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Science & Education                   11,000 BC
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In General

[in] Hamlet's Mill by George Santillana and Hertha von Dechend, a study that sets out to demonstrate that the common denominator of all early myths is the idea of a great grinding-mill of the stars (sometimes it is described as churning a sea of milk, the Milky Way). This grinding-mill represents the precession of the equinoxes--which, as we have seen, is the apparent backward movement of the vernal point (the constellation in which the sun rises at the spring equinox) through the constellations. At present the sun rises in Pisces at the spring equinox, so we live in the Age of Pisces, but in about eight centuries' time it will rise in Aquarius, and our descendants of AD 2,600 will live in the Age of Aquarius. In the normal zodiac of astrology, Aquarius comes before Pisces. Hence 'precession' of the equinoxes--they move backwards, in a slow circle in the heavens. This in itself offers proof that civilization could be thousands of years older than historians and archaeologists believe: it takes 2,160 years for the vernal point to move from one constellation to the next, and 25,920 years for the whole precessional cycle to come around again to the beginning. Santillana and von Dechend make it clear that the Inuit, Icelanders, Norsemen, Native Americans, Finns, Hawaiians, Japanese, Chinese, Persians, Romans, ancient Greeks, ancient Hindus, ancient Egyptians and many others were familiar with the whole cycle of 'Hamlet's mill', the precession of the equinoxes (the book takes its title from the corn grinding-mill of Amlodhi, an Icelandic hero, whose name has come down to us as Hamlet). We are currently living through the last two centuries of the full 26,000-year cycle. The half cycle, 12,960 years back from now, gives the date of 10,500 BC so hotly debated in current investigations of prehistory. (123)

Africa

 

Southwest Asia

...an arbitrary division of the grand circle into 12 segments of 30 degrees each means that mathematically the zodiacal calendar shifts from one Age to another every 2,160 years. Since the Deluge occurred, according to Sumerian texts, in the Age of the Lion, our zodiacal clock can start circa 10860 BC. An astounding timetable emerges if, in this mathematically determined 2,160-year zodiacal calendar, the starting point of 10800 BC rather than 10860 BC is chosen:

10800 to 8640--Age of the Lion (Leo)
8640 to 6480--Age of the Crab (Cancer)
6480 to 4320--Age of the Twins (Gemini)
4320 to 2160--Age of the Bull (Taurus)
2160 to 0--Age of the Ram (Aries) (137)

A Sumerian tablet in the Berlin Museum begins the list of zodiacal constellations with that of Leo - taking us back to circa 11,000 BC, when Man had just begun to till the land. Just as it is evident that the Sumerian astronomers possessed knowledge that they could not possibly have acquired on their own, so is there evidence to show that a good deal of their knowledge was of no practical use to them. This pertains not only to the very sophisticated astronomical methods that were used - who in ancient Sumer really needed to establish a celestial equator, for example? - but also to a variety of elaborate texts that dealt with the measurement of distances between stars. (146)

Egypt

 

Indus Valley

 

 India's coastlines in Reinal map of AD 1510 (above)

India's coastlines in 11,500 BCm (Below)

1. Today this is the mouth of the Indus river, which is a delta. But on both Reinal's and Milne's maps, it is marked by a wide gulf.
2. A large bulge that in both Reinal's and Milne's maps replaces the Kathiawar peninsula that exists today.
3. An island (or island-group) which is depicted on both maps but which does not exist today.
4. A gulf which on both maps is much smaller than the Gulf of Cambay that exists today.
5. A large island (or island-group) which is depicted on both maps but which does not exist today.
6. An island at the same latitude as the northernmost Lakshadweep island (approximately 12 degrees north) is shown on both Reinal's and Milne's maps. No island exists there today.
7. The Lakshadweep islands, which exist today but which are enlarged in both Reinal's and Milne's maps.
8. The tip of the sub-continent. Both maps show the tip of the sub-continent somewhat like a bay, wide but not deep, facing south-west towards the northern Maldives - very different from the south-east-facing tip that exists today.
9. A tiny island which is depicted on both Reinal's and Milne's maps next to the southern tip of the sub-continent. No island exists there today.
10. The Maldive islands, which exist today but which are enlarged in both Reinal's and Milne's maps.

In 1996 John Grisby, a 25-year old Ph.D. student working for us to compile a database of facts about Angkor, made a brilliant and original discovery. Just as the three great Pyramids of Giza in Egypt model the belt stars of the southern constellation of Orion, so too do the principal monuments of Angkor model the sinuous coils of the northern constellation of Draco. There can be no doubt that the correlation exists: the correspondences between the principal stars of Draco and at least fifteen of the main pyramid-temples of Angkor are too close to be called anything else. Furthermore these correspondences extend to a number of neighboring constellations in the same general sky-region. We were amazed to discover that at the exact moment of sunrise on the spring equinox in 10,500 BC the constellation of Draco lay due north in the middle of the sky, straddling the meridian well above the horizon in precisely the pattern that is replicated on the ground by the principal temples of Angkor. (161)

China

 

Europe

 

South America

 

Mesoamerica

 

North America

 

Other