Architecture in General
Southwest Asia
Indus Valley
South America
North America

The Globe

Perhaps the most obvious differences between the archaeological record of the Pleistocene and that of the last five or six millennia is the presence in the latter period of massive amounts of residential and public architecture. All early states built palaces and tombs; hunter-gatherers occasionally built permanent structures but rarely on the same scale as agriculturalists.

Similarly, once residential architectural variability appeared in many of these early communities, "monumental" architecture also appeared. Here, too, the important thing is that the ability and incentive to make these investments are radically different from the capacities of Pleistocene bands, in that they imply the ability of some members of the society to control and organize others. (45)

It was only while I was writing Heaven's Mirror that I began to look into another and much more controversial possibility - that a network of sacred sites might have been established all around the globe according to a longitude grid based on precessional numbers. Thus, the massive sacred complexes on which stand the Great Pyramids of Giza in Egypt and the fabulous temples of Angkor in Cambodia are on meridians 72 degrees of longitude apart; Pohnpei is 54 degrees of longitude east of Angkor; Easter Island is today the closest dry land to 144 degrees of longitude east of Angkor; the Bay of Paracas in Peru dominated by the massive cliff drawing of unknown origin known as the 'Candelabra of the Andes', lies 180 degrees east of Angkor. Frequently these sites are linked to flood myths, spoken of in ancient traditions as 'Navels of the Earth' (omphalos in Greek), and are rich in symbolism of obelisks, stone pillars pyramids and other stone monuments. (124)

Apparent longitudinal 'correlations' linking sacred sites according to a sequence of numbers thought to have been derived from astronomical observations that occur in ancient myths and scriptures could, of course, arise by chance. I don't deny that possibility. But I wish to pursue what I believe to be the more interesting explanation - namely that such sites may originally have been established on specific longitudes to act as permanent markers and reference points for an archaic worldwide grid of earth measurements and to safeguard precious geodetic and navigational knowledge for the long-term benefit of mankind. (124)

This, indeed, is little more than is already claimed in the ancient Indian accounts of the deluge, and the survival of it by a remnant of wise men, and their preservation and repromulgation of antediluvian knowledge in the new age of the earth. Moreover, it can hardly be an accident that the yuga system that lies at the heart of the Dwarka story, of the story of the flood of Manu, and of the Hindu concept of recurrent cycles of cataclysm and rebirth, is also denominated in terms of precessional numbers. According to the Puranas, for example, the duration of the Kali Yuga is set at 1200 'divine years', equivalent to 432,000 mortal years. The durations for the preceding Krita, Treta and Davapara Yugas are set respectively at 4800 divine years, 3600 divine years and 2400 divine years, such that one mahayuga - made up of the total of 12,000 divine years contained in the four lesser yugas - is equivalent to 4,320,000 years of mortals. (124)

Had some stone pillar, now venerated as the self-generated lingam of Siva, been set up by prehistoric geodecists at Arunachela, for example, to mark the auspicious longitude of the Red Hill? The same symbolism of the lingam is, of course, found all over the temples of Angkor in Cambodia. And in ancient Egypt the conical Ben Ben stone, perched atop a stone pillar, was the symbol of the Heliopolitan priesthood that built the Pyramids of Giza. Same symbolism in all three places. Same gnostic quest for immortality. Same use of precessional numbers in their architecture and their myths. And there are 48 degrees of longitude between Giza and Arunachela, 24 degrees between Arunachela and Angkor, and 72 degrees between Giza and Angkor. (124)

The ziggurat, the great temple architecture of civilised America, is virtually indentical with that of the Sumerians of the Middle East and, by inference with that of Mohenjo-daro - by inference because the temple platforms of the Indus have subsided, through the action of time and flood, into shapeless mounds. (135)

Temples that were oriented to the equinoxes, like Solomon's temple in Jerusalem, (and the old St. Peter's basilica at the Vatican in Rome), faced permanently east, welcoming sunrise on equinox day year after year without reorientation. But temples oriented to the solstices, like Egypt's temples in Thebes or China's Temple of Heaven in Beijing, needed periodic reorientation because due to Precession, where the Sun rises on solstice day shifts ever so lightly over the centuries...(137)

...on both sides of the Atlantic we find identical huge stone block edifices, built of cut pieces so heavy that even our present-day equipment could not move them. On the west side of the Atlantic, similar huge blocks were used at Cuzco and Tiahuanaco and also at the newly discovered underwater constructions near Bimini. On the east side we have the pyramids of Egypt and the gigantic stone slabs of Baalbek in Lebanon, a temple of totally unknown origin. The ruins of Baalbek, at an altitude of 3,800 feet, stand on a platform built of enormous stone blocks weighing more than 800 tons each. None of today's machines could move these megaliths or even lift them. Such blocks must have been put into place either by giants or by beings of a civilization that knew the secrets of levitation and antigravity. (141)

The prevailing ideas of history would deny any links between northern Europe and Egypt in the Neolithic/Bronze Age era, and yet we cannot deny the similarity of these monuments, both in shape and size. Djoser's Pyramid at Saqqara measured 125 m x 60 m while the Silbury 'pyramid', being of a slightly simpler design, is a somewhat flatter 160 m x 40 m; but Silbury is nevertheless a substantial construction, utilizing about the same volume of material. Just like Djoser's pyramid, Silbury has had at least three enlargements to the structure and the final edifice comprises a step­pyramid, containing six steps. Like many of the Egyptian step-pyramids, each step at Silbury has large facing blocks - although here made of chalk - and a rubble interior. The steps were further subdivided into cells, or segments, with the cell walls helping to stabilize the structure. At this stage in the construction, Silbury would have strongly resembled the step­pyramid of Djoser, except in having a circular perimeter and being faced with gleaming white chalk. One can only presume that the finished structure at Silbury was subsequently covered by earth, in order to protect the relatively fragile chalk blocks that were used in the exterior cladding. There is a further mystery in this respect, because this same construction technique was also used in the Mexican pyramids at Teotihuacan. In a very similar fashion, these pyramids were also constructed of clay cores, which were then faced with stone blocks. The Teotihuacan pyramids were then subsequently buried, just as at Silbury, under a layer of loose soil. (147)

In the case of Meidum, we can clearly see these different eras in the sequence of construction of the entrance passageway, which has three distinct styles. The sequence of construction is roughly as follows: a. A small tumulus was made at ground level. The interior construction of the overlapping stones in this chamber is quite rough; the entrance passageway is in the floor of the chamber and it tunnels through the bare earth. The standard of workmanship in the tumulus and in the passageway is not unlike the technology used in a long barrow in ancient Britain. b. Perhaps during the construction of the step-pyramid above, the entrance to the tumulus was reworked. The new entrance was formed by placing huge monolithic blocks around the small chamber, with each massive block of white Tura limestone being jointed together with extreme care. (These blocks may even underlie the small chamber.) The workmanship here is comparable to anything at Giza and it is claimed that the mastaba chamber next door is carved within one single block of limestone; a massive block indeed. The passageway to the pyramid chamber was then formed by tunnelling bodily and very roughly through these finely jointed blocks; which is a curious method given the care employed on the blocks themselves. c. After the construction of the step-pyramid, when the pyramidal cladding was being added at a later date, the form of the passageway alters into the more usual method of construction, and separate stone blocks now form the smooth sides of the tunnel. (147)

... in ancient civilisations, a class of initiates had precise knowledge of harmonic laws. They knew how to manipulate them to create the precise effect they wanted. And they wrote this knowledge into architecture, art, music, paintings, rituals and incenses, producing Gothic cathedrals, vast Hindu temples, all the marvels of Egypt and many other sacred ancient works that even today, in ruins, produce a powerful effect upon us. This effect is produced because these men knew exactly what they were doing and why they were doing it: it was done entirely through a complex of sensory manipulation. (172)