HUMANPAST.NET

Religion & Legends                   4,000 BC
Africa
Southwest Asia
Egypt
Indus Valley
China
Europe
South America
Mesoamerica
North America
Other

In General

 However, no one can speak with certainty of the social and religious place of woman in this period, for the meager evidence of the bones and coarse pottery shards reveals nothing of her lot. One has to read back, hypothetically, from the evidence of the following millennium (4500-3500 BC), when a multitude of female figurines appear among the potsherds. These suggest that the obvious analogy of woman's life-giving and nourishing powers with those of the earth must already have led man to associate fertile womanhood with an idea of the motherhood of nature. We have no writing from this pre-literate age and no knowledge, consequently, of its myths or rites. It is therefore not unusual for extremely well-trained archaeologists to pretend that they cannot imagine what services the numerous female figurines might have rendered to the households for which they were designed. However, we know well enough what the services of such images were - the periods immediately following - and what they have remained to the present day. They give magical psychological aid to women in childbirth and conception, stand in house shrines to receive daily prayers and to protect the occupants from physical as we11 as from spiritual danger, serve to support the mind in its meditations on the mystery of being, and, since they are frequently charming to behold, serve as ornaments in the pious home. They go forth with the farmer into his fields, protect the crops, protect the cattle in the barn. They are the guardians of children. They watch over the sailor at sea and the merchant on the road. (128)

We have found that these mining groups and the settlements arising from them carried Indus Valley, Middle East and Egyptian civilisation around the world. So that today the parts of the globe which are Christian and Moslem somewhat coincide with the areas these men influenced. For Islam, and Christianity have not so much been the carriers of this civilisation but the seals imposed upon those countries which the culture of the sky-worshippers had previously appropriated, Islam and Christianity are rooted in the religious notions of the Middle East, back to the original heaven worship many times reformed. The symbols provide evidence of this. The cross and the star were once among the sky-symbols of the sky-worshippers, the crescent was the moon-symbol. It is as if the leaders of the reform movements felt that almost no break with the old sky religions could be made safely. So they purloined the trade-marks. (135)

But it came to be felt that Nature and the soil was not the final authority, since Nature herself was governed by the seasons and the seasons were governed by the sun and the moon. This encouraged the ardent study of astronomy, the calendar and mathematics and permitted the males to recover their position in society around the worship of the sky, commencing, say, around 4500 BC. They developed the political system of monarchy with a king being god incarnate upon earth. These sky-worshipping and later, sun-worshipping god-kings took with them as they travelled by sea from one country to another, a reformed religion, metallurgy, political institutions of the disciplined centralised state, the caste system, zeal. (135)

Africa

The new relationship between men and gods was formulated, sanctified, and codified when Mankind was granted its first high civilization, in Mesopotamia, circa 3800 BC. The momentous event followed a state visit to Earth by Anu, not just Nibiru's ruler but also as the head of the pantheon, on Earth, of the ancient gods. Another (and probably the main) reason for his visit was the establishment and affirmation of peace among the gods themselves--a live-and-let-live arrangement dividing the lands of the Old World among the two principle Anunnaki clans, that of Enlil and that of Enki...It was a division that was reflected in the biblical Table of Nations (Genesis, chapter 10), in which the spread of Mankind, emanating from the three sons of Noah, was recorded by nationality and geography: Asia to the nations/lands of Shem, Europe to the descendants of Japhet, Africa to the nation/lands of Ham. The historical records show that the parallel division among the gods allotted the first two to the Enlilites, the third one to Enki and his sons. (137)

Southwest Asia

  See Sumerian Mythology

For several thousand years, these Anunnaki-gods ruled their revitalized areas, generally through local demigod kings (of partial Anunnaki lineage) who had responsibility for a city or particular geographical area. Around 5,700 years ago, according to the calculations of Sitchin, these demigods began to be replaced by humans, as the role of kingship was lowered to their level. King lists in Sumerian, Akkadian, and Egyptian name the successive rulers that we now associate with the rise of civilization. For instance, Egyptian lists make it clear when humans took charge for a transition period and when the role of pharaoh was established, about 3,100 BC. (113)

With a few thousand years of peace, humans made great advances, and by 3800 BC the urban civilizations of Eridu and Nippur were flourishing. Uruk came into its own as the city to host the chief Anunnaki Anu on an inspection trip to Earth. (113)

No human culture appears to claim the invention of kingship. The Bible and Sumerian king lists record that ten demigods, from Adam to Noah, reigned until the Cataclysm. Then after the Flood (as the Cataclysm of 11,500 BC was known in West Asia), kingship by demigods resumed in the city of Kish. According to Sumerian texts, the demigods ruled until 3760 BC, when a meeting of the senior gods took the decision to grant kingship to mankind. At that time, according to both Sumerian and biblical sources, Nimrod was anointed to the throne of Kish by the Anunnaki Ninurta. (113)

An important development, full of meaning and promise for the history of mankind in civilizations to come, took place in the latter part of this same period (c. 4000 BC) when certain of the peasant villages began to assume the size and function of market towns and there was an expansion of the culture area southward onto the mud flats of riverine Mesopotamia. This is the period in which the mysterious race of Sumerians first appears on the scene, to establish on the torrid Tigris and Euphrates delta flats sites that were to become presently the kingly cities of Ur, Kish, Lagash, Eridu, Sippar, Shuruppak, Nippur, and Erech. ...the mud could be fashioned into sun­dried bricks, which now appear for the first time in history, and these could be used for the construction of temples - which likewise now appear for the first time in the history of the world. Their typical form is well known; it was that of the ziggurat in its earliest stages - a little height, artificially constructed, with a sanctuary on its summit for the ritual of the world-generating union of the earth­goddess with the lord of the sky. And if we may judge from the evidence of the following centuries, the queen or princess of each city was in those earliest days identified with the goddess, and the king, her spouse, with the god. (128)

 The archaeology and ethnography of the past half-century have made it clear that the ancient civilizations of the Old World ­ those of Egypt, Mesopotamia, Crete and Greece, India and China - derived from a single base, and that this community of origin suffices to explain the homologous forms of their mythological and ritual structures. ...the beginnings of this epochal flowering have been traced to a neolithic base in the Near East, the first signs of which have been identified c. 7500-5500 BC, and to the sudden appearance in approximately the same area, c. 3200 BC, of a syndrome of priestly discoveries and crafts, including an astronomical calendar, the art of writing, a science of mathematics applied to and attempting to coordinate the measurements of space and time, and the conception of the wheel. Nowhere else in the world have any of the elements either of the neolithic assemblage or of higher civilization been identified at levels of anything like these depths; and the probability of a worldwide diffusion from the Near East of the basic arts, not only of all higher civilization, but also of all village living based on agriculture and stock­breeding, has consequently been argued with bountiful documentation, by a group of scholars of which Professor Robert Heine­Geldern of Vienna is today the leader. (128)

The new relationship between men and gods was formulated, sanctified, and codified when Mankind was granted its first high civilization, in Mesopotamia, circa 3800 BC. The momentous event followed a state visit to Earth by Anu, not just Nibiru's ruler but also as the head of the pantheon, on Earth, of the ancient gods. Another (and probably the main) reason for his visit was the establishment and affirmation of peace among the gods themselves--a live-and-let-live arrangement dividing the lands of the Old World among the two principle Anunnaki clans, that of Enlil and that of Enki...It was a division that was reflected in the biblical Table of Nations (Genesis, chapter 10), in which the spread of Mankind, emanating from the three sons of Noah, was recorded by nationality and geography: Asia to the nations/lands of Shem, Europe to the descendants of Japhet, Africa to the nation/lands of Ham. The historical records show that the parallel division among the gods allotted the first two to the Enlilites, the third one to Enki and his sons. According to Sumerian texts, the Anunnaki established Kingship--civilization and its institutions, as most clearly exemplified in Mesopotamia--as a new order in their relationships with Mankind, with kings/priests serving both as a link and a separator between gods and men. But as one looks back on that seemingly "golden age" in the affairs of gods and men, it becomes evident that the affairs of the gods constantly dominated and determined the affairs of Men and the fate of Mankind.(137)

A text known as the Epic of Etana tells us that

The great Anunnaki who decree the fates
sat exchanging their counsels regarding the Earth.
They created the four regions,
set up the settlements.

The First Region, the lands between the two rivers Euphraties and Tigris (Mesopotamia), Man's first known high civilization, that of Sumer, was established. Where the prediluvial cities of the gods had been, Cities of Man arose, each with its sared precinct where a deity resided in his or her ziggurat-- Enlil in Nippur, Ninmah in Shuruppak, Ninurta in Lagash, Nannar/Sin in Ur, Inanna/Ishtar in Uruk, Utu/Shamash in Sippar, and so on. In each such urban center an EN.SI, a "Righteous Shepherd"--initially a chosen demigod--was selected to govern the people in behalf of the gods; his main assignment was to promulgate codes of justice and morality. In the sacred precinct, a priesthood overseen by a high priest served the god and his spouse, supervised the holiday ce1ebrations, and handled the rites of offerings, sacrifices, and prayers to the gods. Art and sculpture, music and dance, poetry and hymns, and above all writing and recordkeeping flourished in the temples and extended to the royal palace. From time to time one of those cities was selected to serve as the land's capital; there the ruler was king, LU.GAL ("great man"). Initially and for a long time thereafter this son, the most powerful man in the land, served as both king and high priest. He was carefully chosen, for his role and authority, and all the physical symbols of Kingship, were deemed to have come to Earth directly from Heaven, from Anu on Nibiru. Indeed, the Sumerian word for Kingship was Anuship. This aspect of "Kingship" as the essence of civilization, just behavior and a moral code for Mankind, was explicitly expressed in the statement, in the Sumerian King List, that after the Deluge "Kingship was brought down from Heaven." (137)

Sumerian texts dealing with landmark events in Mankind's saga provide specific indications regarding the periodic appearances of the Planet of the Anunnaki--approximately every 3,600 years--and always at crucial junctions in Earth's and Mankind's history. It was at such times that the planet was called Niburu, and its glyptical depictions--even in early Sumerian times--were the Cross. That record began with the Deluge. Several texts dealing with the Deluge associated the watershed catastrophe with the appearance of the celestial god, Nibiru, in the Age of the Lion (circa 10,900 BC)... The planet returned, reappeared, and again became "Nibiru" when Mankind was granted farming and husbandry, in the mid-eighth millennium BC; depictions (on cylinder seals) illustrating the beginning of agriculture used the Sign of the Cross to show Nibiru visible in Earth's skies. Finally and most memorably for the Sumerians, the planet was visible once again when Anu and Antu came to Earth on a state visit circa 4000 BC, in the Age of the Bull (Taurus). (137)

Nibiru's appearance at the start of the Age of the Bull meant that at the time of heliacal rising--when dawn begins but the horizon is still dark enough to see the stars--the constellation in the background was that of Taurus. But the fast­moving Nibiru, arcing in the skies as it circled the Sun, soon descended back to cut across the planetary plain ("ecliptic") to the point of Crossing. There the crossing was observed against the background of the constellation of the Lion. Several depictions, on cylinder seals and in astronomical tablets, used the cross symbol to indicate Nibiru's arrival when Earth was in the Age of the Bull and its crossing was observed in the constellation of the Lion (cylinder seal depiction, left). (137)

Egypt

 So that when Egyptian legend says that Osiris took civilisation around the world, the claim in its most literal sense cannot be summarily dismissed. His date seems to coincide with the first cultivation of cotton in Peru 3600 BC and Mexico 3400 BC, and cotton was a specifically Indian crop at that time. The picture we discern is of small groups of men, of high moral qualities, the highest perhaps ever to go to the New World from the Old, sailing and exploring westwards down the highways of the Sun. Where they pioneered in the fifth and fourth millennia, the Sumerians followed in the third. (135)

The immediate predecessor to the Age of Aries was the Age of Taurus - the Bull - which spanned the period between 4380 and 2200 BC. It was during this precessional epoch, when the sun on the vernal equinox rose in the constellation of Taurus, that the Bull-cult of Minoan Crete fllourished. Readers must judge whether it is a coincidence that Egyptians at the very beginning of the dynastic period were already venerating the Apis and Mnevis Bulls - the former being considered a theophany of the god Osiris and the latter, the sacred animal of Helipolis, a theophany of the god Ra. (152)

Around 6,000 years ago something did in fact shift. This is recorded in the Egyptian king lists and in Manetho's chronology as the point where the Heru Shemsu, the blacksmiths of Edfu, ruled as transitional figures between the reigns of the living gods and the reigns of kings and pharaohs. It also marked the beginning of the spread of agricultural societies. (168)

Indus Valley

 The only certainty at this time is that the Indian culture that confronted the Anunnaki hegemony in the Indus Valley (Mohenjo-Daro on the Indus River and Harappa on the Ravi) over 6,000 years ago already had a highly advanced, non-theistic Vedic tradition. When corrupted by the Anunnaki-sponsored invasion, local Hindu philosophy began to closely resemble essential features of the Sumerian and Egyptian cultures. It was after this experience that Indians adopted allegiance to Anunnaki-gods. Only then did Hindu myths come to reflect the lives, battles, and loves of the Anunnaki. (113)

Sastri gives a number of reasons for saying that the ruling class was Sumerian. He shows Indus seals of bull-fighting as in Crete. He shows the similarity of the tree legend, the tree of knowledge of the book of Genesis, found both in Sumer and India. The botanic name is ficus religiosa; it is the pipal or bo-tree, beneath which Buddha achieved enlightenment. (135)

An Indian author, Sri. A. Kalyanaraman, in his book Aryatar-angini, ...argues that the Aryans had early made their home in north-west India, the Sapta Sindhu, even if they had originally migrated from the Caucasus. Their literature, he emphasises in three places, was composed at a much earlier date than British archaeologists allow: the Rig Veda 5000-4000 BC, the Yajur Veda 4000-3000 BC, the Brahrnanas 3000-2000 BC, the Upanishads 1500-1000 BC. He argues from the internal evidence of these compositions that the Aryans were a sun-worshipping sea-people, who sailed around the world, to the New World as well as to many parts of the Old. (135)

China

 

Europe

 The new relationship between men and gods was formulated, sanctified, and codified when Mankind was granted its first high civilization, in Mesopotamia, circa 3800 BC. The momentous event followed a state visit to Earth by Anu, not just Nibiru's ruler but also as the head of the pantheon, on Earth, of the ancient gods. Another (and probably the main) reason for his visit was the establishment and affirmation of peace among the gods themselves--a live-and-let-live arrangement dividing the lands of the Old World among the two principle Anunnaki clans, that of Enlil and that of Enki...It was a division that was reflected in the biblical Table of Nations (Genesis, chapter 10), in which the spread of Mankind, emanating from the three sons of Noah, was recorded by nationality and geography: Asia to the nations/lands of Shem, Europe to the descendants of Japhet, Africa to the nation/lands of Ham. The historical records show that the parallel division among the gods allotted the first two to the Enlilites, the third one to Enki and his sons. (137)

South America

 So that when Egyptian legend says that Osiris took civilisation around the world, the claim in its most literal sense cannot be summarily dismissed. His date seems to coincide with the first cultivation of cotton in Peru 3600 BC and Mexico 3400 BC, and cotton was a specifically Indian crop at that time. The picture we discern is of small groups of men, of high moral qualities, the highest perhaps ever to go to the New World from the Old, sailing and exploring westwards down the highways of the Sun. Where they pioneered in the fifth and fourth millennia, the Sumerians followed in the third. (135)

On their state visit to Earth circa 4000 BC, Anu and Antu visited the post-Diluvial gold land on the shores of Lake Titicaca. The visit served as an opportunity to begin reducing the number of Nibiruans on Earth; it also approved peace arrangements between the rival half-brothers and their warring clans. But while Enki and Enlil accepted the territorial divisions, Enki's son Marduk never gave up the strife for supremacy that included control of the olden space-related sites. It was then that the Enlilites began to prepare alternative spaceport facilities in South America. When the post­Diluvial spaceport in the Sinai was wiped out with nuclear weapons in 2024 BC, the facilities in South America were the only ones left entirely in Enlilite hands. (137)

Mesoamerica

 So that when Egyptian legend says that Osiris took civilisation around the world, the claim in its most literal sense cannot be summarily dismissed. His date seems to coincide with the first cultivation of cotton in Peru 3600 BC and Mexico 3400 BC, and cotton was a specifically Indian crop at that time. The picture we discern is of small groups of men, of high moral qualities, the highest perhaps ever to go to the New World from the Old, sailing and exploring westwards down the highways of the Sun. Where they pioneered in the fifth and fourth millennia, the Sumerians followed in the third. (135)

North America

 

Other

 The Australian Aborigones offer a wonderful subject for meditations on the nature of humanity. Consider: these people lived in what may have been nearly complete isolation for more than 40,000 years in an ecologically diverse continent, and when first encountered by Europeans in the 17th century, their technology hardly approached the sophistication of the Neanderthals: just simple stone tools and rudimentary wooden implements; and yet they evolved a kinship system and cosmology that most graduate students in anthropology have struggled to comprehend in all its complexity--and probably never do.(24)