Building around 10,000 BC

The Globe




Southwest Asia

…at Ain Mallaha some fifty substantial dwellings of Gravettian design formed what appears to be the earliest village yet recorded. Walled with boulders, paved with slabs of limestone, Mallaha's round houses measured up to twenty-eight feet in diameter. But if the traditions of Natufian sites such as Ain Mallaha seem particularly evocative of central and east European culture, they were far more advanced than those of any recorded site in Europe. One of Mallaha's earliest houses featured a plastered interior wall that had been stained with red ochre before being polished smooth, an integrated technique which, like the ground stone work described above, was without known precedents. This red-plaster-walled house was later converted into a "tomb" into which two apparently high status individuals were laid, and the over-all variability of Mallahan burial customs adds to the impression of a socially stratified community. …no known European culture could have directly fathered this Palestinian settlement whose ancestry seems so unmistakably European. We are left with the alternative of an unknown, advanced Gravettian society somewhere in Europe whose members, or some of them, saw fit to migrate to Palestine in the tenth millennium BC - by land or, as the discovery of Late Paleolithic seafarers may now make plausible, by sea. (Plato Prehistorian)

The site of Gobekli Tepe [in Eastern trukey] is simple enough to describe. The oblong stones, unearthed by the shepherd, turned out to be the flat tops of awesome, T-shaped megaliths. Imagine carved and slender versions of the stones of Avebury or Stonehenge. Most of these standing stones are inscribed with bizarre and delicate images - mainly of boars and ducks, of hunting and game. Sinuous serpents are another common motif. Some of the megaliths show crayfish or lions. The stones seem to represent human forms - some have stylised 'arms', which angle down the sides. Functionally, the site appears to be a temple, or ritual site, like the stone circles of Western Europe. To date, 45 of these stones have been dug out - they are arranged in circles from five to ten yards across - but there are indications that much more is to come. Geomagnetic surveys imply that there are hundreds more standing stones, just waiting to be excavated. (126)

Carbon-dating shows that the complex is at least 12,000 years old, maybe even 13,000 years old. That means it was built around 10,000BC. By comparison, Stonehenge was built in 3,000 BC and the pyramids of Giza in 2,500 BC. Gobekli is thus the oldest such site in the world, by a mind-numbing margin. It is so old that it predates settled human life. It is pre-pottery, pre-writing, pre-everything. Gobekli hails from a part of human history that is unimaginably distant, right back in our hunter-gatherer past. How did cavemen build something so ambitious? Schmidt speculates that bands of hunters would have gathered sporadically at the site, through the decades of construction, living in animal-skin tents, slaughtering local game for food. The many flint arrowheads found around Gobekli support this thesis; they also support the dating of the site. This revelation, that Stone Age hunter-gatherers could have built something like Gobekli, is worldchanging, for it shows that the old hunter-gatherer life, in this region of Turkey, was far more advanced than we ever conceived - almost unbelievably sophisticated. It's as if the gods came down from heaven and built Gobekli for themselves. (126)


About three years ago, intrigued by the first scant details of the site, I flew out to Gobekli. ...on the day I arrived at the dig, the archaeologists were unearthing mind-blowing artworks. As these sculptures were revealed, I realised that I was among the first people to see them since the end of the Ice Age. And that's when a tantalising possibility arose. Over glasses of black tea, served in tents right next to the megaliths, Klaus Schmidt told me that, as he put it: 'Gobekli Tepe is not the Garden of Eden: it is a temple in Eden.' (126)

These days the landscape surrounding the eerie stones of Gobekli is arid and barren, but it was not always thus. As the carvings on the stones show - and as archaeological remains reveal - this was once a richly pastoral region. There were herds of game, rivers of fish, and flocks of wildfowl; lush green meadows were ringed by woods and wild orchards. About 10,000 years ago, the Kurdish desert was a 'paradisiacal place', as Schmidt puts it. In the Book of Genesis, it is indicated that Eden is west of Assyria. Sure enough, this is where Gobekli is sited. Likewise, biblical Eden is by four rivers, including the Tigris and Euphrates. And Gobekli lies between both of these. In ancient Assyrian texts, there is mention of a 'Beth Eden' - a house of Eden. This minor kingdom was 50 miles from Gobekli Tepe. Another book in the Old Testament talks of 'the children of Eden which were in Thelasar', a town in northern Syria, near Gobekli. The very word 'Eden' comes from the Sumerian for 'plain'; Gobekli lies on the plains of Harran. Thus, when you put it all together, the evidence is persuasive. Gobekli Tepe is, indeed, a 'temple in Eden', built by our leisured and fortunate ancestors - people who had time to cultivate art, architecture and complex ritual, before the traumas of agriculture ruined their lifestyle, and devastated their paradise. (126)

The astonishing stones and friezes of Gobekli Tepe are preserved intact for a bizarre reason. Long ago, the site was deliberately and systematically buried in a feat of labour every bit as remarkable as the stone carvings. (126)

In the pits, standing stones, or pillars, are arranged in circles. Beyond, on the hillside, are four other rings of partially excavated pillars. Each ring has a roughly similar layout: in the center are two large stone T-shaped pillars encircled by slightly smaller stones facing inward. The tallest pillars tower 16 feet and, Schmidt says, weigh between seven and ten tons. As we walk among them, I see that some are blank, while others are elaborately carved: foxes, lions, scorpions and vultures abound, twisting and crawling on the pillars' broad sides....because Schmidt has found no evidence that people permanently resided on the summit of Gobekli Tepe itself, he believes this was a place of worship on an unprecedented scale—humanity's first "cathedral on a hill." (127)

In rapid-fire German he explains that he has mapped the entire summit using ground-penetrating radar and geomagnetic surveys, charting where at least 16 other megalith rings remain buried across 22 acres. The one-acre excavation covers less than 5 percent of the site. He says archaeologists could dig here for another 50 years and barely scratch the surface. (127)

It dilates the imagination to reflect on the scale of the enterprise undertaken at Göbekli Tepe by the ancients. Not only are the circles of megalithic pillars already excavated here at least 6,000 years older than any other known megalithic sites anywhere in the world, but also, I now realize, Göbekli Tepe is huge—occupying an area that might eventually prove to be as much as thirty times larger than the fullest extent of a big site like Stonehenge, for example. We are confronted, in other words, by vast, inexplicable antiquity, immense scale, and unknown purpose—and all of it seeming to unfold out of nowhere, with no obvious background or preparation, shrouded utterly in mystery. (Magicians of the Gods)

“The structures of Göbekli Tepe,” Magli concludes, “were conceived to celebrate, and then follow in the course of the centuries, the appearance of a brilliant ‘guest’ star in the sky: Sirius.” (Magicians of the Gods)

For Belmonte, in summary, Göbekli Tepe offers evidence that: a completely unknown hunter-gatherer society more than 11,000 years ago sought to create monumental structures linked to the heavens. This series of sanctuaries, built presumably one after the other and even one upon another, may have been used for centuries, perhaps millennia, to chart the heavens. However, for reasons which are unknown, the constructors deliberately buried the structures, creating conditions which contributed to their excellent state of preservation despite their great antiquity. (Magicians of the Gods)

The hypothesis we are exploring here, and that I believe might explain these anomalies, is that the survivors of a lost civilization, who had already mastered agriculture and knew everything there was to know about building with megaliths, had settled among the hunter-gatherers of Göbekli Tepe following the Younger Dryas cataclysm and transferred some of their skills to them. (Magicians of the Gods)

…for some unknown reason the builders of Göbekli Tepe constructed a temple apparently highlighting a time 11,600 years in their future. Yet this scene is intentional. The symbolism is clear and in keeping with many mythologies describing this very same event—occurring at the very time we live in today! Göbekli Tepe was built as a symbolic sphere communicating a very ancient understanding of world and cosmic geography. Why this knowledge was intentionally buried soon afterward remains a mystery. (Magicians of the Gods)

...according to Budge the Egyptian word tepi means “ancestor” or “predecessor,” which is what the anthropomorphized pillars at Gobekli Tepe are surmised to represent. The Turkish word tepe can refer to a hill, a peak, a mountain, or a summit (all terms that physically describe Gobekli Tepe), and Budge defines an Egyptian word, tep, to mean “high ground” or “the top of anything.” (Point of Origin)

The Gobekli Tepe site is in a region of the Fertile Crescent that is located nearby where the earliest documented evidence of domesticated wheat, animal husbandry, and metallurgy are found. These are three specific skills that are consistently associated with the civilizing plan by the various cultures we are studying. To have also found the earliest example of advanced stone masonry and megalithic construction (found at Gobekli Tepe itself) located in the same region and dated to the same approximate era certainly suggested that some major cultural transition may have occurred here.   (Point of Origin)

Here we find its seemingly abrupt appearance in a setting that could well suggest instruction in the same context that many ancient traditions actually describe: a high mountaintop sanctuary. It also seems significant that what has been preserved at Gobekli Tepe are examples of stonework as a refined skill, not the fledgling beginnings of what might eventually grow into a refined stonework tradition. The placement of the pillars at Gobekli Tepe would also have required great practiced skill when it came to the extraction and transportation of mammoth slabs of stone. Clearly, some people on the scene at that time knew precisely what they were doing when it came to stone quarrying and masonry and were in possession of appropriate tools to accomplish those tasks. ...the puzzling similarities of style that are often observed to exist in ancient stonework from widespread regions of the world (often located in high mountain settings comparable to Gobekli Tepe) might also make sense if we imagine them to have been the work of graduated initiates who all learned their skills from a single common group of ancient instructors.  (Point of Origin)

We have so far become aware of two alternate points of entry into this tradition. The first is an exceedingly archaic one; it long predates written language and takes its outward representations in aniconic forms such as standing stones and stone cairns. This is the tradition that we associate with Gobekli Tepe.  It likely corresponds to the honored First Time of the Egyptians and to the first transmissions of knowledge to mankind by Buddha. We see evidence of it reflected in the modern Turkish language and in the Dravidian-based Tamil language. We see cosmologically significant phonetic roots from these languages reflected in a wide range of symbolic terms of the Dogon and in correlated Egyptian hieroglyphic words. (Point of Origin)

...we interpret the animal images at Gobekli Tepe as being symbolic of stages and/or concepts of creation. Ancient Egyptian homonyms for animal names suggest that these may have constituted a kind of protowriting, in which the name of the animal also stood for a term of cosmology. These were perhaps used to identify specific concepts that may have been taught at that location.   (Point of Origin)

Beyond the actual locale of Gobekli Tepe, the rare extant artifacts that might be attributed to this archaic tradition, such as the enigmatic Sphinx in Egypt or the ancient structures at Çatalhüyük or Machu Picchu, argue that this tradition emerged sometime shortly after the end of the last ice age, some eleven thousand years ago. That timing supports the controversial outlook that a well-intentioned outside presence (earthly or otherwise) may have made a deliberate attempt to assist cultures in the Gobekli Tepe region in their recovery from a global catastrophe that coincided with the end of the last ice age. We know that Gobekli Tepe is located in the same vicinity where we find the first evidence of cultivated grains, domesticated animals, and metallurgy. This again supports the idea that civilizing skills may have been intentionally introduced (or as Dogon definitions imply, reintroduced) there. Francesco Brighenti tells us that DNA and linguistic studies show that these same civilizing skills spread outward in all directions from this definable point of origin...  (Point of Origin)

We find the shapes of hemispheres prominently carved in proximity with squares on the Gobekli Tepe pillars, and we find imagery of circles and squares employed exhaustively in the cosmological traditions of virtually every culture we are studying, defined in symbolic relation to one another.  In both eras there was also specific animal-related symbolism assigned to serpents, to vultures and other similar birds of prey, to bulls and cows, to geese and other water birds, and to scorpions. This symbolism serves to overtly associate the archaic period with both India (where animals came to be symbolic determinatives of deities) and with the later predynastic and earliest dynastic periods in Egypt (where deities came to be depicted in art with animal heads). We know that many of these same animals were adopted as icons of the earliest rulers in virtually every ancient tradition we are studying, which served to affiliate those rulers with the gods of their cultures. There was also a tradition of megalithic stone construction and refined stone carving that made its first appearance at Gobekli Tepe and that can be seen as a unifying feature of cultures worldwide in both eras. (Point of Origin)

The Buddhist tradition also holds that knowledge was deliberately disseminated to mankind in ancient times at a remote mountain location referred to as Vulture Peak, a term that aptly describes the sanctuary at Gobekli Tepe. ...reports of other mythical mountain top sanctuaries are found in the myths of many different cultures worldwide.  If we were to summarize how the various incarnations of our tradition might relate to one another historically, there is a sensible viewpoint from which Gobekli Tepe represented a centrally located archaic instructional center whose purpose was to establish (or perhaps reestablish) a set of civilizing skills among a populace of hunter-gatherers. If we take the Dogon and Buddhist statements at face value, a group of well-intentioned ancient instructors who were themselves not human brought class-sized groups of initiates from surrounding regions to Gobekli Tepe for the purpose of teaching them a set of skills required for the establishment of agriculture. Instruction of these skills was framed within the context of a scientifically based creation tradition, designed to help humanity comprehend its own place within the larger structures of the universe. (Point of Origin)


Egypt's elder culture would appear to have possessed a high state of civilization as early as 10,500 BC. The achievements of these people included the construction of vast cyclopean structures such as the Valley Temple and Osireion, the carving of the Great Sphinx to mark the precessional age of Leo, as well as an intimate knowledge of cosmic time-cycles perhaps spanning tens of thousands of years. They would also appear to have been a civilized society with an extensive knowledge of agriculture, architecture, astronomy, diplomacy, education, engineering, land irrigation and centralized rule. This is what the evidence suggests - and almost certainly there was much more. (From the Ashes of Angels)

Decline of Egypt's elder culture during the age of Leo. The construction on the elevated plateau at Giza of the Sphinx monument, the Temple of the Sphinx and the Valley Temple before their eventual abandonment. The cessation of early agriculture by the Isnan Nilotic communities. (From the Ashes of Angels)

The first and lasting impression of the Sphinx, and of its enclosure, is that it is very, very old - not a mere handful of thousands of years, like the Fourth Dynasty of Egyptian pharaohs, but vastly, remotely, fabulously old. This was how the Ancient Egyptians in all periods of their history regarded the monument, which they believed guarded the 'Splendid Place of The Beginning of all Time' and which they revered as the focus of 'a great magical power extending over the whole region'. Wallis Budge, the respected keeper of Egyptian Antiquities at the British Museum, had no hesitation in making this unequivocal assertion: The oldest and finest human-headed lion statue is the famous 'Sphinx' at Giza. This marvellous object was in existence in the days of Khafre, the builder of the Second Pyramid, and was, most probably, very old even at that early period ... The Sphinx was thought to be connected in some way with foreigners or with a foreign religion which dated from predynastic times. ...the real surprise revealed by Bauval's astronomical calculations was this: despite the fact that some aspects of the Great Pyramid did relate astronomically to the Pyramid Age, the Giza monuments as a whole were so arranged as to provide a picture of the skies (which alter their appearance down the ages as a result of precession of the equinoxes) not as they had looked in the Fourth Dynasty around 2500 BC, but as they had looked - and only as they had looked - around the year 10,450 BC....there was only one epoch when the celestial symbolism of a leonine equinoctial marker would have been appropriate. That epoch was, of course, the Age of Leo, from 10,970 to 8810 BC. (Fingerprints of the Gods)

10,500 BC is the astronomical dating of the ground plan of the Pyramids and the Sphinx...(Heaven's Mirror)

It is easy to see how the behaviour of Orion and Draco, and thus their cosmic functions, could have come to be seen as linked by the ancients. Indeed, as scientific observations have confirmed, they are linked, by the cycle of precession, in a great cosmic see-saw which swings up and down like the pendulum of time itself. Computer simulations covering thousands of years show us that as Orion's altitude at the south meridian steadily rises Draco's altitude at the north meridian steadily falls. When Draco reaches its lowest point, Orion reaches its highest point. Then the opposite side of the cycle begins with Draco steadily rising and Orion steadily falling. The 'up' motion takes just under 13,000 years. The 'down' motion takes just under 13,000 years. And so it proceeds, up for 13,000 years, down for 13,000 years - to all extents and purposes for ever. What is particularly intriguing is that the sky-ground plans of Angkor and Giza have succeed in capturing the highest point in Draco's trajectory and the lowest point in Orion's - the end in other words, of one half-cycle of precession and thus the beginning of the next. This last happened, we know, around the year 10,500 BC, in which epoch the ecliptic north pole lay due north of the celestial north pole at dawn on the spring equinox and the pattern of the stars in the sky was taken as the template for the pattern on the ground of the monuments of Angkor and Giza. (Heaven's Mirror)

Indeed, only in one epoch in the last 25,920 years has the lion-bodied Sphinx looked out at its own celestial counterpart, the constellation of Leo, in the pre-dawn on the spring equinox, and that was in the epoch of 10,500 BC. (Magicians of the Gods)

I am now comfortable with the notion that possibly the Sphinx's earliest origins go back ten thousand years or more, perhaps even to the period of circa 10,000 BCE to 9000 BCE; that is, the end of the last ice age. (The Divine Spark

The possibility of nonlinear weathering suggests that the very earliest portion of the Sphinx could date to before  7000 BCE, perhaps even as early as circa 10,000 BCE. (Forgotten Civilization)

...we also discovered clear evidence of a cavity or chamber under the left paw of the Sphinx. This chamber measures approximately twelve meters in an east-west direction, approximately nine meters in a north-south direction, and measured from the current level of the floor of the Sphinx Enclosure, it lies under approximately five meters of rock.  (Forgotten Civilization)

Indus Valley

10,500 BC is the astronomical dating of the ground plan of the Naga temples of Angkor...(Heaven's Mirror)

It is easy to see how the behaviour of Orion and Draco, and thus their cosmic functions, could have come to be seen as linked by the ancients. Indeed, as scientific observations have confirmed, they are linked, by the cycle of precession, in a great cosmic see-saw which swings up and down like the pendulum of time itself. Computer simulations covering thousands of years show us that as Orion's altitude at the south meridian steadily rises Draco's altitude at the north meridian steadily falls. When Draco reaches its lowest point, Orion reaches its highest point. Then the opposite side of the cycle begins with Draco steadily rising and Orion steadily falling. The 'up' motion takes just under 13,000 years. The 'down' motion takes just under 13,000 years. And so it proceeds, up for 13,000 years, down for 13,000 years - to all extents and purposes for ever. What is particularly intriguing is that the sky-ground plans of Angkor and Giza have succeed in capturing the highest point in Draco's trajectory and the lowest point in Orion's - the end in other words, of one half-cycle of precession and thus the beginning of the next. This last happened, we know, around the year 10,500 BC, in which epoch the ecliptic north pole lay due north of the celestial north pole at dawn on the spring equinox and the pattern of the stars in the sky was taken as the template for the pattern on the ground of the monuments of Angkor and Giza. (Heaven's Mirror)




Austrian archaeologist and speleologist Heinrich Kusch and his wife Ingrid Kusch have documented hundreds upon hundreds of tunnel systems under Neolithic settlements found throughout Europe and Turkey, some dating back to around twelve thousand years ago. According to Heinrich Kusch, based on the number of tunnels that have survived to the present day, the original extent of such tunnels must have been absolutely enormous! According to him, many of the tunnels “are not much larger than big wormholes—just 70 cm wide—just wide enough for a person to wriggle along but nothing else. They are interspersed with nooks, at some places it’s larger and there is seating, or storage chambers and rooms. Taken together it is a massive underground network. The precision with which they were built in prehistoric times is unbelievable. Miners and tunnel construction engineers I spoke with were stunned. . . . It would be hard to dig tunnels as these even with today’s means. They are hewn very exactly in the hardest granite and people most probably didn’t even have metal when the tunnels were built.” (Forgotten Civilization

I suggest that the tunnels were primarily built as safe havens and refuges from catastrophes occurring on the surface of Earth. These might have included meteor bombardments, but in particular I believe the tunnels provided shelter from major solar outbursts (including CMEs and SPEs). In my opinion, the fact that such events were occurring around twelve thousand years ago, the very time when many of the tunnels were carved, is not simple coincidence. Also, I speculate that many artificial caves and tunnels that have been dated to later periods (such as the Bronze Age, circa 3300 BCE to 1200 BCE) by archaeologists may have their origins much earlier, at the end of the last ice age some twelve thousand years ago.   (Forgotten Civilization

South America

Monte Verde, on the banks of Chinchihuapi Creek, is in the hills near the town of Puerto Mont, 500 miles south of Santiago. As Dr. Dillehay reconstructed the prehistoric scene in his mind, a group of 20 to 30 people occupied Monte Verde for a year or so. They lived in shelters covered in animal hides. The evidence to support this picture is extensive. Excavations turned up wooden planks from some of the 12 huts that once stood in the camp, and logs with attached pieces of hide that probably insulated these shelters. Pieces of wooden poles and stakes were still tied with cords made of local grasses, a telling sign that ingenious humans had been there. "That's something nature doesn't do," Dr. Barker said. "Tie overhand knots." (98)

Nothing at Monte Verde was more evocative of its former inhabitants than a single footprint beside a hearth. A child had stood there by the fire 12,500 years ago and left a lasting impression in the soft clay. (98)

Here is what was happening at Monte Verde some 12,500 years ago: At some point about twenty or thirty people built a twenty-foot-long tentlike structure of wood and animal hides on the banks of the creek. They framed the structure with logs and planks that were staked to the ground, making walls of poles covered with animal hides, Using cordage made of local reeds, they tied the hides to the poles, dividing the interior with similar hide-and-pole walls into what appear to be separate living spaces. Each such area had a brazier pit lined with clay. At many hearths, they left some stone tools and spilled seeds, nuts, and berries. Some of the hearths and living spaces in the living tent even suggest a certain specialization in the accomplishing of chores: one hearth and its surrounding living space in the tent were characterized by cutting tools made of quartz and fruits and tubers from brackish estuaries; another living space appeared to be a specialized area for working hides. It appears that at least some of the group remained at the site year-round or most of the year. (The First Americans)

The Gate of the Sun is so positioned that it forms an astronomical observation unit with the third prominent structure at Tiwanaku, called the Kalasasaya. It is a large rectangular structure with a sunken central courtyard and is surrounded by standing stone pillars. ...the Kalasasaya's orientation unquestionably matched the Earth's obliquity either in 10,000 BC or 4000 BC. (The End of Days)

12,000 years ago when Lake Titicaca was more than 100 feet deeper than it is today, Tiahuanaco would have been an island, as shown above. (Fingerprints of the Gods)

Tiahuanaco's biggest riddle concerns its age. The range of approximately 1500 BC through to 900 AD considered by most archaeologists has been challenged on the grounds of the geology of the site, showing a relationship to Lake Titicaca that last prevailed more than 10,000 years ago. Above the serpents on the side of the Viracocha figure in the Semi-Subterranean temple there are representations of an animal species resembling Toxodon - a large hippo-like animal that became extinct in the Tiahuanaco area more than 12,000 years ago. And on the eastern side of the Gateway of the Sun there is the representation of an elephant-like creature, perhaps the New World proboscid Cuvieronius, which also became extinct 12,000 years ago. Posnansky's calculation of Tiahuanaco's principal solstitial alignments suggested that they might originally have been surveyed more than 17,000 years ago. Based on modern satellite readings, this date has subsequently been refined to approximately 12,000 years ago by the American archaeoastronomer Neil Steede. (Heaven's Mirror)



North America

According to Ho Chunk Indian scholar Larry Johns, nine elephant mounds still exist along the Wisconsin banks of the Mississippi River from Lake Pepin to La Crosse. ...mastodons are supposed to have died out in North America at the close of the last ice age. Although these geoglyphs occur from the Mississippi Valley to the Ohio Valley, most were concentrated in the Upper Middle West where Wisconsin embraced more than 10,000 examples. (The Lost History of Ancient America)

The Beaver Island Medicine Wheel is by far the largest, measuring in diameter 397 feet from north to south, its cardinal direction stones sitting at three degrees off True North. ...two levels of stones set out within the Stone Circle suggest repetitive construction of the structure through many years of occupation. In other words, with lake levels rising and falling through several thousand years after the last Ice Age (circa 10,000 BCE to 8000 BCE), someone worked to reassemble the Stone Circle, which would have been originally covered by beach sediment ridges. Heliacal risings occur when a star flashes just above the horizon as it enters our atmosphere for the first time that year. The Beaver Island Medicine Wheel features these alignments, showing a solar and lunar calendar. From old photographs and recent mapping of depressions made by large stones now missing from the site, it has become clear that the elliptical circle was a megalithic structure that contained more than 150 stones and indicates a series of six concentric circles. The Beaver Island Medicine Wheel is located directly on the 45th Parallel. The medicine wheels in North America, with their astronomical alignments and Pythagorean triangles, were also positioned on or close to the 45th Parallel. In consideration of the Pythagorean triangles found at stone structures in Europe, I believe it is very likely that we have this same reference in the medicine wheels of North America, especially when these solar and lunar calendars were used for the same purpose on both continents and are described by the oral histories of Native American tribal groups. (The Lost History of Ancient America)


What has brought Natawidjaja to this radical view is the evidence he and his team have uncovered at Gunung Padang. When their drill cores began to yield very ancient carbon dates from organic materials embedded in clays filling the gaps between worked stones, they expanded their investigation using geophysical equipment—ground-penetrating radar, seismic tomography and electrical resistivity—to get a picture of what lay under the ground. The results were stunning, showing layers of massive construction using the same megalithic elements of columnar basalt that are found on the surface but with courses of huge basaltic rocks beneath them extending down to thirty meters (100 feet) and more beneath the surface. At those depths the carbon dates indicate that the megaliths were put in place more than 12,000 years ago and in some cases as far back as 24,000 years ago. (Magicians of the Gods)

“The geophysical evidence is unambiguous,” Natawidjaja says. “Gunung Padang is not a natural hill but a man-made pyramid and the origins of construction here go back long before the end of the last Ice Age. Since the work is massive even at the deepest levels, and bears witness to the kinds of sophisticated construction skills that were deployed to build the pyramids of Egypt, or the largest megalithic sites of Europe, I can only conclude that we’re looking at the work of a lost civilization and a fairly advanced one.” (Magicians of the Gods)

Schoch was in his element at Gunung Padang carefully interrogating the results of the geophysical scans with Danny, collecting samples and minutely examining the site. Afterward, when he’d returned to the US and had time to analyze the data, he wrote: The first important observation is that … Gunung Padang goes back to before the end of the last Ice Age, circa 9700 BC. Based on the evidence, I believe that human use of the site began by circa 14,700 BC. Possibly the earliest use of the site goes back to 22,000 BC, or even earlier. (Magicians of the Gods)