. Mattison, the principal owner of the mine on Bald Hill near Angels Creek in Calaveras County, removed a skull from a layer of gravel l30 feet below the surface. The gravel was near the bedrock, underneath several distinct layers of volcanic material. Volcanic eruptions began in this region during the Oligocene, continued through the Miocene, and ended in the Pliocene. Since the skull occurred near the bottom of the sequence of interspersed gravel and lava layers at Bald Hill, it would seem likely that the gravel in which the skull was found was older than the Pliocene, perhaps much older. (The Hidden History of the Human Race)

When examining a collection of stone artifacts belonging to Dr. Perez Snell, J. D. Whitney noted the presence of a human jaw. The jaw and artifacts all came from gold-bearing gravels beneath the lava cap of Tuolumne Table Mountain. The jaw measured 5.5 inches across from condyle to condyle, which is within the normal human range. Whitney remarked that all the human fossils uncovered in the gold-mining region, including this one, were of the anatomically modern type. The gravels from which the jaw came could be anywhere from 9 to 55 million years old. (The Hidden History of the Human Race)

In December of 1862, the following brief but intriguing report appeared in a journal called The Geologist: "In Macoupin county, Illinois, the bones of a man were recently found on a coal-bed capped with two feet of slate rock, ninety feet below the surface of the earth...The bones, when found, were covered with a crust or coating of hard glossy matter, as black as coal itself, but when scraped away left the bones white and natural." The coal in which the Macoupin County skeleton was found is at least 286 million years old and might be as much as 320 million years old. (The Hidden History of the Human Race)

Professor W. G. Burroughs, head of the department of geology at Berea College in Berea, Kentucky, reported in 1938: "During the beginning of the Upper Carboniferous (Coal Age) Period, creatures that walked on their two hind legs and had human-like feet, left tracks on a sand beach in Rockcastle County, Kentucky. With the cooperation of Dr. C. W. Gilmore Curator of Vertebrate Paleontology, Smithsonian Institution, it has been shown that similar creatures lived in Pennsylvania and Missouri." Burroughs stated: "Each footprint has five toes and a distinct arch. The toes spread apart like those of a human being who has never worn shoes." Giving more details about the prints, Burroughs stated: "The foot curves back like a human foot to a human appearing heel." David L. Bushnell, an ethnologist with the Smithsonian Institution, suggested the prints were carved by Indians. In ruling out this hypothesis, Dr. Burroughs used a microscope to study the prints and noted: "The sand grains within the tracks are closer together than the sand grains of the rock just outside the tracks due to the pressure of the creatures' feet...The sandstone adjacent to many of the tracks is uprolled due to the damp, loose sand having been pushed up around the foot as the foot sank into the sand." These facts led Burroughs to conclude that the humanlike footprints were formed by compression in the soft, wet sand before it consolidated into rock some 300 million years ago. Burrough's observations were confirmed by other investigators. When asked about them, Burroughs said, "They look human. That is what makes them especially interesting." (The Hidden History of the Human Race)