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Transport                  1,000 BC
Africa
Southwest Asia
Egypt
Indus Valley
China
Europe
South America
Mesoamerica
North America
Other

Africa

The Phoenician inscription found in Brazil detailing how a party of Phoenicians was cast on the Brazilian coast "in the nineteenth year of Hiram" is very specific about having left from Ezion-Geber: …We embarked from Ezion-Geber into the Red Sea and voyaged with ten ships… So a definite Hiram-Ezion-Geber-Brazilian interconnection is established. They had begun working African mines but by chance were cast into another of the richest gold areas in the world--Northeast Brazil. The Brahmi inscriptions in Brazil brought the interchange up to at least 500 BC, and the time of Solomon-Hiram of Tyre stretches back to 1000 BC; so there's a 500-year period of trans-Atlantic crossings…at least! In fact, in trying to establish an interconnection between Brahmi, a script of Northern India, and Brazil, the logical vehicle of transmission would have been Alexander the Great's imperial communication-structure, which in the third century BC stretched from North India all the way to Egypt/Libya. So all likelihood was that the contact between the Red Sea/African gold trade and Brazil lasted about 700 years! (120)

Southwest Asia

 About 1750 BC the chieftains who lived on the east bank of the Tigris began to cross that river and settle themselves on the rich lands in Lower Mesopotamia, and they succeeded in making the natives do their will. Increasing their power gradually, the chieftains made their way to Babylon, and in a comparative short time, Gandash, one of these Kashshu people (commonly called Kassites), made himself king of Babylon and founded the Third or Kassite Dynasty of Babylon. Though they honoured their native gods, and kept their own names, and always retained their chief native customs, they adopted, to their great advantage, much of the civilization of the Babylonians. The King Lists state that the Kassite kings were 36 in number, and that they reigned 576 years, i.e. from about 1746-1171 BC. (118)

We know through archaeological research that camels were not domesticated as beasts of burden earlier than the late second millenium and were not widely used in that capacity in the ancient Near East until well after 1000 BC. (143)

Egypt

 In 1976, the mummified remains of the Egyptian pharaoh Ramses the Great were displayed at the Museum of Mankind in Paris. It was a unique opportunity for scholars across Europe. The bandages wrapped around the mummy needed replacing, so botanists were given pieces of the fabric to analyze its content. Dr. Michele Lescott, from the Museum of Natural History in Paris, was fortunate enough to receive a small sample of the royal burial cloth for study. Upon close inspection, she discovered what looked like specks clinging to the fibers of the fragment. Under a microscope, they appeared to be specks of the tobacco plant. She tried several different views, but always found the same result. She was advised that the cloth sample had probably been contaminated by a pipe-toting worker. However, tobacco wasn't introduced into Egypt until modern times. (70)

More than a century ago, the king of Bavaria brought the ornate sarcophagus of Henut Taui, mummy included, to a museum in Munich. In 1992, researchers began a project to investigate its contents. For chemical analysis, they relied on Dr. Svetla Balabanova, of the Institute of Forensic Medicine in Ulm. From her tests, she obtained very baffling results. The body of Henut Taui contained large quantities of cocaine and nicotine, but during ancient times, tobacco grew only in the Americas and coca only in the Bolivian Andes. Yet, the tests Balabanova performed on hair shafts are a well-accepted method for determining drug use. They have been for the last twenty-five years. There is no chance for contamination. Drugs, and other substances consumed by humans, get into the hair proteins, where they stay for months and remain even after death. In fact, they can stay there forever. The lotus flower could explain these baffling results. It contains powerful nicotine and was actually used, as inscriptions on the grand temple at Karnak depict. The inscriptions show Egyptians dropping the lotus flower into a cup. Its contents, possibly wine, would react with the plant, thereby releasing the nicotine. But there is a problem with this solution. The levels of nicotine found in the mummies were lethal. Balabanova believed that tobacco had to be used in the mummification process. High doses of nicotine are antibacterial, and would help in the preservation process. (70)

Kehoe believes there is evidence of both transatlantic and transpacific contact between the eastern and western hemispheres, but admits some archaeologists avoid discussing the issue. The sweet potato, she claims, proves it, and there are sculptures of eastern Indian goddesses holding an ear of corn. Peanuts, found in western China, add more credence. Bernal, professor emeritus of ancient Eastern Mediterranean history, agrees, in theory, and calls these voyages to the Americas "overwhelmingly likely." (70)

Indus Valley

This slow, uneventful life came to an end when the Aryans discovered modern technology. In about 1500 BC, they had begun to trade with the more advanced societies south of the Caucasus in Mesopotamia and Armenia. They learned about bronze weaponry from the Armenians and also encountered new methods of transport: first they acquired wooden carts pulled by oxen, and then the war chariot. Once they had learned how to tame the wild horses of the steppes and harness them to their chariots, they experienced the joys of mobility. Life would never be the same again. The Aryans had become warriors. They could now travel long distances at high speed. With their superior weapons, they could conduct lightning raids on neighboring settlements and steal cattle and crops. (158)

China

 

Europe

This slow, uneventful life came to an end when the Aryans discovered modern technology. In about 1500 BC, they had begun to trade with the more advanced societies south of the Caucasus in Mesopotamia and Armenia. They learned about bronze weaponry from the Armenians and also encountered new methods of transport: first they acquired wooden carts pulled by oxen, and then the war chariot. Once they had learned how to tame the wild horses of the steppes and harness them to their chariots, they experienced the joys of mobility. Life would never be the same again. The Aryans had become warriors. They could now travel long distances at high speed. With their superior weapons, they could conduct lightning raids on neighboring settlements and steal cattle and crops. (158)

South America

 The Phoenician inscription found in Brazil detailing how a party of Phoenicians was cast on the Brazilian coast "in the nineteenth year of Hiram" is very specific about having left from Ezion-Geber: …We embarked from Ezion-Geber into the Red Sea and voyaged with ten ships… So a definite Hiram-Ezion-Geber-Brazilian interconnection is established. They had begun working African mines but by chance were cast into another of the richest gold areas in the world--Northeast Brazil. The Brahmi inscriptions in Brazil brought the interchange up to at least 500 BC, and the time of Solomon-Hiram of Tyre stretches back to 1000 BC; so there's a 500-year period of trans-Atlantic crossings…at least! In fact, in trying to establish an interconnection between Brahmi, a script of Northern India, and Brazil, the logical vehicle of transmission would have been Alexander the Great's imperial communication-structure, which in the third century BC stretched from North India all the way to Egypt/Libya. So all likelihood was that the contact between the Red Sea/African gold trade and Brazil lasted about 700 years! (120)

The... inscription in Brazil, the parahyba inscription, has been translated from the Phoenician... A second inscription has been found near Rio. Three thousand feet up on a vertical wall of rock is an inscription containing the following words, 'Tyre, Phoenicia, Badezir, Firstborn of Jethbaal...' This dates it to the middle of the ninth century BC. These inscriptions help to support the narrative of Diodorus. Other classical writers besides Plato and Diodorus, also referred to America. Aristotle (384-322 BC) describes the country as being fertile, wooded, fruitful, traversed by navigable rivers and lying a sail of many days' distance outside the Pillars of Hercules. He stated that many Carthaginians and other men visited it and some remained until the Senate of Carthage, fearful lest other nations learn of this land, issued a decree that thereafter no one should sail there, under penalty of death. Theopompus (378 BC) wrote of an island 'of immense extent' somewhere in the ocean beyond the known world. This land was inhabited 'by strange people quite different from ours'. (135)

Mesoamerica

 ...the Olmecs preferred the hard basalt found in the Tuxtlas some 60 km away, which they could only have obtained with a tremendous expenditure of effort. It is estimated that transporting a single colossal head would have required the labor of more than 1,500 persons over three to four months. (159)

North America

 

Other