Envolution around 18,000 BC


 Based on...DNA analysis, African and European cattle split into two strains over 20,000 years ago. (Gods, Genes, and Consciousness)

Southwest Asia

...the hill lands of Syria, Lebanon, and Israel, are replete with caves where the evidence of prehistoric but modern Man has been preserved. One of these caves, Shanidar, is located in the north-eastern part of the semiarc of civilization. As layer upon layer of debris was removed, it became apparent that the cave preserved a clear record of Man's habitation in the area from about 100,000 to some 13,000 years ago. Man's culture has shown not a progression but a regression. Starting from a certain standard, the following generations showed not more advanced but less advanced standards of civilized life. And from about 27,000 BC to 11,000 BC, the regressing and dwindling population reached the point of an almost complete absence of habitation. (The 12th Planet)



Indus Valley





 Based on...DNA analysis, African and European cattle split into two strains over 20,000 years ago. (Gods, Genes, and Consciousness)

Brian Fagan, expresses a cautious view in his latest college-level textbook on world prehistory. He assumes that most human activity on the continent dates from sometime after 20,000 years ago and that practically no one lived in Siberia before 18,000 years ago, neither of which are unreasonable suggestions based on a conservative interpretation of available data. Similarly, few people lived in frigid Beringia during the glacial maximum, but then, about 12,700 BC or 14,650 years ago, the temperatures in the far north rose rapidly and people began heading across the land bridge and south. Once under way, they ranged far and wide. (The First Americans)

People had moved into subarctic Siberia when it was warmer, between about 30,000 and 20,000 years ago, with most of the known sites dating from 24,000 to 20,000 B.P., just before the last glacial maximum (or LGM). There they developed the techniques to make a living in cold desert-steppe landscape. After that period, traces of people are not found; they all appear to have moved south again when the far north became uninhabitable. (The First Americans)

The Chukchi, who live in the far east of Siberia, are renowned for having bred the Siberian husky. This dog is legendary for its strength, stamina and sweetness of temperament. For as long the Chukchi can recall their life has revolved around huskies. The women reared the pups and chose which pups to keep, discarding all but the best bitches and neutering all but the best males. The men trained the dogs, principally the neutered males, to pull sledges. Huskies also acted as companions for the children and families. In the bitterly cold Siberian winters the dogs slept inside to keep people warm. Chukchi folklore defined temperatures at night in terms of the number of dogs necessary to keep a person warm: a cold night was 'two-dog night' and an intensely cold night a 'three-dog night'. An archaeological dig in the Bryansk region of Russia found the remains of two large dogs with intact skulls. Dated to between 16 and 20 kya, these dogs had lived in the severe conditions at the end of the LGM. Their bones were found next to those of the mammoth, polar fox and reindeer. (Climate Change in Prehistory)

South America




North America