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Tools                  5,000 BC
Africa
Southwest Asia
Egypt
Indus Valley
China
Europe
South America
Mesoamerica
North America
Other

Africa

 

Southwest Asia

 During the late Neolithic era, circa 5000 BC to 4500 BC, the tribes of the Nile Valley were living in semi-subterranean oval houses, roofed with mud and sticks. They made simple pottery and used stone axes and flint arrowheads. They created yarns out of plant fibers, made wooden paddles...(68)

The Sumerians were also responsible for the first appearance of the ox-drawn plow, mentioned in the ancient -'First Farmer's Almanac." (68)

The flint daggers of Levels VIII to VI [Catal Huyuk] were gone, and although obsidian weapons were still made, their size increasingly diminished until by Level II the industry showed definite signs of decay. (115)

Vestiges of the older Zagros tradition included such items as carved stone “bracelets,” now wide bands of stone with a number of grooves running parallel to the edges but the tool kit was significantly changed, reflecting what the excavators saw as a shift away from an earlier preoccupation with hunting. The quantity of flint tools was greatly reduced (for the first time fragments of flint were outnumbered by sherds of pottery); a decrease in hide-working tools was matched by an increase in spindle whorls, suggesting, with the cultivation of flax, that the skins of wild animals were now being replaced by woven cloth. Plain blades and sickle blades, trimmed to fit into slots in a handle or haft, were the principal implements of the Sabz phase. (115)

In the southwest [Iran] the early fifth millennium saw further increases in the number of new agricultural sites in Susiana, while in the northeast a chain of perhaps twenty settlements now stretched along the foothills of the Kopet Dagh and into the Gurgan plain. ... flint tools were gradually being replaced by copper. On the plateau, copper was already being cast into molds at Tepe Gabristan, where a recently discovered workshop for coppersmiths, complete with crucible, kiln, and molds, has been dated to the early fifth millennium BC. The end of the fifth millennium would see the first recorded use of the potter's wheel at Sialk, an innovation which, like the advances in metallurgy, was then to spread westward from Iran into southern Mesopotamia , and not, as was once supposed, the other way around. (115)

It is only in the next and final stage of the early Anatolian development, and then gradually also in neighboring areas - circa 5500-4500 BC- that those well-known, unlifelike, conventionalized naked-goddess figurines appear that have been generally associated with the earliest village arts. A trend from naturalism to abstraction, from visual to conceptual thought, would seem thus to be indicated. And in the Anatolian sphere, meanwhile, which is still in advance of all, signs have begun appearing of the dawn of the earliest age of metals, the early chalcolithic: beads and little tubes of copper and lead, various trinkets, and even a few metal tools. A truly superb painted pottery is also being manufactured, pointing toward the great ceramic styles of the following millennium (Halaf wares, Samarra wares, Obeid wares, etc.). The expansion southward and eastward of the arts and manners of settled village life now has begun to cover the whole of the Near East, new centers of creative transformation are developing, and the stage has been set for the rise in Mesopotamia, circa 4000 BC, of the first of the great historic civilizations. (128)

Egypt

 

Indus Valley

 Moreover, beginning at about 5500 BC, the people of Mehrgarh began to use a crude but serviceable kind of pottery. They also used copper tools and imported turquoise and lapis lazuli from Iran and Afghanistan and marine shell from the Arabian Gulf area. (48)

China

 No doubt most villagers were full-time agriculturalists, but some engaged in silkworm cultivation, pottery manufacture, jade carving, and leather and textile production. (49)

Europe

 

South America

 The earliest known pottery in the New World dates to between 6000 BC and 5000 BC and comes from the lower Amazon Basin, in Brazil, where it was apparently made by hunter-foragers who specialized in shellfishing. (52)

Mesoamerica

 

North America

 Between 9,000 and 2,500 years ago Desert West cultures worked out a marvelous array of subsistence technologies and strategies, and the aridity of the environment has preserved artifacts so well that we can reconstruct their way of life in considerable detail. Wooden clubs, twined basketry, grinding stones atlatl points, and many other items have been found.(26)

The Koster site, in the Illinois River Valley, was first occupied at about 7,500 BC, and people lived at this site many times, at least until about 2,500 BC. These people slowly improved their technologies, adding new varieties of stone tools, more permanent forms of housing made of clay, poles, and thatch, rare implements of copper for which they traded with neighboring groups, and various other tools.(26)

...the mining on Isle Royale in Lake Superior and the upper peninsular of Michigan in America shows that mining and the fashioning of copper tools and weapons around the mines was carried on from 5000 to 1000 BC. (135)

Other