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Tools                  6,000 BC
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 Copper also seems to have been in use in 6000 BC. Because it is a more practical metal than gold, its role in the development of civilization is more significant; it was the metal first used for tools and weapons. Copper existing in its native form was originally collected and worked, although "in the ancient Near East, the supply of native copper was quickly exhausted, and the miner had to turn to ores." (69)

Once pottery kilns were in use, temperatures were reached for pottery in which this natural smelting could be simulated for metals. When this happened, seemingly about 6000 BC, mining was already ancient, since mining for cosmetics was thirty thousand years old. So that when the available alluvial or placer deposits had been consumed, methods were to hand for digging into the earth after the ore-bodies themselves. (135)

Africa

 

Southwest Asia

 Copper also seems to have been in use in 6000 BC. Because it is a more practical metal than gold, its role in the development of civilization is more significant; it was the metal first used for tools and weapons. Copper existing in its native form was originally collected and worked, although "in the ancient Near East, the supply of native copper was quickly exhausted, and the miner had to turn to ores." (69)

Pressure-flaked obsidian spearheads [from Catal Huyuk], frequently found buried unused with the dead or offered in the shrines, have been designated "easily the most elegant in the Near East." Lead and copper beads and pendants were also present, and a lump of slag at Level VI suggests that copper was now being extracted from its ore. (115)

While the obsidian spearpoints at Catal Huyuk are known for the quality of their bifacial retouch, the flint daggers had intentionally been worked on one face only (at left). After an allover grinding and polishing, a controlled parallel ripple-flaking gave the weapons a finely serrated edge. As noted by the excavators, a similar technique would be used two thousand years later on ceremonial flint knives in pre-dynastic Egypt, where those in the painted tomb at Hierankopolis were judged "the zenith of the flint-knappers art." The haft of the dagger pictured here, carved in the form of a snake with pointille scales, is considered to be the finest bone artifact at the site. (115)

Mellaart's description of this new era in Anatolia, known as Early Chalcolithic, expresses the magnitude of a change that was almost universal: “...the chipped-stone industries lose their weapons and are reduced to blades; spindle whorls replace scrapers as hunting declines with the domestication of sheep, goat, pig, now added to that of dog and cattle. Copper occurs, but still mainly for trinkets, such as beads and pins. Maces and sling-stones are the only weapons. The date of its beginning is roughly the middle of the sixth millennium in carbon-14 terms.” …when mid-sixth-millennium carbon-14 dates are corrected to calendar time, the dawn of this new impulse will be dated to approximately 65/6300 BC. (115)

...at Catal Huyuk, circa 6500 BC, ceramic wares suddenly appear, and, as the excavator, Dr. James Mellaart, observes: "we can actually study the transition from an aceramic Neolithic with baskets and wooden vessels to a ceramic Neolithic with the first pottery." (128)

Two sites have confirmed the use of copper instruments as early as the first half of the fifth millennium BC, while even earlier evidence of copper deposits and a single lead bead have been detected at an important protoneolithic site named jarmo, situated on the Lesser Zab river in Iraqi Kurdistan. These examples could well date to as early as 6750 BC, some 350 years before copper and lead smelting is known to have been practised at Catal Huyuk in central Anatolia, c. 6400 BC. (149)

Egypt

 

Indus Valley

 

China

 

Europe

 The earliest evidence for the use of the bow in Europe, however, dates between 8,000 PB and 9000 BP in northern Europe. (170

South America

 The earliest known pottery in the New World dates to between 6000 BC and 5000 BC and comes from the lower Amazon Basin, in Brazil, where it was apparently made by hunter-foragers who specialized in shellfishing. (52)

Mesoamerica

 

North America

 The Koster site, in the Illinois River Valley, was first occupied at about 7,500 BC, and people lived at this site many times, at least until about 2,500 BC. These people slowly improved their technologies, adding new varieties of stone tools, more permanent forms of housing made of clay, poles, and thatch, rare implements of copper for which they traded with neighboring groups, and various other tools.(26)

Between 9,000 and 2,500 years ago Desert West cultures worked out a marvelous array of subsistence technologies and strategies, and the aridity of the environment has preserved artifacts so well that we can reconstruct their way of life in considerable detail. Wooden clubs, twined basketry, grinding stones atlatl points, and many other items have been found.(26)

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