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Tools                  50,000 BC
Africa
Southwest Asia
Egypt
Indus Valley
China
Europe
South America
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In General

The multiple ways in which Homo spaiens diverged physically and behaviorally from pre-sapiens forms of Homo in the period between about 300,000 years ago to 30,000 years ago are collectively referred to as the "Middle/Upper Paleolithic transition." This "transition" is visible in many radical changes, such as many technological innovations, including the bow and arrow, atlatl (throwing stick), bone and wood tools of diverse types, and techniques for extracting a relatively great amount of cutting edge from a given amount of stone.(18)

Africa

 

Southwest Asia

 

Egypt

 

Indus Valley

 

China

 

Europe

 

The Neanderthals were adept stone toolmakers. Most of their tools belong to the Mousterian stone tool industry (named after the site of Le Moustier in southern France), which includes several distinctive stylistic and funtional elements. Francois Bordes uncovered 64 superimposed occupational levels in one cave, spanning the period from about 85,000 to 45,000 years ago.(19)

\Although the use of bone tools after 50,000 years ago may not have been absolutely innovative, the use of bone, as well as ivory, antler, and shell for the production of tools used in sewing - for example, awls, punches and needles - and for hunting equipment - for example, spear tips - is a virtual hallmark of the Upper Paleolithic. For example, along the Dnestr River in Russia. (170)

South America

 

Mesoamerica

 

North America

 

Other