Environment around 5 million BC

The Globe

During the Miocene, between 13 million and 5 million years ago, sea levels were some 400 feet above their present levels. Should humanity survive the next 10,000 years, the odds are that the world's famous coastal cities - New York, Hong Kong, Sydney, London, and even Cape Town - will all be underwater archaeological relics. (In the Footsteps of Eve)


After a major cooling five to six million years ago, when changes in earth's orbit affected global climate, subtropical Africa's warm, moist environment was subject to oscillating cycles of cool, dry and warm, wet weather. Forested areas which proliferated in warm cycles, receded in cool cycles, allowing grasslands to take over until the climate shifted and woodlands returned. The cycles were relatively brief and mild, and had little effect on the evolution of animal species.(Patterns in Prehistory)

Southwest Asia




Indus Valley






South America




North America