Envolution around 15,000 BC


In North Africa, modern man (Homo sapiens sapiens) appeared as Iberomaurusians (an African Cro-Magnon variation) between 19,000 and 10,000 years ago. (Before the Pharaohs)

Southwest Asia

...the hill lands of Syria, Lebanon, and Israel, are replete with caves where the evidence of prehistoric but modern Man has been preserved. One of these caves, Shanidar, is located in the north-eastern part of the semiarc of civilization. As layer upon layer of debris was removed, it became apparent that the cave preserved a clear record of Man's habitation in the area from about 100,000 to some 13,000 years ago. Man's culture has shown not a progression but a regression. Starting from a certain standard, the following generations showed not more advanced but less advanced standards of civilized life. And from about 27,000 BC to 11,000 BC, the regressing and dwindling population reached the point of an almost complete absence of habitation. (The 12th Planet)



Indus Valley





The Chukchi, who live in the far east of Siberia, are renowned for having bred the Siberian husky. This dog is legendary for its strength, stamina and sweetness of temperament. For as long the Chukchi can recall their life has revolved around huskies. The women reared the pups and chose which pups to keep, discarding all but the best bitches and neutering all but the best males. The men trained the dogs, principally the neutered males, to pull sledges. Huskies also acted as companions for the children and families. In the bitterly cold Siberian winters the dogs slept inside to keep people warm. Chukchi folklore defined temperatures at night in terms of the number of dogs necessary to keep a person warm: a cold night was 'two-dog night' and an intensely cold night a 'three-dog night'. An archaeological dig in the Bryansk region of Russia found the remains of two large dogs with intact skulls. Dated to between 16 and 20 kya, these dogs had lived in the severe conditions at the end of the LGM. Their bones were found next to those of the mammoth, polar fox and reindeer. (Climate Change in Prehistory)

South America




North America

 ...mtDNA profiling by Douglas Wallace's group of Native Americans living in the Great Lakes region shows the existence of a fifth genetic lineage. This form (X) only exists amongst Europeans and is not present in East Asians. The data suggest that this haplogroup arrived in the Americas either 12 to 17 kya or 23 to 36 kya. (Climate Change in Prehistory)