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Science & Education                   8,000 BC
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Marshack discovered he could read and decode the markings by early humans on ancient bones. Ironically, he was working on a project that was to explain how we could get to the moon, and he discovered that Paleolithic and Neolithic carved bones are lunar calendars! Eventually he became intrigued by the fact that from earliest times until 9000 BC (Early Neolithic), the bones are lunar calendars, and then about ten thousand years ago, the solar factor is addded to the lunar notations. Suddenly, the lunar phases are divided into six-month phases, which suggests that these phases begin with either an equinox or a solstice. Marshack's research and the research of many other paleoscientists indicates that early humans show no signs of being aware of the existence of the four seasons until ten thousand years ago. I think it is unrealistic to surmise they just didn't notice sunrises and sets traveling back and forth on the horizon and the changing seasons, especially since they suddenly became obsessed with this factor approximately ten thousand years ago. (129)

Africa

 In his foreword to The God-Kings and the Titans, paleontologist Raymond Dart points out that historians of science, took it for granted that mining began about 4,000 BC until the 1960s, when carbon-dating from the Ngwenya iron mine in Swaziland showed that mining for red iron ore (haematite had been carried out there as long ago as 7,690 BC. By 1969, it had been established that our ancestors had been mining in 41,250 BC. (123)

Aware that many "newly discovered" and promissing mining sites in southern Africa had been mining sites in antiquity, the Anglo-American Corporation called in teams of archaeologists to examine the sites before modern earth­ moving equipment swept away all traces of ancient work. Reporting on their findings in the magazine Optima, Adrian Boshier and Peter Beaumont stated that they had come upon layers upon layers of ancient and prehistoric mining activities and human remains. Carbon dating at Yale University and at the University of Groningen (Holland) established the age of the artifacts as ranging from a plausible 2000 BC to an amazing 7690 BC. (146)

Southwest Asia

 

Egypt

 

Indus Valley

 

China

 

Europe

 

South America

 

Mesoamerica

 

North America

 

Other