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Science & Education                   2,000 BC
Africa
Southwest Asia
Egypt
Indus Valley
China
Europe
South America
Mesoamerica
North America
Other

Africa

 

Southwest Asia

The economic element in ancient Mesopotamian scripts is evident in their mathematical notations. Georges Ifrah notes that the Sumerians used a counting system with a base of 60, instead of the base-10 system we have. The ancient Sumerians and their successors use their mathematical systems not only for economic accounting but also for land surveying, calendrical calculations, and astronomical science. By about 1800 BC the people of Mesopotamia (1) had calculated the square root of 2 to a value correct to 1 in two million; (2) had formulated massive tables of reciprocals of sexagesimal numbers; (3) knew how to calculate the length of a hypotenuse from the lengths of the sides of right-angled triangles (1200 years before Pythagoras); (4) could calculate cube roots; and (5) knew some algebraic operations. (46)

Their creative abilities were apparently so powerful that by 750 BC the seven metals of antiquity--gold electrum, copper, silver, tin, bronze, and mercury--are all on record as having been discovered. Mercury was the last to be found, but the other six had been discovered by 2000 BC. (69)

Though expensive, bronze was eventually used in a wide variety of things, from axes and awls to hammers, sickles and weapons, like daggers and swords. The wealthy were entombed with figurines, bracelets and pendants of bronze. Scholars have yet to learn how the ancient Mesopotamians got the idea of mixing tin with copper to produce a much stronger bronze. But excavations have produced tin-bronze pins, axes and other artifacts from as early as 3000 BC. (82)

After systematic explorations in the central Taurus Mountains of Turkey, an archaeologist at the Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago has found a tin mine and ancient mining village 60 miles north of the Mediterranean coastal city of Tarsus. …the mine and village demonstrated that tin mining was a well-developed industry in the region as long ago as 2870 BC. Dr. Yener said, "It had gone beyond the craft stages that characterize production done for local purposes only" To Dr. Guillermo Algaze, an anthropologist at the University of California at San Diego and a scholar of Mesopotamian civilizations, the discovery is significant because it shows that bronze metallurgy, like agriculture and many other transforming human technologies, apparently developed independently in several places. (82)

The mine, at a site called Kestel, has narrow passages running more than a mile into the mountainside, with others still blocked and unexplored. The archaeologists found only low-grade tin ore, presumably the remains of richer deposits that had been mined out. On the hillside opposite the mine entrance, the archaeologists found ruins of the mining village of Goltepe. Judging by its size, Dr. Yener said, 500 to 1,000 people lived in the village at any one time. Radiocarbon dating of charcoal and the styles of pottery indicated that Goltepe was occupied more or less continuously between 3290 and 1840 BC. It began as a rude village of pit houses dug into the soft sedimentary slopes and later developed into a more substantial walled community. (82)

Scattered among the ruins were more than 50,000 stone tools and ceramic vessels, which ranged from the size of teacups and saucepans to the size of large cooking pots. The vessels were crucibles in which tin was smelted, Dr. Yener said. Slag left over from the smelting, collected from inside the crucibles and in surrounding debris, contained not low-grade tin ore but material with 30 percent tin content, good enough for the metal trade. Then crucibles, set in pits, were filled with alternating layers of hot charcoal and cassiterite powder. Instead of using bellows, workers blew air through reed pipes to increase the heat of the burning charcoal. Tests indicated that this technique could have produced temperatures of 950 degrees Celsius and perhaps as high as 1,100 degrees (1,740 to 2,00 degrees Fahrenheit), sufficient to separate the tin from surrounding ore. (82)

The identity of these highland mining people is unknown, but their pottery betrays cultural ties to societies in northern Syria and Mesopotamia. The Bronze Age could not continue forever, scholars say, in part because tin was so hard to get, contributing to the expense of the metal alloy. The age came to an end around ll00 BC, when iron, plentiful and accessible just about everywhere, became the most important metal in manufacturing. (82)

1800 BC Hittites start to use iron. (135)

It is clear from all the astronomical (and astrological) texts from Babylon that its astronomer-priests retained the Sumerian division of the heavens into three Ways or paths, each occupying sixty degrees of the celestial arc: the Way of Enlil for the northern skies, the Way of Ea for the southern skies, and the Way of Anu as the central band. It was in the latter that the zodiacal constellations were located, and it was there that "Earth met Heaven"--at the horizon. Perhaps because Marduk attained supremacy in accordance with Celestial Time, the zodiacal clock, his astronomer-priests continuously scanned the skies at the horizon, the Sumerian AN.UR, "Heaven's Base." There was no point in looking up to the Sumerian AN.PA, "Heaven's Top," the zenith, for Marduk as a "star," Nibiru, was by then gone and unseen. (137)

 

Egypt

 In 1995 I inspected the inside and outside surfaces of two boxes in the Serapeum with a six-inch precision straightedge that was accurate to .0002 inch. The artifacts I have measured in Egypt have the marks of careful and remarkable manufacturing methods. They are unmistakable and irrefutable in their precision, but origin or intent will always be open to speculation. The precision square I am using was calibrated to .00005 inch (that is, 5/100,000 of an inch) using a Jones & Lamson comparitor. The underside of the lid and the inside wall of the box are incredibly square. Finding that the squareness was achieved not just on one side of the box but on both raises the level of difficulty in accomplishing this feat.

Think of this as a geometric reality. In order for the lid to be perfectly square with the two inside walls, the inside walls would have to be perfectly parallel. Moreover, the topside of the box would need to establish a plane that is square to the sides. That makes finishing the inside exponentially more difficult. The manufacturers of these boxes in the Serapeum not only created inside surfaces that were flat when measured vertically and horizontally, but they also made sure that the surfaces they were creating were square and parallel to each other, with one surface, the top, having sides that are five feet and ten feet apart from each other. But without such parallelism and squareness of the top surface, the squareness noted on both sides would not exist.

As an engineer and craftsman who has worked in manufacturing for me than forty years and who has created precision artifacts in our modern world, in my opinion this accomplishment in prehistory is nothing short of amazing. Nobody does this kind of work unless there is a very high purpose for the artifact. Even the concept of this kind of precision does not occur to an artisan unless there is no other means of accomplishing what the artifact is intended to do. The only other reason that such precision would be created in an object is that the tools that are used to create it are so precise that they are incapable of producing anything less than precision. With either scenario, we are looking at a higher civilization in prehistory than what is currently accepted. The implications are staggering.

The boxes that are off the beaten tourist's path in the rock tunnels of Serapeum would be extremely difficult to produce today. Their smooth, flat surfaces, orthogonal perfection, and incredibly small inside corner radii that I have inspected with modern precision straightedges, squares, and radius gauges leave me in awe. Even though after contacting four precision granite manufacturers, I could not find one who could replace their perfection, I would not say that it would be impossible to make one today—-if we had a good reason to do so. (67)

...the Great Pyramid is essentially a scale model of Earth and a geodesic marker of the center of Earth's landmass. The ratio of the pyramid's height to its perimeter equals the ratio of Earth's radius to its circumference. The colossal monument elegantly squares the circle and incorporates pi in numerous features. • Every detail of its precise architecture seems to have been meticulously planned. • The structure embodies geodesic alignments and measurements and mathematical ratios. (68)

Their creative abilities were apparently so powerful that by 750 BC the seven metals of antiquity--gold electrum, copper, silver, tin, bronze, and mercury--are all on record as having been discovered. Mercury was the last to be found, but the other six had been discovered by 2000 BC. (69)

Grave goods also included statues, carved as lifelike representations of the people they honored. Some of these statues had truly remarkable eyes, fashioned in such a way that they seem to follow an onlooker as he or she walks in front of the statue. Examples of such statues, from the fourth and fifth dynasties (2575-2323 BC), are on display at the Louvre in Paris and the Egyptian Museum in Cairo. Enoch and Lakshminarayanan observed that the front area of the eye was composed of a very hard form of quartz crystal fashioned into a flat cornea of fine optical quality. The iris was painted to resemble the living human iris. In the center, at the rear of the cornea lens, a small, concave curve was either drilled or ground to match the pupil aperture of the human eye. It formed a concave lens of high negative refractive power. The front surfaces of the cornea had considerable positive refractive power, but much weaker than the rear element. A resin was used to attach the lens element to the white part of the eye. The rear of the cornea lens had two optical zones. One was peripheral and flat, the other, a distinct negative curve. Both were centered on each other. These were centered on the front area of the cornea's surface, which had a convex or positive curve, possibly in order to form a multifocal element. (70)

Using a stack of washers placed on white paper, Enoch and Lakshmiinarayanan created a model simulating the front part of the eyes. Above the washers a twenty-diopter spherical lens was placed three quarters of an inch above the hole. Another three quarters of an inch above this, a larger (twenty-six diopter) spherical lens was suspended. The distances from the plane of the washers to each lens were less than the focal length of either of the two lens elements. So, if an observer rotated forty degrees to sixty degrees in any direction about either lens, the holes (pupils) appeared to move with the observer. In this way, Enoch and Lakshminarayanan creeated a model simulating the magical eyes of the pharaohs.? In their final analysis, Enoch and Lakshminarayanan conclude that because of the performance quality and design complexity, it is highly doubtful that the lenses used to re-create eye structures in ancient Egyptian statues were the first lenses created, despite the fact that they are forty-six hundred years old. (70)

In 1995 Dunn, armed with a six-inch precision straightedge, inspected the interior and exterior surfaces of two sarcophagi. The twenty-seven-ton lid of one of the sarcophagi, and the inside surface of the granite box on which it sat, was precisely square to .00005 inch--5/100,000 of an inch. He also verified that its corners were precise to 5/32 of an inch. According to Dunn, replicating the precision of the granite boxes in the Serapeum would be extremely difficult even today. More mysteriously, they had the knowledge and technology to lift, maneuver, and delicately place enormous blocks of stone weighing many tons, as well as the means to quarry and move millions of blocks over a long period of time. (70)

What Dunn discovered is that the Great Pyramid, which covers a large area of land, is in harmonic resonance with the vibrations of the earth and acts as an acoustical horn for collecting and channeling the earth's vibrations. After analyzing its internal structure, he also concluded that its passages and chambers were designed to maximize the throughput of sound. By creating alternating pulses at the top of the pyramid and in the subterranean chamber--a feature that all Egyptian pyramids have--the structure would be set into motion. Once the vibration of the pyramid is coupled to that of the earth, the transfer of energy from the earth would continue until the process is reversed. Chris Dunn explains precisely how this was achieved through the internal structure of the pyramid. All that would then be needed is a system that could make use of the energy. Quartz crystal does not create energy; it only converts it from one kind of energy into another. In effect, it serves as a transducer. Interestingly, the king's chamber is built from Aswan granite, which contains 55 percent or more silicon-quartz crystal. So the king's chamber, in one respect, is a transducer. The evidence for this is very compelling. Above the king's chamber are five rows of granite beams, forty-three of them, each weighing up to seventy tons. Each layer of granite is cut square and parallel on three sides, rough on top, and separated by spaces large enough for a person to crawl into. The result is that each granite beam could vibrate if subject to a suitable amount of energy. If tuned to the same frequency, the other beams would also vibrate at the same, or harmonic, frequency as the first beam. Furthermore, if the source frequency, the sound input, matched the beam's natural frequency, then the transfer of energy would be maximized and so would the vibration of the beams. To enhance the ability of the forty-three granite beams to resonate with the forcing frequency, the natural frequency of the beams would need to be at the same frequency as, or in harmony with, the forcing frequency. To accomplish this, the beams would have to be shaped by cutting away some of the stone until the desired frequency was met. The principle at work here is the same as that of a tuning fork. Large tuning forks resonate at low frequencies and smaller ones, higher frequencies. Making the granite beams resonate at the same frequency would require them all to be generally the same shape and weight. This is precisely what the observable evidence indicates. The chamber's builders worked the rough sides of the beams before installing them, removing chunks and gouging holes. In effect, they were "tuned." Acoustical tests confirm that the granite beams do resonate at a fundamental frequency. In fact, the chamber itself reinforces this frequency by producing dominant frequencies. The chamber creates an F-sharp chord, which is believed to be in harmony with the natural vibration of the earth. Acoustical tests inside the king's chamber also reveal that the entire room is freestanding from the surrounding limestone masonry. The granite floor sits on "corrugated" limestone; the walls are supported from the outside and sunk five inches below the floor. The end result is that the entire room is free to vibrate at peak efficiency and ready to convert vibrations from the earth into electricity. The vibrating crystal within the granite creates an electrical field, but harvesting the energy requires a medium of transfer, which was provided by the result of chemical processes in the queen's chamber, utilizing hydrogen gas. In the presence of an electrical field, the hydrogen gas becomes excited--atomically speaking, its electrons widen their orbit around the nucleus. By forcing the hydrogen electrons back to their resting (original) state, the energy they held would be released, and with the appropriate equipment to collect and focus the energy, it could be used by some device. (Current research has been investigating this type of electricity production to power laptop computers and prosthetic devices, although other mediums besides hydrogen are more efficient in today's miniature devices.) Interestingly, the coffer itself inside the king's chamber resonates at 438 hertz--in synch with the room. What is needed is sufficient energy to drive the beams and activate their piezoelectric properties. The key to making the king's chamber vibrate is a structure or device that focuses vibrations received through the pyramid--precisely the purpose of the Grand Gallery. The Grand Gallery is an enclosed area with resonators installed in slots along its length. A resonator is an object with specific dimensions chosen to permit internal resonant oscillation of acoustical waves of specific frequencies. Vibration resonates within the object's cavity to produce airborne sound at a certain frequency, which is based on the size of the cavity. Wooden frames were constructed to house the resonators of the Grand Gallery and were mounted onto the floor and ceiling, the ends of the frames fitting into rectangular slots carved into the limestone. When the resonators were actually in place it likely would not have been possible to walk through the gallery because of the equipment and its rigging. The role of the resonators was to convert and concentrate vibrations into airborne sound. According to Dunn, the design of the gallery, its angles and surfaces, reflects sound and directs it into the king's chamber. When sound is channeled into the granite resonating cavity, forcing the granite ceiling beams to oscillate, the beams above them, in turn, begin to resonate in harmonic sympathy. As a result, the maximization of resonance is achieved and the entire granite complex becomes a vibrating mass of energy. The specific design of the Grand Gallery was to transfer energy captured by the large area of the pyramid into the resonant king's chamber. He theorizes that the Grand Gallery housed resonators that converted the coupled earth and pyramid vibrations into airborne sound. Twenty-seven pairs of slots in the side ramps of the gallery could have contained a resonator assembly. This would do much to explain the existence of the slots, which have always been a mystery. Dunn theorizes that each resonator assembly in the Grand Gallery was equipped with several Helmholtz-type resonators that were tuned to different harmonic frequencies. Each resonator in the series responded at a higher frequency than the previous one, and raised the frequency of the vibrations coming from the earth. To accomplish this, the ancient scientists would have to make the dimensions smaller for each succeeding resonator and reduce the distance between the two walls. In fact, the walls of the Grand Gallery step inward seven times from the floor to the ceiling. At their base, the resonators were anchored in the ramp slots. Along the length of the second layer of the corbeled wall there is a groove cut into the stone, suggesting that the resonators were held in place and positioned by first being installed into the ramp slots. The Cairo Museum holds some of the most remarkable stone artifacts of Egyptian civilization. According to Dunn, given the shape and dimensions of some of these vessels, they are likely the Helmholtz-style resonators used in the Great Pyramid. One such item, a bowl, has a horn attached to it. Another bowl does not have handles normally seen on a domestic vase, but rather trunnion-like appendages machined on each side of it. These trunnions would be needed to hold the bowl securely in a resonator. A little-publicized fact concerning these artifacts is that there were thirty thousand of them found in chambers underneath Djoser's step pyramid. The antechamber to the king's chamber has been the subject of much concern and discussion. Despite its small size, nine feet long by nine feet high and three and a half feet wide, it is one of the most unusual chambers in the pyramid. In comparison with the rest of the pyramid's construction, it is rough--the surface of the stone blocks was not polished to an even smoothness. On the south wall above the entrance to the king's chamber are four grooves running vertically from the entrance to the top of the chamber. Along the east and west walls are two granite wainscots (linings) of different heights. The east side is eight and a half feet high; the west side is a little over nine feet. Three grooves are carved into the granite wainscots of the west wall beginning at the south end of the chamber, measuring approximately one and a half feet in width. At the top of each groove is a semicircular notch, as though intended for a pole to be placed across the chamber. However, since no notches are cut into the grooves on the east side, any hypothetical beams would have to rest on the top. (70)

Diagram of resonator apparatus (from Christopher Dunn's The Giza Power Plant) (70)

The ancient Egyptians needed to focus a sound of specific frequency into the king's chamber, which would require an acoustic filter between the Grand Gallery (the resonator hall) and the king's chamber. By placing baffles inside the antechamber, sound waves coming from the Grand Gallery would be filtered as they passed through. Only a single frequency, or harmonic of that frequency, would enter the king's chamber. The effect is that interference sound waves would be unable to enter the king's chamber to reduce the system's output. Canceling out excess vibrations by using an out-of-phase interference sound wave would have been a logical choice. The ascending passage is the only feature inside the Great Pyramid that contains devices (granite plugs) that are directly accessible from the outside. Dunn refers to them as devices for the same reason he calls the granite beams above the king's chamber devices. They are over designed and over-crafted for their supposed use. Limestone would have been sufficient to keep out robbers. So why use granite? Dunn studied them and realized they may have performed two critical roles. First, they would provide feedback to the plant operators by responding to the sound that was generated inside the Grand Gallery, and traveling through the ascending passage. Second, they may have been able to respond to vibrations from equipment in the descending passage and transmit out-of-phase interference sound waves to prevent vibrations from reaching destructive levels. Of course, the operators would be using vibration sensors attached to the bottom granite plug in order to monitor the energy level inside. This explains not only the builders' logic for selecting granite, but also the means by which the ancient Egyptians controlled the level of energy in the system. Dunn also speculates that by directing a signal of the correct frequency up the ascending passage, the operators would have been able to prime the system. Most likely, when the plant was in operation, the king's chamber was filled not with air but rather with a gaseous medium that would resonate with the entire system, thereby maximizing the output. Hydrogen, the atom responsible for the emission of microwave radiation in the universe, as well as the simplest of all elements, would fit these needs. Its atoms, with a single electron, would most efficiently absorb the energy. The stepped-up frequencies entering the king's chamber from the Grand Gallery would excite the hydrogen gas to higher energy levels. In other words, it would efficiently absorb this energy as each atom responded in resonance to its input. In the Great Pyramid, the northern shaft served as a waveguide for the input microwave signal. It was constructed to pass through the masonry from the north face of the pyramid into the king's chamber. According to Dunn, the waveguide leading to the chamber has dimensions that closely approximate the wavelength of microwave energy, which is 1,420,405,751.786 hertz. It is the frequency of energy emitted by atomic hydrogen in the universe. This certainly helps explain the goldplated iron that was discovered embedded in the limestone near the southern shaft. Lining the shafts with gold-plated iron would make it a very efficient conduit for the input signal and the power output. The granite box inside the king's chamber is an important component to the system. Dunn believes that it occupied a position between the waveguides in the north and the south walls. Here, it served as an amplifier of the microwave signal that entered the chamber. It is densely opaque to us, but would allow electromagnetic radiation (invisible to us) to pass through. The evidence suggests that the granite box could refract electromagnetic radiation as it passed through the box's north and south walls. Although accurate measurements for the optical characteristics have not been made, the nineteenth-century British explorer Piazzi Smyth's measurements show that the box's surface is concave. So, when the granite box was positioned in the path of the incoming signal from the northern shaft, and with oscillating crystals adding energy to the microwave beam, it may have served to spread the signal inside the box as it passed through the first wall. Inside the granite box, the spreading beam would then interact and stimulate the emission of energy from the energized hydrogen atoms. Across the king's chamber, at the opening for the southern shaft, there is a feature in the granite wall that closely resembles a horn antenna, much like a microwave receiver. The radiation picked up more energy as it passed through the opposite wall of the box, then was once more refracted and focused into this horn antenna. The mouth of this opening is severely damaged. However, because of its curved geometry, someone in the distant past likely found it necessary to remove some of the granite to retrieve the gold or gold-plated lining. According to Dunn, what is left unmistakably identifies this as the receiver of microwave energy that entered the chamber from the north wall's waveguide. Another seemingly unexplainable fact is that salt was encrusted on the walls, and also in the horizontal passage in the lower portion of the Grand Gallery, in some places up to a half-inch thick. Ironically, salt is a natural by-product of the chemical reaction designed to produce hydrogen. They discovered that it was a mixture of calcium carbonate, sodium chloride, and calcium sulfate, which is limestone, salt, and gypsum (plaster of Paris)--precisely the minerals that would be produced if a hydrogen-bearing reaction occurred in the queen's chamber. (70)

Here's how the Giza power plant probably worked. The massive structure of the pyramid collected, and funneled, tectonic vibrations from the earth below. The Grand Gallery further collected these vibrations, and through its resonators converted it into airborne sound. The sound traveled past an acoustic filter, which baffled all but a certain frequency just before entering the king's chamber. In the king's chamber, the filtered sound vibrated the massive granite walls, ceiling, and granite stack above, converting mechanical energy into electrical energy. Since the king's chamber was filled with hydrogen gas produced from the queen's chamber, the hydrogen absorbed the electricity, pumping its atoms into an excited state. Microwave signals were collected off the outer surface of the pyramid and directed into the northern shaft leading to the king's chamber. There, the granite box refracted electromagnetic radiation, and, with oscillating crystals adding energy to the microwave beam, served to spread the signal inside the box as it passed through its first wall. Inside the granite box, the spreading beam would then interact and stimulate the emission of energy from the energized hydrogen atoms. Passing through the other side of the box, the microwave energy was then focused into an antenna device, and exited the pyramid through the southern shaft where it could be utilized. The Giza power plant is a radical theory, but only from the perspective of tradition. In the true spirit of scientific investigation, Christopher Dunn explains every aspect of the Great Pyramid's complex internal passages and chambers. He also insists that such a precise construction could not have been accomplished without the proper tools, not only to cut and shape but also to measure precisely. In his model, he even predicted that it endured a serious explosion. The scorch marks in the Grand Gallery testify to his theory's accuracy. (70)

Sirius is an unusual star. A sparkling point of light particularly prominent in the winter months in the night skies of the northern hemisphere, it consists of a binary star system, i. e. it is in fact, as the Pyramid Texts suggest, a 'dual entity'. The major component, Sirius-A is what we see. Sirius-B, on the other hand - the dwarf-star which revolves around Sirius A - is absolutely invisible to the naked eye. Its existence did not become known to Western science until 1862, when US astronomer Alvin Clark spotted it through one of the largest and most advanced telescopes of the day. How could the scribes who wrote the Pyramid Texts possibly have obtained the information that Sirius was two stars in one? In The Sirius Mystery, an important book published in 1976, I knew that the American author Robert Temple had offered some extraordinary answers to this question. His study focused on the traditional beliefs of the Dogon tribe of West Africa - beliefs in which the binary character of Sirius was explicitly described and in which the correct figure of fifty years was given for the period of the orbit of Sirius-B around Sirius-A. The great enigma, therefore, is this: in such an early period, who could have possessed the necessary knowhow to observe and take note of the coincidence of the period of 365.25 days with the heliacal rising of Sirius - a coincidence described by the French mathematician R.A. Schwaller de Lubicz as 'an entirely exceptional celestial phenomenon'? We cannot but admire the greatness of a science capable of discovering such a coincidence. The double star of Sirius was chosen because it was the only star that moves the needed distance and in the right direction against the background of the other stars. This fact, known four thousand years before our time and forgotten until our day, obviously demands an extraordinary and prolonged observation of the sky. (152)

Indus Valley

 

China

 

Europe

 The bottom line of his research was that nearly 4,000 years ago the Minoans had used a system of mathematics based on a 366 degree circle, that appears to be directly connected to the mathematics of the megalithic people who lived in western Europe 5,000 years ago. The Minoans seemed to be using a circle of 366 degrees with each degree subdivided into 60 minutes, and each minute further divided into 6 seconds. (160)

Butler had started by studying the mathematical structure of the Phaistos Disc. It is engraved on both sides with a series of pictograms laid out inside spirals. Although no one understands the writing system, Butler found that the symbols on the disc are compatible with a 366-day calendar, which was so accurate that over a period of 40 years it would be out by only three days. He also noted that there seemed to be an indication on the disc that would allow even this small error to be corrected.He decided to see if this small measure of angle represented a useful distance on the Earth's circumference, and his first calculation showed it to be a little over 3 metres. This rang bells, because the Minoans used a unit of length called the Minoan Foot, which archaeologist have observed from their buildings was equal to 30.36 cm. Butler made some quick calculations and realized that 1,000 Minoan feet was equal to 366 megalithic yards. Not approximately ... exactly! He also noted that one megalithic second of arc was equal to 366 megalithic yards, or 1000 Minoan feet, on the Earth's surface. Each megalithic second of arc represents a distance of 366 megalithic yards on the Earth's surface and six of these comprise the distance a megalithic minute of arc covers on the Earth's surface - and is equal to 2,196 megalithic yards (a unit that Butler has called a megalithic mile). There are 60 megalithic minutes of arc to the megalithic degree, and therefore also 60 megalithic miles. Since there are 366 megalithic degrees to the circle, it follows that the circumference of the earth should be 60 x 366 megalithic miles, which comes out at 21,960 megalithic miles. Convert this number into kilometres and the result is 40,009.98 kilometres. The polar circumference of the earth is presently estimated to be 40,010 kilometres, so the megalithic people agreed with modern measurements to the last 20 metres! Such a precise match is unlikely to be mere coincidence. (160)

So, it seems that some 4,000 years ago the Minoans of Crete had inherited a system from the megalithic peoples of western Europe, whereby one second of arc was the same as one second of time, and this could be expressed as a distance of 366 megalithic yards on the surface of the Earth. If one were to measure this distance accurately and mark it on the ground in an east-west direction, it actually represents the amount by which the Earth turns (at any given spot) in one megalithic second of time. In this way these prehistoric people reconciled time and distance into one form of measurement. (160)

South America

 

Mesoamerica

 Clark argues that the earlier Mazatan site of Paso de la Amada was planned and constructed as a ceremonial center by the Locona phase (1650-1500 BC) using regular arrangements of spatial modules based on a native measurement unit (1.666 m) combined in multiples and simple fractions of 13, 20, 52, 260, and 365. These numbers also define cycles in later Mesoamerican calendar counts, suggesting that the builders of Paso de la Amada may have encoded cosmological cyles of time in the layout of their center. (159)

North America

 

Other

 2300 BC Bronze used in Thailand. (135)