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Science in General


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The Globe The question of technology becomes more pressing, but even more difficult to answer, when one considers how the giant stones of ancient sites were actually cut, tooled, and moved. "It is a mystery, actually," he (John Michell) concedes, "this incredible precision. And again in megalithic times, the extraordinary weights involvedraising blocks of one hundred tons or more, transporting them, and setting them up. They used terrific labor ingenuity and, no doubt, principles that aren't recognized today." Could such principles have included some kind of levitation? "There are very persistent references from the Classical writers to the power of sound he says, "of the use of song and music and tone to make things lighter, work songs where there's a rhythm got up, where you can move things without lot of effort." (60) For quite some time researchers have been documenting the astronomical alignments of ancient archaeological and megalithic stone sites all over the world. But discovery of their geodesic alignment has been more recent. Geodesy refers to the theory and practice of surveying to determine the position of specific points on Earth's surface. It is distinguished from plane surveying in that it deals with areas whose dimensions are so great that the curvature of the Earth must be taken into account. Geometric geodesy involves the creation of a mathematical model of Earth, while physical geodesy studies Earth's gravity field. Geodesic studies are referred to in many practical fields of endeavor, including mineral resource location, reduction of the effects of natural hazards, cartography, and study of Earth's propagation of gravitational and electromagnetic energy. The discovery of the precise alignment of Mayan sites along the 90th parallel is significant because it demonstrates that the Maya were aware of Earth's curvature and knew the advanced formulas used in geodesy. (69) The concept of zero was independently developed by three cultures: East Indian, Mayan, and Babylonian. Most ancient (and many notsoancient) cultures could barely get past counting on their fingers and toes. It is curious that the concept of zero, and thus of the place system, did not occur to the Romans (known for being excellent engineers) or Greeks (known for their mastery of geometry). We need only try to manipulate large numbers using the cumbersome Roman numeral system to understand the importance of this concept. In the Roman system, which has no zero, letters are used to represent numbers. The obvious disadvantage in such a system is that numbers representing large quantities become quite long and increasingly complex. The Greek system is just as unwieldy. In fact, as important as we consider these two civilizations to have been in shaping our current culture, we do not use their basic math systems. (69) It is not possible to ascribe a date to a block of basalt, limestone, or granite rock used to build the Great Pyramid or to a pile of the earth used to build mounds. A geologist can estimate the ages of rock and earth, but such estimates will be in the millions of years, which is not of much help. (69) It is possible to make a case for almost anything and evidence can always be found to support what we wish to prove. Historians and archaeologists operate similarly to lawyers, often relying on effective or clever argument to convince the jury. This, of course, is not how science is supposed to proceed. The methodology of science is supposed to consist of assembling observable facts into a provable theory that can be independently confirmed. But preconceptions and agendas and the desire to protect them can muddy the process. The preconception and agenda of science regarding the origin of humans and civilization is tied up with the theory of cultural evolution, Darwinism as applied to the development of human societies. Until the politics of science change or technology reaches an extremely reliable level, the best that can be done is to try to establish the correct sequence of events and disregard any exact dates or inflexible chronologies. Both are written in sand. (69) The people of the world's ancient civilizations could not have been on their own in gathering their knowledge of the heavens. While a certain amount of celestial observation was no doubt possible for them, it would have been very difficult to discover the precessional through observation alone. This would have required observing it over its entire course and then observing it beginning again in order to discern its cyclical nature. It would have taken many millennia of tireless sky watching and data recording to chart the patterns of the constellations and the Sun's backward path through the zodiac. (69) Observation and recording are two of the primary components of the scientific method. Our ancestors' observations of the planets, stars, comets, and various natural events that occurred in the world, along with their tracking and recording of the motions of Earth and the interrelationships of Earth and other celestial bodies, might be viewed as steps toward gathering scientific dateperhaps toward predicting certain phenomena. (69) …science has offered preliminary hypotheses about sites and dates for the first appearance of humans. Scientists must base their findings on the physical data available at the time of their study. This means interpretations keep changing as new data appears. Given the evidence of cataclysmic changes that have reconfigured continents over the ages, destroying fossils and' artifacts alike, we will never be able to piece together the full story from the physical evidence. Humancreated evidence, in written form and artifacts, is just as fragmented as the fossil record. Metaphysical sources, including the memories of humans and other beings, suffer from the influence of idiosyncratic interpretations. All this means that reconstructing a full and exact record of human history lies beyond human capabilities. Even using various inner senses along with physical senses, I believe the best we can hope for is an approximation. (113) When Chatelain then analyzed ancient Hindu, Maya, and Greek astronomical tables, he discovered they had one thing in common with the Sumerian tables. The rotations of solar bodies contained in the tables from four different cultures came from the same time: 64,800 years ago. (113) While the Mayans calculated astronomical measurements based on the same constant as the Sumerians, their table was based on days instead of seconds as used by the Sumerians. Counting back 13 Mayan cycles, of 5,163 years each, from the projected end of the current cycle in 2020 takes us to 67,119 ADvery close to the Sumerian date. The same information known to both cultures suggests either connections between the prehistoric Sumerians and the Mayans or access to the same teacher. That the number 360 used by Sumerians in their calculations (360 degrees in a circle, etc.) played a central role in Mayan calculations also suggests a common source. (113) Some evidence suggests that at least four postcataclysm civilizations used place values (to break whole numbers into fractions) (113) Over the last few millennia we have lost much of the detailed understanding of both the science and techniques of divination and now use partial and distorted versions of them. I believe the primary reason they have been excluded in the development of Western science is the fear that their use would undermine Christian cosmology. A religion that depends on keeping communications with other beings under its control must discredit nonphysical human powers as evil. Thus, anyone who used such techniques (shamans, medicine women, psychics, esoteric scientists) were labeled pagan or heretical and subjected to sanctions. (113) ...we know that the destruction of the world by fire, as by flood, is a common mythological theme; and while some of these conflagration myths may pertain to the ultimate fate of the earth, others seem more descriptive of historical catastrophes, comparable perhaps to the periodic cleansing of the earth described by the Egyptian priest in the Timaeus. Second, the M.I.T. archaeoastronomers tell us that for the ancients, the "end of the world" actually meant the end of a worldage, in terms of the Precession of the Equinoxes: What actually comes to an end is a world, in the sense of a worldage. The catastrophe cleans out the past, which is replaced by a "new heaven and a new earth." In this light one cannot help but be struck by the fact that the late seventh millennium date given by the Greeks for the time of Zarathustra very nearly coincides with astronomers' estimates for the end of the age of Cancer and the dawn of Gemini, c. 6480 BC. M.I.T. reckoning begins our present age of Pisces with a superior conjunction of Saturn and Jupiter in 6 BC. Allowing the conventional 2,160 years for each preceding age, the beginning of the age of Aries would have been around 2160 BC, that of the age of Taurus c. 4320 BC, of Gemini around 6480 BC, the beginning of the age of Cancer around 8640 BC and so on. (115) A word should also be said here about the reliability of carbon14 dates per se. It obviously does no good to calibrate carbon14 dates that are themselves inconsistent. Radiocarbon readings have proved unreliable often enough to give archaeologists pause unless a large series of dates shows itself to be internally consistent, and even the general rule that the more carbon14 dates for an event, the greater the level of confidence, is not always applicable. Of two dates picked from the series of radiocarbon readings at Jarmo, one showed the settlement to have been founded around 6750 BC, the other around 4750 BC, and each had a cluster of other carbon14 dates around it. Such a disparity shows with what caution not only isolated readings but all carbon14 dates must still be viewed. (115) As in the case of Giza, what Rand also began to look for were the latitudes of the sacred sites. He soon came to note what he called 'sacred latitudes' occurring again and again: any latitude that would divide neatly into 360 degrees  such as the 30 degrees of Giza. Quito, the northern capital of the Inca Empire, and Carthage, the Phoenician city, had both been at 30 degrees north during the Hudson Bay Pole. Others, such as Easter Island, MohenjoDaro and the Tibetan holy city of Lhasa, were located on the equator. When he had identified forty sites on 'sacred latitudes' Rand was fairly certain that this was not just a game with numbers. Sacred latitudes when the Pole was at Hudson Bay (60N/83W). All of these sites are within half a degree (30 nautical miles) of a sacred latitude. Raiatea and Tahiti, in the South Pacific, are the closest land to the sacred latitude. (123)
...since he had the latitude and longitude of so many sacred sites, it would be a simple matter to add or subtract Giza's longitude (31 degrees, 8 minutes east) to see what would happen if Giza was the prime meridian instead of Greenwich. Suddenly dozens of sacred sites began to fit into a vast global pattern. Quite simply, sites whose latitude and longitude looked unpromising because they seemed 'too complicated' (with too many decimals) now began to fall into simple round figures. For example, Tiahuanaco, whose longitude is 69 degrees west of Greenwich, is also 100 degrees west of the Great Pyramid. The former Inca capital at Quito is at 110 degrees west of Giza and other very significant sites, including Teotihuacan and Easter Island, are found at 120, 130 and 140 degrees west of the Great Pyramid. This pattern also extends eastward. Ur of the Chaldees is exactly 15 degrees east of Giza and the Tibetan capital of Lhasa is 60 degrees east of the Great Pyramid. What was even more significant was the fact that many of these round figures were phi numbers. Tiahuanaco, for example, was 10 phi; so was the ancient Polynesian spiritual centre Raiatea (this is also at 180 degrees latitude from the Giza meridian). Since I had described so many of them in my Atlas of Sacred Sites, I was as astounded and excited as Rand when he told me of his breakthrough. One of Rand's most startling discoveries came shortly afterwards. He had discovered that there were no fewer than eight sacred sites at the 10 phi north latitude during the Hudson Bay Pole. (123)
Rand reasoned that there should be a current sacred site at 10 phi north to match Tiahuanaco's 10 phi south, and that it should also be linked to the Great Pyramid. He had looked in his atlas for a very specific spot: 10 phi north of the equator, and 120 degrees west. There was nothing obvious  just three little red dots, and a name that was so tiny that he had to take off his glasses to read it. He had never heard of it: Labaantum, in Belize in central America. Via the Internet he had found out that 'Lubaantum (Place of Fallen Stones)' was an ancient Mayan ceremonial centre with three pyramids and terraces made of dressed stone blocks. (123) …[in] Hamlet's Mill by George Santillana and Hertha von Dechend, a study that sets out to demonstrate that the common denominator of all early myths is the idea of a great grindingmill of the stars (sometimes it is described as churning a sea of milk, the Milky Way). This grindingmill represents the precession of the equinoxeswhich, as we have seen, is the apparent backward movement of the vernal point (the constellation in which the sun rises at the spring equinox) through the constellations. At present the sun rises in Pisces at the spring equinox, so we live in the Age of Pisces, but in about eight centuries' time it will rise in Aquarius, and our descendants of AD 2,600 will live in the Age of Aquarius. In the normal zodiac of astrology, Aquarius comes before Pisces. Hence 'precession' of the equinoxesthey move backwards, in a slow circle in the heavens. This in itself offers proof that civilization could be thousands of years older than historians and archaeologists believe: it takes 2,160 years for the vernal point to move from one constellation to the next, and 25,920 years for the whole precessional cycle to come around again to the beginning. Santillana and von Dechend make it clear that the Inuit, Icelanders, Norsemen, Native Americans, Finns, Hawaiians, Japanese, Chinese, Persians, Romans, ancient Greeks, ancient Hindus, ancient Egyptians and many others were familiar with the whole cycle of 'Hamlet's mill', the precession of the equinoxes (the book takes its title from the corn grindingmill of Amlodhi, an Icelandic hero, whose name has come down to us as Hamlet). These ancient peoples, unaware that precession arises from a mere wobble on the axis, regarded the precession of the equinoxes as of tremendous religious significance, largely because they believed that the end of each age brings some immense catastrophe. We are being asked to accept that the same measurementbased upon the circumference of the earthwas used in ancient Egypt, Sumer, Teotihuacan and Palenque. But, even more incredible, that fairly primitive Indian people, who thought the sun might disappear permanently at the end of every 52 years, had a knowledge of the heavens that would not shame a modern Astronomer Royal. (123) Chatelain makes the same point: It is surely beyond imagination to think that thousands of years ago the Mayas could have, all by themselves, calculated a constant of 147,420 millions of daysa number that had twelve digits. But it is even more surprising to see the same number, only 65 times smaller, and expressed in seconds instead of days, has been used by Sumerians, a nation on the opposite side of the globe. This fact seems to indicate that the Mayas and the Sumerians must have had direct connections with each other, or that they shared a common origin. (123) Henry Lincoln cites a remarkable book called Historical Metrology (1953) by a master engineer named A.E. Berriman, an erudite volume covering ancient Egypt, Babylon, Sumer, China, India, Persia and many other cultures. It begins with the question 'Was the earth measured in remote antiquity?' and sets out to demonstrate that indeed it was. It argues that ancient weights and measures were derived from measuring the earthwhich, of course, means in turn that ancient people had already measured the earth. The book must have struck Berriman's contemporaries as hopelessly eccentric. He says that one measure was a fraction of the earth's circumference, that a measure of land area (the acre) was based on a decimal fraction of the square of the earth's radius, and that certain weights were based on the density of water and of gold. It sounds almost as if Berriman is positing the existence of some ancient civilization that vanished without a trace, except for these ancient measures. (123) We are confronting a mystery. The structured landscape of RennesleChateau and its association with the English mile (as well as the mile's apparent link with the dimensions of the Earth) are easily demonstrated, with a multitude of confirming instances. The measure and the geometry are evident. The patterns are repeatable. The designs are meaningful. All this was created in a remote past, upon which the phenomenon is shedding a new light. Berriman seems to be making the same point in Historic Metrology. His argument that prehistoric measurement geodetic in originthat is, was derived from the size of the earthis powerfully expanded at the very beginning of Chapter 1. He points out that although the Greeks did not know the size of the earth, the earth's circumference happens to be precisely 216,000 Greek stade (the Greek stade is 600 Greek feet, and the Greek foot is 1.0125 times as long as the English foot). If we want to find out how many Greek stades there are to one degree of the earth's circumference, we divide 216,000 stade by the 360 degrees in a circle, and the answer, significantly, turns out to be 600the same as the number of feet in a stade. If we then divide by 60to get the number of stade in 1 minute of the circumferencewe get 10 stade. Change this to Greek feet6,000and divide again by 60, to find the number of Greek feet in 1 second, and we see that it is precisely 100. This simply cannot be chance. Distances do not normally work out in neat round figures. It is obvious that (a) the Greeks took their stade from someone else, and (b) that someone else knew the exact size of the earth. Berriman is full of these puzzling factsfor example, the area of the great bath of Mohenjo Daro, in the Indus Valley, is 100 square yards. (123) It is clear that Bhu Mandala, as described in the Bhagvatam, can be interpreted as a geocentric map of the solar system out to Saturn. But an obvious and important question is: Did some real knowledge of planetary distances enter into the construction of the Bhu Mandala system, or are the correlations between Bhu Mandala features and planetary orbits simply coincidental? If the dimensions given in the Bhagvatam do, in fact, represent realistic planetary distances based on human observation, then we must postulate that Bhagvata astronomy preserves material from an earlier and presently unknown period of scientific development...[and that] some people in the past must have had accurate values for the dimensions of the planetary orbits. In modern history, this information has only become available since the development of highquality telescopes in the last 200 years. Accurate values of planetary distances were not known by Hellenistic astronomers such as Claudius Ptolemy, nor are they found in the medieval Jyotisa Sutras of India. If this information was known it must have been acquired by some unknown civilization that flourished in the distant past. Needless to say, a civilization that could make accurate maps of planetary distances, a hypothetical civilization of the distant past that had approached to within 200 years of our own level of development in astronomy, would have had no great difficulty in observing and measuring the precession of the equinoxes, or in dividing up the earthly and celestial spheres into degrees of longitude and latitude, or in consecrating a series of sacred sites at specific longitudes, and, in the process, exploring and mapping the globe. Neither do I find it at all difficult to imagine how the geodetic and cartographic works of such an elder culture might have been remembered in much later and more superstitious times as gifts that had been handed down by the gods. (124) Palaeolithic is one of those supposedly exact 'scientific' terms in anthropology and archaeology that promotes inexact thought. Meaning 'Old Stone Age', it is defined  arbitrarily  as having come to an end 12,000 years ago, and to have been followed by the Neolithic, 'New Stone Age', from 12,000 years ago (10,000 BC) onwards. After about 7000 years of Neolithic culture, the metal 'ages' of copper (roughly third millennium BC), bronze (roughly second millennium BC), and iron (roughly first millennium BC) then followed. (124) The flood epoch was a reality and in my opinion, since our ancestors went through it, it is not surprising that they told stories and bequeathed to us their shared memories of it. As well as continuing to unveil through sciences like inundation mapping and palaeoclimatology, therefore I suggest that if we want to learn what the world was really like during the meltdown we should LISTEN TO THE MYTHS. Along with growing numbers of people today I have the uneasy sense that science has not fully understood the peoples of the flood epoch  and that some global cultural development of great significance may have been underway at that time which was lost or severely dislocated in the inundations. Above all else it is hints and clues, first to the existence of this lost episode of cultural development and secondly to its character, that I have sought in the geographical anomalies of ancient maps  which are not anomalies if they chart the effects of changing sealevels at the end of the Ice Age  and in my global search for underwater monuments that were submerged at the same time. I propose that the consistent patterns of map anomalies that we have documented  from HyBrasil to India to Japan  bear mute witness to an ancient science of cartography and navigation that explored the world and charted it accurately over a period of several thousand years during the postglacial meltdown. (124) • In round numbers of degrees and minutes the present latitude of the Tropic of Cancer is 23 degrees 27 minutes north. The location of the Sao Pa menhirs is 23 degrees 28 minutes north. The difference between the two is therefore one minute  i.e., 1/60 of a single degree. • In round numbers the longitude of the Great Pyramid of Giza is 31 degrees 07 minutes east (i.e., east of the arbitrary and recent Greenwich Meridian); the longitude of the Sao Pa menhirs is 121 degrees 21 minutes east of Greenwich  the difference between the two is therefore 90 degrees, within 14/60 (i.e., less than a quarter) of a single degree. In summary, if we impose on a map of the earth a 'world grid' with Giza (not Greenwich) as its prime meridian, then hidden relationships become immediately apparent between sites that previously seemed to be on random, unrelated longitudes. On such a grid, as we've just seen, Tiruvannamalai stands on longitude 48 degrees east, Angkor stands on longitude of 72 degrees east and Sao Pa stands out like a sore thumb on longitude 90 degrees east  all numbers that are significant in ancient myths, significant in astronomy (through the study of precession), and closely interrelated through the base3 system. So the' outrageous hypothesis' which is being proposed here is that the world was mapped repeatedly over a long period at the end of the Ice Age  to standards of accuracy that would not again be achieved until the end of the eighteenth century. It is proposed that the same people who made the maps also established their grid materially, on the ground, by consecrating a physical network of sites around the world on longitudes that were significant to them. And it is proposed that this happened a very long time ago, before history began, but that later cultures put new monuments on top of the ancient sites which they continued to venerate as sacred, perhaps also inheriting some of the knowledge and religious ideas of the original navigators and builders. (124) A defeated detachment of seapeople was planted in Palestine by the Pharoah and they are known to us from the Old Testament as Philistines. The seapeople are said by Diodorus to have perfected the art of astrology and to have taught the doctrine of the sphere. In many places ancient writers refer to Atlas as the discoverer of astronomy. In Pliny, Atlas explains the firmament. Later, Pliny says Atlans, son of Libya, or as others say, the Egyptians and others, the Assyrians, invented the sphere or astrolabe. Pausanias refers to the Atlantes and those who profess to know the measurements of the earth...(135) It was Enki who first grouped the stars observable from Earth into "constellations," and divided the heavens in which the Earth circled the sun into twelve partswhat has since been called the Zodiacal Circle of constellations. ...the twelve zodiacal houses were known to the Sumerians millennia earlier by names and depictions that we use to this day. 1. GU.AN.NA ("heavenly bull"), Taurus.
I would like to emphasize here that the first constant which the Mayas used equals exactly 3,600 Sumerian cycles of precession of the equinoxes of 9,450,000 days each. The reader can draw his own conclusions. But the number 3,600 certainly seems to be the root of all the astronomical calculations our ancestors made, as it is a basic number in the geometry of our planet. We have exactly 3,600 tenths of one degree in the circumference of the globe; and at the equator, each of these parts is equal to 36,000 Babylonian feet. (141) Most of the calendars of antiquity, no matter where, have been calculated from the movements of the celestial bodies, and the Mayan calendar is certainly not the only one that had been worked out from the conjunctions of Jupiter and Saturn. It is certainly interesting to observe how many important religious and political events coincide with the alignments of these two planets. The conjunctions of Jupiter and Saturn behind the Sun take place quite rarely. The last such event happened in 1881 and the one before that in 503 BC. Yet this cycle of 2,383 years was known to the astrologers many thousands of years before our era, as it repeated itself in the years 10,035; 7,652; 5,269; and 2,886 before Christ. The oldest date comes close to the time when the fabled Atlantis disappeared and the most recent seems to indicate the time of the Great Flood described in the Bible. (141) Among other ancient calendars, some were based on relative motions of the Moon and Sun and the most frequently used cycle was 10,800 years, or 599 Saros common to the Hindus, the Sumerians, and the Babylonians. Forty of these cycles made the great cycle of the Hindus and the great year of Berossus, high priest of Babylon. The figure 10,800 also repeats itself in many other places. Multiples or fractions of this number can be found in sacred texts from all around the world. The RigVeda, the most important sacred book of the Hindus, has 10,800 verses and the altar of the Vedic god Agni has been built of exactly 10,800 bricks. (141) The geometric figures of Nasca in Peru that have been described in dozens of books are not so unique. Straight lines, triangles, and trapezoids have been discovered by aerial photography in many other places around the world. These designs cannot be recognized while your feet are on the ground. Some, like the Maltese cross of the Aegean Sea, can be perceived only on good maps. And all of these baffling markings have one thing in common  they have been measured and laid out in stadia of 600 ft, or 180 m, the same as in Mayan and Egyptian measurements. These stadia and the feet and cubits that were derived from them are the very oldest prehistoric standards of measurement. However, if we cross the Alantic and go to the Mayas, Incas, or even the Wyoming Indians, we find this division. The Medicine Wheel of Wyoming was divided into 28 equal parts, and the temple of Tiahuanaco in Bolivia was divided into 28 sectors by 29 columns. Also the cubit of Cuenca, in Ecuador, has 7 hands of 4 fingers each, or a total of 28 fingers; because the gods of that time had only 4 fingers on each hand as many sculptures and drawings show it. Twice twentyeight is 56, and such is the number of hieroglyphs on the solid gold plate of Cuenca. Note also that megalithic Stonehenge, in Wiltshire, England, has 56 Aubrey holes. In the classical antique world only the royal cubit of the Egyptians was divisible into 7 hands of 4 fingers each, and that brings us to the possible conclusion that the Egyptians, as well as the creators of Stonehenge and the Maltese cross, had a connection or a common origin with the civilizations of Cuenca, Tiahuanaco, and Wyoming. (141) Most of the ancient civilizations used the Sothic year to calculate the ages of mankind and of the world in fantastically high numbers. The Hindus estimated man was 4.32 million years old and the Earth 4.32 billion. The Mayas arrived at far greater numbers. But the Sothic year is the basis of all great cycles known by either Mayas, Hindus, Sumerians, Egyptians, Greeks, or others that we know of. Aside from the cyclic relationships that were built in the Rhodes calculator, the Egyptians also used others, all based on SothisSirius, who for them was the 'good god who makes all things green grow'. (141) All units of measure in the distant past of our civilization had the same basic system in their foundations  all were determined from the exact dimensions of our planet Earth. Incredible as this may sound to the uninitiated, our ancestors derived their feet and inches from the length of one degree of latitude or longitude. Quite naturally they used the longitude and latitude at which they lived and that explains why there were so many different feet and other units of measurement derived from the local degrees. These two basic units of longitude or latitude were divided by an appropriate round number to obtain a measurement of length that approximated the average natural dimension of a human foot, finger, hand, or forearm. The Semites expressed their units in their usual system of counting by 10, while the Sumerians registered theirs by counting by 12 or by 60, and the Olmecs and the Mayas by counting by 20. But the basis for all these different calculations was the same  the true dimensions of Earth. (141) The numerous ancient drawings and sculptures found all over the globe showing astronautlike figures in helmets and space suits are pictorial testimonies from the farthest past that Indeed visitors from outer space left their footprints here. But these paintings in caves and on cliffs are not scientific proofs of extraterrestrial visitations. However, the precise knowledge of our forefathers of the length of 1° of longitude or latitude at any given point on the globe surely is proof; and so is the constant of Nineveh, the cold undeniable calculation in exact numbers that was used for thousands of years on both sides of the Atlantic by people who could never have obtained such information by themselves. (141) One thing that can be said with certainty now is that all the measurement systems ever used, no matter when or where, shared a common relation to the dimensions of our planet and therefore to the metric system. In its modern form, that system was established only some 200 years ago in France. But, of course, the metric system was not invented by the French. Nor was it invented by the Egyptians who used it 5,000 years ago or by the Mayas who built their terraced pyramids in metric dimensions. The system must be even older than the Sumerian sexagesimal way of counting or the Mayan vigesimal numeration. It must have been developed by a civilization familiar with decimal counting, positional calculation, and the use of zero, a civilization which we have not yet found and probably never will find on the continents or islands known to us, because it must be more than 100,000 years old and has probably been hidden in the depths of some ocean for tens of thousands of years. (141) The Byzantine calendar starts on 14 September, 5509 BC. The Hebrew time reckoning begins on 9 September, 3761 BC. Both these years had a conjunction of Jupiter and Saturn. The same characteristic can be shown for the start year of the ancient Hindu timecounting, which was the year 3104 BC. I have not checked all other calendars for this characteristic; but if we add to the above three, the Julian, Scandinavian, and Mayan calendars, we already have six that seem to have started in a year when there was a conjunction of Jupiter and Saturn. The Julian and Scandinavian calendars started in 4713 BC and the last cycle of the Mayan calendar began in 3144 BC. This looks like more than a simple coincidence. (141) Ancient astrologers had noticed that the lunar month coincided with the solar year every 19 years, or after 235 lunar months, a period of time they called a Metonic cycle. They also knew that the lunar month coincided with a solar eclipse every 18.03 years, or eighteen years eleven days, after nineteen lunar years or 223 lunar months, a period they named the Saros. Using these two periods, the Metonic cycle and the Saros, our ancestors formed longer time periods, like the Celtic Triangle used in Stonehenge that consisted of 2 Metonic cycles and 1 Saros, equal to 56 years. The Mayas combined 2 Saroses and 3 Metonic cycles to make a period of 93 solar years. In my opinion, there must have been many other such combinations of lunisolar cycles that have not been explored so far. Our ancestors also had noticed that after every 521 years, an eclipse of the sun took place on the same day of the year and in the same place on the zodiac. Also, that the Saros and the Metonic cycle coincided every 4,237 years, after 235 Saroses or 223 Metonic cycles, and that 599 Saroses represented exactly 10,800 years. This particular number 10,800 was a sacred one for all ancient cultures. (141) Diogenes Laertius, the Greek historian, mentions the year 49,214 before our era as the beginning of the astronomical archives of the Egyptians. This is the oldest recorded date that I know of after the Mayan starting date of 49,611 BC shown on the ceramic disc of Chinkultic. Next to it are the dates of the cave paintings in Lascaux and Altamira going back at least 27,000 years. The age of Tiahuanaco seems to be the same, but we have no precise data. But in 839 BC Babylonian priests recorded the start of the first Babylonian dynasty after the first deluge at the very early date of 24,989 BC, which also was the date of a Mayan baktun. Next in line of recorded documents is the indication in the Vatican codex that the first Mayan calendar started in 18,633 BC. The last cycle, begun in 3144 BC, is to end in the year 2020 of our era. (141) Further, we have a date that is common in two different and widely separated cultures, the Mayan and the Hindu. It is the year 11,654 BC. The Hindus counted time in periods of 2,850 years or 150 Metonic cycles of nineteen solar years each. According to my calculations their calendar started in 3104 BC. If we go back three Hindu timecounting periods of 2,850 years each, we arrive at the year 11,654 BC. The Mayas counted time by several different methods, one of them being cycles of 2,760 1/3 years that started in the year 3373 BC. Three such cycles bring us back to exactly the date of the Hindu timecounting, the famous year 11,654 BC. Then there is the date of 11,540 BC that is common to the Egyptians and the Assyrians. The Egyptians counted by periods of 1,460 years and started one of their cycles in the year 5,700 BC. Four of these Egyptian cycles bring us back to 11,540 BC. The Assyrians counted in periods of 95 Metonic cycles of nineteen solar years each, or cycles of 1,805 years starting in 710 BC. Six of these periods result in the same date  the year 11,540 BC, with the end of the last cycle in 710 BC. (141) ...when all the data is sorted out by computer, only three systems of counting time emerge: the SunMoonVenus method, the method using the Sun and Sirius, and the reckoning by the conjunctions of Jupiter and Saturn. (141) We must recognize here, whether we like it or not, that widely separated cultures used similar systems for measuring length, VOlume, weight, and time, standards whose original sources have disappeared without recognizable trace. Yet the common heritage seems incontestable; and if we want to believe the Egyptian, Tibetan, and many other legends, the common source of all culture was a great island in the middle of the Atlantic Ocean that disappeared in the waves 12,000 years ago...(141) Above all, the similarity between each of these cultures is demonstrated by the way they did their astronomical calculations and by the systems of measurement they developed. Obviously, they all observed the same stars and planets. Yet the fact that they made the calculations in exactly the same way and that from among so many other possible combinations in the movements of the celestial bodies, they chose the very same conjunctions of the same planets, is more than striking. It just could not have happened unless the Sumerians, the Egyptians, the Aztecs, and the Mayas had either evolved from one central civilization, or were in constant contact with each other. (141) The scientific knowledge of astronomy shown by our ancestors tens of thousands of years ago was far superior to that of astronomers only 300 years ago. Our prehistoric ancestors knew that the celestial dome is fixed and that the Sun, the Moon, and the planets revolve. They had noticed that the triangle formed by the stars Sirius, Procyon, and Betelgeuse is fixed, while other constellations, like the Great Bear, change their relative positions imperceptibly over many thousands of years. That was why the ancient astronomers chose the star Sirius as the base for their longrange calculations. They knew without doubt that the Earth revolves around the Sun and that the Moon revolves around the Earth. They knew about the existence of the planets Uranus and Neptune even though it is very rarely possible to see Uranus with the naked eye and impossible to see Neptune at all. They also knew that Mars has two satellites, Jupiter four, Saturn seven, and Uranus two. They knew that comets reappeared at fixed intervals. Some astronomers of the past knew about the existence of the planet Pluto, which we discovered only very recently, and even suspected the existence of another planet beyond Pluto, which they named Proserpine. We still have not found this distant planet, but many presentday astronomers are quite sure that it does exist. (141) The ancient astronomers also knew that the two points where the equator intersects the ecliptic at the equinoxes shift in a westerly direction by 10 every 72 years, or by 3600 in 25,920 years. This phenomenon, which for thousands of years was known in many parts of the Earth, was forgotten for a long time; and the Christian Church ignored it until only three hundred years ago. Our ancestors also knew that the period of 25,920 years was the time elapsed for one rotation of the terrestrial axis at 23 1/20 around the celestial axis, and they called this period of time the Great Year. They knew that this rotation explained why the polar star was not always the same and why some circumpolar stars were sometimes visible and sometimes not. Finally, our ancestors knew that all the planets and satellites in our solar system return to the same position on the celestial vault after 2,268 million days, or after 6.3 million years of 360 days each, a timespan that for modern astronomy equals 6,209,578 years of 365.2422 days each. (141) In mathematics instead of the decimal system, our ancestors used fractions which were much more precise than our decimals. They did not use the decimal system and had no need for it since they did not have decimal calculators. The use of fractions instead of decimal values allowed them to resolve, for instance, the squaring of the circle, which is the computation of a square with the same perimeter as a given circle. This is considered impossible by our modern mathematicians, who use a value of Pi with an infinite number of decimals. For our ancestors, Pi was the ratio 22:7. Therefore, a circle with radius of 7 had a perimeter of 44, the same as a square with a sido of 11. The golden section, or factor Phi, which allowed them to construct triangles or rectangles having the same surface area as a given circle, was expressed by the ratio 196:121. The square root of this number used by our ancient ancestors is 14:11, which equals 4:Pi, or 28:22. Consequently, a circle with a radius of 14:11 has a surface of 56:11, the same square area as a rectangle with sides of 22:7 and 196:121, or a triangle with a base of 44:7 and a height of 196:121. (141) Angles too were expressed as fractions. These could, depending on the case, represent the functions of sine, cosine, or tangent of the angles. So, sine of 30° was 1/2, sine of 60° was equal to 13/15, and the tangent of the base angle of the Great Pyramid was 14/11, the square root of the Golden Section. The angle of inclination of the Earth's rotational axis with the axis of the ecliptic was defined by its cosine value, or the fraction 11/12, found in the dimensions of the Kalasaya Temple in Tiahuanaco, which measures 264 x 288 cubits, and in those of many other temples around the world. But this temple in Tiahuanaco was probably constructed 27,000 years ago, as can be seen by its astronomical layout; and, if nothing else testifies about its age. It is the condition of the ruins which prove to us that much more than 10,000 years have elapsed since it was built. It is therefore evident that our ancestors of 10,000 or more years ago possessed a level of mathematical and astronomical knowledge so superior that they could not have developed it by themselves. (141) Our ancient ancestors knew and used static electricity, electric current, wetcell batteries, electroplating, and powerful light projectors fed by highvoltage cables. They used platinum, a metal that melts only at 1,753° C, and aluminum, which allegedly wasn't discovered and produced until the nineteenth century. Our ancestors knew optics. Possibly they even used telescopes and microscopes, because perfectly polished optical lenses, made out of glass or quartz, have been found in various archaeological sites. It is also very likely that they knew the secret of gravitaion and used it to perform levitation  something we cannot even explain today. Without this knowledge of gravitational control, our ancestors could not have built edifices of enormous stone slabs, which have been found all over the world. No modern construction cranes could lift the huge stones of the temple at Baalbek, once the ancient town of Heliopolis, northeast of Beirut, Lebanon. (141) I started with the mysterious number of fifteen digits found in Nineveh and soon discovered that it was the esoteric form, expressed in seconds, of the much simpler number of 2,268 million days, or just about 6.3 million years. When I discovered later that this time span represented exactly 240 equinoctial cycles, which always played a prominent role in ancient astrology, I immediately realized that by sheer luck I had found the great constant of the solar system, lost for many centuries, and it happened without my even looking for it. My discovery that this solar, or Nineveh, constant had been calculated 64,800 years ago, at the time when CroMagnon man suddenly appeared on the Earth, made me feel that I had hit the jackpot. Up to now, none of our classic theories could satisfactorily explain the sudden appearance of the CroMagnon man on Earth. No one using the classic theories of evolution will ever explain how the CroMagnon, immediately upon arrival, could calculate the Nineveh constant based on the planets Uranus and Neptune, which he couldn't even see, and the imperceptible displacement of the equinoctial point that shifts west by only one degree every seventytwo years. In my opinion, both these mysteries have just one explanation  the intervention of astronauts from another world, who came, just as the Bible tells us, to create, educate, and civilize a new human race in their own Image. (141) 60 BC to AD 2100Age of Pisces
...the making of really good maps requires at least three key ingredients: great journeys of discovery; firstclass mathematical and cartographic skills; sophisticated chronometers. It was not until Harrison's chronometer became generally available in the 1770S that the third of these preconditions was fulfilled. This brilliant invention made it possible for cartographers to fix longitude precisely, something that the Sumerians, the Ancient Egyptians, the Greeks and the Romans, and indeed all other known civilizations before the eighteenth century were supposedly unable to do. It is therefore surprising and unsettling to come across vastly older maps which give latitudes and longitudes with modern precision. (152) Charles Hapgood submitted his collection of ancient maps to the Massachusetts Institute of Technology for evaluation by Professor Richard Strachan. The general conclusion was obvious, but he wanted to know precisely what level of mathematics would have been required to draw up the original source documents. Strachan replied that a very high level of mathematics indeed would have been necessary. Some of the maps, for example, seemed to express 'a Mercator type projection' long before the time of Mercator himself. The relative complexity of this projection (involving latitude expansion) meant that a trigonometric coordinate transformation method must have been used. Other reasons for deducing that the ancient mapmakers must have been skilled mathematicians were as follows: 1 The determination of place locations on a continent requires at least geometric triangulation methods. Over large distances (of the order of 1000 miles) corrections must be made for the curvature of the earth, which requires some understanding of spherical trigonometry. 2 The location of continents with respect to one another requires an understanding of the earth's sphericity, and the use of spherical trigonometry. (152) ... the most remarkable monument of Ancient Egypt and the most remarkable monument of Ancient Mexico both incorporated pi relationships long before and far away from the official 'discovery' of this transcendental number by the Greeks. (152) The written word, astronomy and geometry have long been thought to have arisen in the Middle East, but we now had competing evidence that these sophisticated skills were in use in Europe long before they arrived in Sumer or Egypt. (160) ...Venus is the most accurate indicator of the time of year available in the solar system. Every eight years it marks a point when the solar calendar, the lunar calendar and the sidereal (position of the stars) calendar all coincide to within a few minutes. Over five Venus cycles  i.e. every 40 years  it synchronizes these calendars to within a few seconds. The eightyear Venus cycle also accurately maps the moon's phases and its sidereal movements to within five hours. Knowledge of the Venus cycle enables the three main calendars to be regularly realigned and allows detailed predictions of the tides and lunar eclipses to be made. The sidereal calendar is important for agriculture, the lunar calendar is important to tell the tides, and the solar calendar is needed to know the length of the day and to recognize feast days. Bryn Celli Ddu can do all these things with an extremely high degree of accuracy. (160) Some time prior to 3150 BC, the Grooved Ware People saw another comet on a collision course and decided to spread their survival knowledge as widely as possible. One of the people they took to the British Isles from the Middle East, to learn the secrets of their astronomy, was Enoch. The Book of Enoch clearly decribes his visit to the White Crystal Wall of Newgrange, hundreds of years before the building of the pyramids of Egypt. It seems possible that the Sumerian citybuilders could have been an offshoot of these Grooved Ware People, and that another subgroup could have travelled to China. (160) What we are suggesting therefore is that Easter Island might originally have been settled in order to serve as a sort of geodetic beacon, or marker  fulfilling some as yet unguessed at function in an ancient global system of skyground coordinates that linked many socalled 'world navels'. We have encountered elements of this system in Egypt and in Angkor. One of its great mysteries is the way in which it constantly mingles the most esoteric forms of spiritual inquiry, and the quest for life after death, with a highly scientific approach to observational astronomy and to earthmeasuring. Another mystery is its extraordinary extension, not only geographically but also through time, arising phoenixlike in many different cultures and epochs. (161) These data demonstrate that the stars were oringinally named by hunters who associated with the seasonal activities of animals with the seasonal "activities" of stars. This simple hypothethis, based on reliable ethnocgraphic and archaeological material, not only brings alive Ice Age artifacts, but tells us why, throughout the world, most constellations are named after animals, and why so few constellations look anything like the animals they are meant to represent. Noting that certain groups of stars rose at critical times, because they marked the seasonal activities of important game animals, the hunters named those stars after the animal in question. Thus astronomy, the naming of stars, became an important mnemonic device for teaching and remembering when, and when not, to take different species of game. Over time, these named constellations came to be viewed as the "game lords," or spiritworld guardians of the species that bore their names, allowing humankind a "storied backdrop" upon which to project philosophical notions concerning the nature of death and birth. Finally, this logic explains why the stars of the ecliptic plane, that is, those stars toward which attention would most naturally be drawn in the gathering dawn, were called, in ancient Western tradition, "zodiac," or "dial of animals." (167) In making his greatest discoveries, Newton had indicated several times that he had drawn not only upon his own genius but also upon some very old and secret repository of wisdom. He had once stated quite explicitly, for instance, that the law of gravitation expounded in his Principia was not new but rather had been known and fully understood in ancient times; he had arrived at it by decoding the sacred literature of past ages. (169) 