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Architecture                 18,000 BC
Africa
Southwest Asia
Egypt
Indus Valley
China
Europe
South America
Mesoamerica
North America
Other

Africa

 

Southwest Asia

 

Egypt

 

Indus Valley

 

China

 

Europe

 One of the most amply documented Upper Paleolithic cultures in eastern Europe is the Kostenski-Bershevo culture centered in the Don River Valley, about 470 kilometers southeast of Moscow. About 25,000 to 11,000 years ago, the Kostenski-Bershevo area was an open grassland environment, with no rock shelters, caves, or other natural habitations, and with very little wood available for fires. People here left a variety of archeological sites, including base camps, where pit houses were constructed  by digging a pit a meter or so deep, ringing the excavation with mammoth bones or tusks, and then draping hides over these supports. Some excavated pit houses were relatively large, with many hearths, suggesting that several families may have passed the winter together.(24)

Kukla showed that just twenty thousand years ago when fully modern man, Homo sapiens sapiens, was painting scenes of the animal hunt on the ceilings of caves in southern France and Spain, the ice cap had extended southward from Scandinavia almost to the Alps just as Louis Agassiz had suspected. One clan of Ice Age hunters in Moravia had constructed dwellings near the conjunction of two rivers in the drainage basin of the Black Sea. Their homes, comprising the Upper Paleolithic settlement called Dolni Vestonice, had been built over pits chiseled from the frozen peat with hand axes. The roof of each tentlike structure was arched with poles, which were draped with animal skins stitched together with sinew. The hides were anchored to the ground by massive animal hipbones and by the skulls of reindeer, mammoths, and the occasional rhinoceros. Tusks provided fuel for hearths. The tool culture was exceptional for its fine leaf-shaped blades struck from a core of flint and for small bone carvings of animal heads, notably the wolf and the bear. (131)

South America

 

Mesoamerica

 

North America

 

Other