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Tools                  5 Million BC
Africa
Southwest Asia
Egypt
Indus Valley
China
Europe
South America
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Africa

 

Southwest Asia

 In 1874, Frank Calvert found in a Miocene formation in Turkey (along the Dardanelles) a Deinotherium bone with carved figures of animals upon it. Calvert noted: "I have found in different parts of the same cliff, not far from the site of the engraved bone, a flint flake and some bones of animals, fractured longitudinally, obviously by the hand of man for the purpose of extracting the marrow, according to the practice of all primitive races." The elephantlike Deinotherium is said by modern authorities to have existed from the Late Pliocene to the Early Miocene in Europe. It is thus quite possible that Calvert's dating of the Dardanelles site as Miocene was correct. (138)

Egypt

 

Indus Valley

 

China

 

Europe

 At a place called Pikermi, near the plain of Marathon in Greece, there is a fossil-rich stratum of Late Miocene (Tortonian) age... Modern authorities still place the Pikermi site in the Late Miocene, which would make the bones at least 5 million years old. Von Ducker first examined numerous bones from the Pikermi site in the Museum of Athens. He found 34 jaw parts of Hipparion (an extinct three-toed horse) and antelope as well as 19 fragments of tibia and 22 other fragments of bones from large mammals such as rhinoceros. All showed traces of methodical fracturing for the purpose of extracting marrow. According to von Ducker, they all bore "more or less distinct traces of blows from hard objects." (138)

At a scientific conference held in 1880, G. Bellucci, of the Italian Society for Anthropology and Geography, called attention to new discoveries in San Valentino and Castello delle Forme, near Perugia. These included animal bones bearing cuts and impact marks from stones implements, carbonized bones, and flint flakes. All were recovered from lacustrine Pliocene clays, characterized by a fauna like that of the classic Val d' Arno. According to Bellucci, these objects proved the existence of man in the Pliocene. (138)

After studying modern geological reports, we have arrived at an age of at least 2.0-2.5 million years for the red Crag. The Coralline Crag would thus be older. Below the Red Crags of East Anglia there detritus beds, sometimes called bone beds. These are composed of a mixture of materials--sands, gravels, shells and bones derived from a variety of older formations, including the Eocene London Clay. J. Reid Moir found in the sub­Crag detritus beds stone tools, showing varying degrees of intentional work (left). Having concluded that the cruder tools were from as far back as the Eocene, Moir said "it becomes necessary to recognize a much higher antiquity for the human race than has hitherto been supposed." (138)

An important set of discoveries by Moir occurred at Foxhall, where he found stone tools (above) in the middle of the Late Pliocene Red Crag formation. The Foxhall implements would thus be over 2.0 million years old. Moir wrote in 1927: "The finds consisted of the debris of a flint workshop, and included hammer-stones, cores from which flakes had been struck, finished implements, numerous flakes, and several calcined stones showing that fires had been lighted at this spot. The commission, formed at the request of the International Institute of Anthropology, was composed of eight prominent European and American anthropologists, geologists, and archeologists. This group supported Moir's conclusions. They concluded that the flints from the base of the Red Crag near Ipswich were in undisturbed strata, at least Pliocene in age. Furthermore, the flaking on the flints was undoubtedly of human origin. Members of the commission also carried out four excavations into the detritus bed below the Red Crag and themselves found five typical specimens. These tools would be at least 2.5 million years old. And because the detritus bed contains materials from ancient Eocene land surfaces, the tools might be up to 55 million years old. (138)

Commission member Louis Capitan stated: "There exist at the base of the Crag, in undisturbed strata, worked flints (we have observed them ourselves). These are not made by anything other than a human or hominid which existed in the Tertiary epoch. This fact is found by us prehistorians to be absolutely demonstrated." Burkitt then delivered a striking conclusion about the implements discovered in and below the Red Crag: "The eoliths themselves are mostly much older than the late pliocene deposits in which they were found. Some of them might actually date back to pre-pliocene times." In other words, he was prepared to accept the existence of intelligent toolmaking hominids in England over 5 million years ago. Another supporter of Moir's finds was Louis Leakey, who wrote in 1960: "It is more than likely that primitive humans were present in Europe during the Lower Pleistocene, just as they were in Africa, and certainly a proportion of the specimens from the sub-crag deposits appear to be humanly flaked and cannot be regarded merely as the result of natural forces. Implements from below the Crags would, however, be not Early (Lower) Pleistocene but at least Late Pliocene in age." (138)

Sling stones and bola stones represent a level of technological sophistication universally associated with modern Homo sapiens. It may be recalled that the detritus bed below the Red Crag contains fossils and sediments from habitable land surfaces ranging from Pliocene to Eocene in age. Therefore the Bramford sling stone could be anywhere from 2 to 55 million years old. A drawing (left) showing marks of intentional shaping on the sling stone from the beneath the Red Crag at Bramford, England. (138)

South America

 

Mesoamerica

 

North America

 

Other