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Science & Education                   20,000+ BC
Africa
Southwest Asia
Egypt
Indus Valley
China
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In Genral

 Antarctica wasn't discovered until 1820, yet there are several very old maps that show Antarctica without a trace of Ice, with rivers and mountains where today one finds nothing but glaciers. The two Piri Reis maps, dated 1513 and 1528, are copies of much older ones going back thousands of years; and as studies sponsored by the US Navy Hydrographic Office have shown, these maps are utterly precise and in true scale. Even more interesting, they show many details that could only be found by aerial survey, and yet these cartographic achievements must have been made at least 20,000 years ago, when Antarctica was ice free. (141)

Africa

 Just recently the discovery was made that ancient iron ore mines in South Africa are 43,000 years old. (141)

At the base of a cliff face on the precipitous western slopes of Lion Peak, a five-ton slab of hematite stone blocked access to a cavern. Charcoal remains dated the mining operations within the cavern at 20,000 to 26,000 BC. (146)

Southwest Asia

 

Egypt

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Indus Valley

 

China

 

Europe

A shaped and engraved bone plaque found in a rock shelter in south-west France has been identified as an accurate lunar calculator, and carbon dating has established that it is between 32,000 and 34,000 years old. One 30,000-year-old bone Marshack found to show a tally of the moon's phases over a period of just over two months. In the same archaeological collection he found a number of sceptre-like rods which came to be called batons de commandement; these had been found at a place called Le Placard, in southern France, and were dated to about 20,000 BC. Marshack was able to show, by studying the period from 30,000 BC to 17,000 BC that a conventional tally system had developed along the western seaboard of Europe before the end of the last Ice Age. (160)

South America

 

Mesoamerica

 

North America

 

Other