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Science & Education                   4,000 BC
Africa
Southwest Asia
Egypt
Indus Valley
China
Europe
South America
Mesoamerica
North America
Other

Africa

 During the 1950s, an Italian team of archaeologists led by professor Mario Liverani, from the University of Rome, explored the Libyan Sahara and, by chance, discovered the mummified remains of a young boy at the Uan Muhuggiag rock shelter a hundred miles west of the Nile Valley, which dated to 3500 BC. Although no other mummies have been found in this area, it is proof that the tradition of mummification is far older than originally believed. This Libyan mummy is a thousand years older than the first Egyptian mummy and the oldest ever found in Africa. In preparing the boy for burial, he was eviscerated and embalmed with an organic preservative, then wrapped in skins and insulated with leaves. The sophistication with which he was mummified suggests he was not the first, but rather the result of a long-standing tradition. (70)

Southwest Asia

 The invention of the kiln also made it possible to smelt and alloy metals, two more processes to add to an amazing string of innovations in a very compressed period of time. (68)

Even if metallurgy initially began as an accidental discovery, the practical application--making, say, the first cast-metal tool--still would have required a long and rigorous thought process involving a number of conceptual steps and a high level of abstract thinking. Our hunter-gatherer ancestors never exhibited such a level of capability. In fact, up to 6,000 years ago they had only just made the connection to use stone and bone for tools and hides for clothing. Yet suddenly, during the Neolithic period, about 5,000 years ago, those few highly developed civilizations appeared, and they included the technical "miracle" of processing metals among their developments--at the same time when people less than 500 miles away were still living primitively. The sophisticated artifacts found in Sumer and Egypt exhibit extraordinary artistic imagination, technical ability, and conceptual strength. By 3000 BC the arts of jewelry making, painting, and sculpture were already fully developed in Egypt and Mesopotamia. (69)

Six thousand years ago, Sumerians, Egyptians, and perhaps , Minoans left evidence of a number system that could deal with large quantities. A particularly troubling point for the science historian is the Sumerian 60-base system of numbers that led to the mathematical solving of quadratic equations (requiring two levels of solutions). Both the Mesopotamians and Egyptians had precise systems of measuring area and volume (using the sexagesimal system). They used multiplication tables and calculated basic geometry. They used the transcendental number pi (3.1415) to define the ratio of the circumference of a circle to its diameter and the Pythagorean theorem, the relationship of the hypotenuse to the lengths of the other two sides of a right triangle. Note that Pythagoras only rediscovered it later. (113)

...Copernicus postulated the Sun was the center of our solar system in 1543, but we now know the Anunnaki had named all the planets, placing the Sun at their center, thousands of years before that. Sumerian tablets, 6,000 years old, only repeated that information.

3500 BC Sumerians use decimal system. (135)

The twelve "Olympians" of the Sumerian pantheon, each with his or her celestial counterpart among the twelve members of the Solar System (Sun, Moon; and ten planets, including Nibiru), were also honored with one month each in the cycle of a twelve-month year. The Sumerian term for "month," EZEN, actually meant holiday, festival; and each such month was devoted to celebrating the worship-festival of one of the twelve supreme gods. It was the need to determine the exact time when each such month began and ended (and not in order to enable peasants to know when to sow or harvest, as schoolbooks explain) that led to the introduction of Mankind's first calendar in 3760 BC. It is known as the Calendar of Nippur because it was the task of its priests to determine the calendar's intricate timetable and to announce, for the whole land, the time of the religious festivals. That calendar is still in use to this day as the Jewish religious calendar, which, in AD 2007, numbers the year as 5767. (137)

In pre-Diluvial times Nippur served as Mission Control Center, Enlil's command post where he set up the DUR.AN. KI, the "Bond Heaven-Earth" for the communications with the home planet Nibiru and with the spacecraft connecting them. (After the Deluge, these functions were relocated to a place later known as Jerusalem.) Its central position, equidistant from the other functional centers in the E.DIN, was also deemed to be equidistant from the "four comers of the Earth" and gave it the nickname "Navel of the Earth." In Sumerian the term for the four regions of the Earth was UB, but it also is found as AN.UB--the heavenly, the celestial four "corners"--in this case an astronomical term connected with the calendar. It is taken to refer to the four points in the Earth-Sun annual cycle that we nowadays call the Summer Solstice, the Winter Solstice, and the two crossings of the equator--once as the Spring Equinox and then as the Autumnal Equinox. In the Calendar of Nippur, the year began on the day of the Spring Equinox and it has so remained in the ensuing calendars of the ancient Near East. (137)

The many varieties of metals and alloys for which Sumerian and Akkadian names have been found and the extensive technological terminology attest to the high level of metallurgy in ancient Mesopotamia. For a while this puzzled the scholars because Sumer, as such, was devoid of metal ores, yet metallurgy most definitely began there. The answer is energy. Smelting, refining, and alloying, as well as casting, could not be done without ample supplies of fuels to fire the kilns, crucibles, and furnaces. Mesopotamia may have lacked ores, but it had fuels in abundance. So the ores were brought to the fuels, which explains many early inscriptions describing the bringing of metal ores from afar. The fuels that made Sumer technologically supreme were bitumens and asphalts, petroleum products that naturally seeped up to the surface in many places in Mesopotamia. ...the technological use of these petroleum products began in Sumer circa 3500 BC...(146)

Egypt

 Even if metallurgy initially began as an accidental discovery, the practical application--making, say, the first cast-metal tool--still would have required a long and rigorous thought process involving a number of conceptual steps and a high level of abstract thinking. Our hunter-gatherer ancestors never exhibited such a level of capability. In fact, up to 6,000 years ago they had only just made the connection to use stone and bone for tools and hides for clothing. Yet suddenly, during the Neolithic period, about 5,000 years ago, those few highly developed civilizations appeared, and they included the technical "miracle" of processing metals among their developments--at the same time when people less than 500 miles away were still living primitively. The sophisticated artifacts found in Sumer and Egypt exhibit extraordinary artistic imagination, technical ability, and conceptual strength. By 3000 BC the arts of jewelry making, painting, and sculpture were already fully developed in Egypt and Mesopotamia. (69)

During the 1950s, an Italian team of archaeologists led by professor Mario Liverani, from the University of Rome, explored the Libyan Sahara and, by chance, discovered the mummified remains of a young boy at the Uan Muhuggiag rock shelter a hundred miles west of the Nile Valley, which dated to 3500 BC. Although no other mummies have been found in this area, it is proof that the tradition of mummification is far older than originally believed. This Libyan mummy is a thousand years older than the first Egyptian mummy and the oldest ever found in Africa. In preparing the boy for burial, he was eviscerated and embalmed with an organic preservative, then wrapped in skins and insulated with leaves. The sophistication with which he was mummified suggests he was not the first, but rather the result of a long-standing tradition. (70)

Six thousand years ago, Sumerians, Egyptians, and perhaps , Minoans left evidence of a number system that could deal with large quantities. Both the Mesopotamians and Egyptians had precise systems of measuring area and volume (using the sexagesimal system). They used multiplication tables and calculated basic geometry. They used the transcendental number pi (3.1415) to define the ratio of the circumference of a circle to its diameter and the Pythagorean theorem, the relationship of the hypotenuse to the lengths of the other two sides of a right triangle. Note that Pythagoras only rediscovered it later. (113)

The solar calendar is said to have started at Heliopolis, the city of the Sun, in 4241 BC. The Egyptian name for the city was On or Anu. In their religious rituals, the citizens of Heliopolis gave much thought to the measurement of time and the movement of heavenly bodies. (135)

Indus Valley

 

China

 

Europe

 By about 4500 BC--1500 years and more before the Egyptians began to build large stone buildings--farmers in Spain were using large stones weighing many tons to build tombs, and over the next several millennia people all over Western Europe built large monolithic tombs. (50)

Six thousand years ago, Sumerians, Egyptians, and perhaps , Minoans left evidence of a number system that could deal with large quantities. (113)

In the case of Mnajdra, the alignment today is good, but not quite perfect because (to take the example of the summer solstice) the rays that form the slit-image are projected two centimetres away from the edge of the large slab at the rear of the temple. However, Paul Micallef's calculations show that when the obliquity of the ecliptic stood at 24 degrees 9 minutes and 4 seconds the alignment would have been perfect with the slit-image forming exactly in line with the edge of the slab. This 'perfect' alignment has occurred twice in the last 15,000 years - once in 3700 BC ('this is the first consideration of the Mnajdra Temple's age', notes Paul Micallef) and again, earlier, in 10,205 BC ('this is the second consideration of the Mnajdra Temple's age'). (124)

South America

 

Mesoamerica

 

North America

 The copper-mining operations of prehistoric Michigan still bear the scars of Atlantean technology. For example, some unknown device enabled the ancient miners of the Upper Peninsula to sink pits vertically through sixty feet of solid rock. Another piece of lost instrumentation directed them to all the richest veins of copper hidden under the hillsides of Isle Royale and the Kewanee Peninsula. These and similar achievements of the late fourth millennium BC, which allowed the prehistoric miners to remove a minimum of half a billion pounds of raw copper, are no speculation; they have been known to archeologists for more than a century. (64)

Mallery had excavated a number of furnaces in Ohio and Virginia, and was convinced that iron-smelting techniques were in use long before 4,000 BC. (123)

Other