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Religion & Legends                   2,000 BC
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In General

 This early Sumerian temple tower with the hieratically organized little city surrounding it, where everyone played his role according to the rules of a celestially inspired divine game, supplied the model of paradise that we find, centuries later, in the Hindu­Buddhist imagery of the world mountain, Sumeru, whose jeweled slopes, facing the four directions, peopled on the west by sacred serpents, on the south by gnomes, on the north by earth giants, and on the east by divine musicians, rose from the mid-point of the earth as the vertical axis of the egg-shaped universe, and bore on its quadrangular summit the palatial mansions of the deathless gods, whose towered city was known as Amaravati, "The Town Immortal." But it was the model also of the Greek Olympus, the Aztec temples of the sun, and Dante's holy mountain of Purgatory, bearing on its summit the Earthly Paradise. For the form and concept of the City of God conceived as a "mesocosm" (an earthly imitation of the celestial order of the macrocosm) which emerged on the threshold of history circa 3200 BC, at precisely that geographical point where the rivers Tigris and Euphrates reach the Persian Gulf, was disseminated eastward and westward along the ways already blazed by the earlier neolithic. The wonderful life­organizing assemblage of ideas and principles - including those of kingship, writing, mathematics, and calendrical astronomy ­ reached the Nile, to inspire the civilization of the First Dynasty of Egypt, circa 2800 BC; it spread to Crete on the one hand, and, on the other, to the valley of the Indus, circa 2600 BC; to Shang China, circa 1600 BC; and, according to at least one high authority, Dr. Robert Heine-Geldern, from China across the Pacific, during the prosperous seafaring period of the late Chou Dynasty, between the seventh and fourth centuries BC, to Peru and Middle America. (128)

...it can be said without exaggeration that all the high civilizations of the world are to be thought of as the limbs of one great tree, whose root is in heaven. And should we now attempt to formulate the sense or meaning of that mythological root - the life-inspiring monad that precipitated the image of man's destiny as an organ of the living cosmos - we might say that the psychological need to bring the parts of a large and socially differentiated settled community, comprising a number of newly developed social classes (priests, kings, merchants, and peasants), into an orderly relationship to each other, and simultaneously to suggest the play through all of a higher, all-suffusing, all-informing, energizing principle - this profoundly felt psychogical as well as sociological requirement must have been fulfilled with the recognition, some time in the fourth millennium BC, of the orderly round-dance of the five visible planets and the sun and moon through the constellations of the zodiac. This celestial order then became the model for mankind in the building of an earthly order of coordinated wills - a model for both kings and philosophers, inasmuch as it seemed to show forth the supporting law not only of the universe but of every particle within it. (128)

May we, then, think of the Panpipe of Arcadian Greece as an inkling of the same great diffusion as that represented by the Panpipes of Melanesia and Brazil - on the opposite rim of the spreading ring of waves? It is not our only sign of such diffusion, by any means; for, indeed, have we not already had Persephone and Hainuwele to teach us? Or shall we say that all these correspondences of archaeology and mythology, now adequately identified in the farthest flung branches of our science, which so neatly gear even as to date and would readily clarify an otherwise inscrutable enigma, must be overlooked as simply accidents of chance? The purely psychological reading of these parallels will not do at all, since a clearly, even though sparsely documented historical sequence has to be recognized, with its perfect coincidence of dates: the kurgan, barrow, or tumuli people entering Europe c. 2500-1500 BC; the Yangshao culture stratum of China, c. 2200-1900 BC; a parallel cultural development in Java, with a mastery of the seaways; and then at Huaca Prieta those grinning calabashes, c. 1016+300 BC, to mark the smuggling of an alien agriculturalist across the Pacific into the New World. (128)

Certain heaven-worshipping peoples, Semites, Aryans and the Sumerians, joined forces with the masses of the people of the Mediterranean who worshipped the earth-mother, Gaia. This symbolic marriage of heaven and earth was re-enacted annually in the temple at the top of the ziggurats. It is known as the sacred hierogamy and seems to have been the principal annual festival. Herodotus describes the ceremony at length. The Sumerians were overthrown not by Kronos, the individual hero or Titan or god but by the people who were known as the time-peoples, Chronos, who were simultaneously putting up their calendar clocks as an essential part of their religion across Britain and the Mediterranean in the first half of the second millennium BC. These same calender clocks are also found in Peru and on some of those Pacific Islands to which the Peruvian ruling class fled. Later Greeks and Romans identified Kronos with Chronos. The time-people were succeeded by the dynasty who worshipped Poseidon. Both the Chronos people and the Poseidon people worked alongside the group known as the sea-peoples or Atlas, whose principal bases by this time lay outside the Mediterranean on the Atlantic coast. (135)

Throughout this essay I am working upon the premise that most, rather than all, mythological tales originally made perfectly good sense and had their foundation in history or psychology. In this case the mutilation of Kronos, part of the tale of the Titans, which I contend is partly Peruvian and Mexican, is also found in the Maori myth of Tane Mahuta and the Maoris, along with the other Polynesians, derived a white component from the ruling class of Peru. This is exciting confirmation. In place, therefore, of a senseless rigmarole of Earth and Heaven marrying and giving birth to Krenos, who castrated his father, we can offer the narrative of sea-power, of the succession of peoples who controlled the Mediterranean and thus the Atlantic trade with America and the American colonies...(135)

The Titans then, were sea-kings, the epigenoi, successors to their more moral and more illustrious fathers, the god-kings of the Middle East, Egypt and northern India, operating out of the Mediterranean for the Atlantic trade, dominating the colonies in America. By the last Titan dynasty, the American colonies had grown so rich, the centre of gravity for political power, at least for the western sea-peoples would seem to have switched to America itself from the west Mediterranean. In the second millennium BC and even earlier there was for a period an Atlantic community in addition to a Mediterranean one. (135)

Sun-worshippers seem to have become prominent, for the second time, about 2500 BC and the religion maintains itself until 1200 BC. Chronos, the time-people, also worship the sun and dominate from 1930 to 1600 BC. Atlas, the western sea-people, are powerful from 1930 to 1200 BC. Zeus, sky-god of the Greeks and Trojans, would seem to have been powerful from 1600 BC to the coming of Christ. (135)

Africa

 

Southwest Asia

Kumarbi, the principal god of the Hurrian pantheon, was already known as the "father of the city Urkesh" and described as residing in Urkesh, "where he resolves with justice the lawsuits of all the lands." In mythology, Urkesh is the only known Syrian city to be mentioned as the seat of a primordial god. (87

...apparently deliberate impregnation of human females by gods (sexually or artificially) would play a great role in the procreation of special individuals who would make significant contributions to the course of human history. ...such virgin births allegedly included Zoroaster (1500 BC)...(113)

Six thousand years after reestablishing their presence on Earth, the Anunnaki had not resolved the internal divisions that reportedly rent the pre-cataclysmic settlements in Egypt and Mesopotamia. In a great fit of frustration, Anunnaki leadership made the mistake of authorizing the use of nuclear weapons to settle the struggle for control of their Sinai space facilities between two pairs: Nergal and Ninurta versus Marduk and Nabu. The apparent nuclear conflagration in 2020 BC between the warring gods decimated the populations and natural habitat of the whole region. The flourishing civilization dissolved into scattered and ill survivors; there was no infrastructure, and the communities were surrounded by barren soils and poisoned waters. A period of stagnation befell all the city-states in the Near East. But from that desolated region came a line of Abraham's descendants who would later team up with an Anunnaki-god with a long-range strategy for the Anunnaki legacy in the Middle East. (113)

After several hundred years of such conflicts, the Anunnaki apparently decided to pull out of their Earth bases. If they had reasons other than their own internal breakdown for the departure, translators have not yet found them in ancient texts. As we saw earlier, traditions in other parts of the world also have only simple explanations for the apparently precipitous departure of the gods. On the basis of what followed in the human societies, we can surmise there was no Anunnaki commitment to any sort of transition policy. (113)

As long as the Anunnaki gods remained visibly active in the Near East, the twin pillars of their hegemony (Sumeria and Egypt) remained "superpowers' and remained relatively immune from attacks by independents from the Arabian peninsula, the Aegean seacoasts, and Asia Minor. But, as soon as the dust had settled from the final Anunnaki political implosion and likely nuclear explosion, things began to change. The Hittites (from what is now Turkey) extended their empire eastward into Mesopotamia. Sumeria fragmented, with Babylon the cohesive center still loyal to the god Marduk. Egypt, in its already weakened Middle Kingdom, was soon conquered by the Hyksos (shepherd kings from West Asia). (113)

According to Genesis 11, Abraham was the son of Tehar, a Sumerian descendant of Noah's son Shem. First called Abram (meaning "father's beloved" in Hebrew), he and his wife Sarai (meaning princess) may very well have been descendants of demigods. (Recall the Book of Enoch that, like Genesis, traces this lineage back to Noah whose forebears included Anunnakis.) Abraham's career appears to have been guided by both Enlil and his son Ninurta, and suppported at times by other Anunnaki gods. During one period of internecine conflict among the Anunnai-sponsored kings and their followers, Abram was ordered by an Anunnaki to move to Canaan. There his negotiations with other groups implied he had high status and Anunnaki-based authority. (113)

Around 4,025 years ago, the time some believe the Anunnaki nuclear destruction of Sumer and Akkad (including Babylon) occurred, Abram became Abraham. He submitted to the circumcision ritual of the Semites to be accepted under the command of a different Anunnaki. Abraham's entanglement in the regional conflicts reflected the Anunnaki struggle for control of the spaceport in Sinai. Serving an unidentified Anunnaki, Abraham's body of troops and supporters headed for the Negev area to serve a defensive role. Afterwards he went into Egypt (where infighting pitted the sons of Enlil and Enki against one another) in an apparent diplomatic role (see Book of Jubilees). After perhaps five years there, he and his wife Sarai returned to Beth-el (a key Anunnaki stronghold) in Palestine. (113)

With his death around 2000 BC, Abraham passed the torch to his son Isaac. Isaac begot a son, Jacob, who begot a son Joseph (of the multicolored coat), who, in a likely apocryphal story, was sold into slavery in Egypt. After the nuclear holocaust had decimated their homeland, the Israelites had apparently gone voluntarily to Egypt (about 1830 BC). Some spent almost 400 years there, much of it apparently in service to the same Marduk/Ra dynasty against whom Abraham had served in Canaan, Egypt, and elsewhere. One of Joseph's descendants, Moses (born almost 300 years after the death of Jacob), was reared with access to the elite of both the Egyptian and Hebrew worlds. He was chosen, with his brother Aaron, by YHVH--one of the now invisible gods--to serve as instruments for reestablishing an Anunnaki-oriented hegemony in the midst of the desolation wrought by the gods' wars. (113)

YHVH introduced himself to Moses in Exodus (chapters 3 and 4). In 3:14 he told Moses, "I am who I am." He claimed he was the same god who ruled over Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, but he clearly acted in a different manner. He hid himself from Moses and used miracles now known as materialization or teleportation, like changing a wooden staff into a snake, to prove his divine powers. His stated purpose was to liberate the Hebrews from their "servitude" in Egypt and make them into a powerful kingdom in the land of Canaan (part of the larger Palestine). He said he was prepared to protect them from the other gods and enemies along the way and to instruct them on developing their own society if they would remain loyal to him. (113)

From the beginning, YHVH remained invisible, wanted no image made of him, and did not want his Hebrew followers to worship other gods. Through various channels--a voice in the Ark of the Covenant, a telepathic channel, and a messenger--he offered advice to improve the Hebrews' social behavior. In exchange for their becoming his people and accepting him as their only god, he promised their liberation. He ordered his male subjects circumcised (as Abraham had been) as a special sign of allegiance. (113)

Although humans exercised the rights of kingship in most cities, the Anunnaki apparently kept locations vital to their space facilities in their own hands. For instance, in 3450 BC, Marduk (the son of Enki, one of the original Anunnaki colonists) officially designated Babylon the "Gateway to the Gods," and it remained under direct Anunnaki control until the ultimate war of the Anunnaki gods in 2024 BC. (113)

Near the end of the Anunnaki era, the original conflict between Enlil and Enki (about who would be senior on Earth) was still being played out by their progeny. The Enlil lineage (Ninurta and Nannar) still ruled in Sumer when Abraham was born the son of Tera (a Sumerian priest) around 2125 BC. Shortly thereafter, Babylon, the capital of Sumer, was given to Marduk (Ba'al) of the Enki lineage, which favored human self-control). Ninurta opposed this and supported action to reduce Marduk's power. (113)

Enlil's faction of the Anunnaki had only reluctantly reconciled itself to Enki's warning to Noah and allowing for the revival of human civilization. Perhaps as YHVH, Ninurta tried to organize the Hebrew nation to circumvent the Anu decision to give Marduk hegemony (favoring human independence) over West Asia. (113)

Sitchin believes portions of Sumerian, Akkadian, and Assyrian texts translated during various periods of the twentieth century suggest a time frame and reason for the conflicts that led to the Anunnaki withdrawal. As recounted in Sumerian lamentations texts, the struggle involved brother against brother (Marduk versus Nergal) and cousin against cousin (Ninurta and Marduk representing the Anunnaki families and human allies of Enlil and Enki, respectively). Battles had reached such a stalemate that a council of senior Anunnaki leaders, with Anu from Nibiru breaking the tie, voted to permit the use of nuclear weapons to settle it. According to Sitchin's calculations, the attack came in 2024 BC, reflected in the Bible as the story of Abraham bargaining with Ninurta/YHVH on the behalf of "righteous people" before the "upheavaling" of Sodom and Gomorrah. The attack caused the vaporization of these and other targets by nuclear "fire and brimstone.” Humans, and apparently some Anunnaki who stayed too close, were quickly killed by the heat and radiation. The southern end of the Dead Sea was blasted open (where the springs remain contaminated to the present). (113)

Descriptions in various Sumerian lamentations texts (The Uruk Lament, Lamentation Over the Destruction of Ur, Lamentation Text Over the Destruction of Sumer and Ur) of the aftermath of the Anunnaki use of awesome weapons that might have been nuclear read like eye-witness accounts of early U.S. nuclear blasts: storms preceded by gigantic flashes of light, deadly clouds, unseen death-rays, the Earth trembling, and an evil wind that killed all life it touched. Plants, animals, and humans died, buildings were destroyed, waters were poisoned. Chaos reigned as the gods left in various craft to save themselves. The radioactive fallout was blown eastward and killed people, livestock, and vegetation all the way to the Tigris and Euphrates rivers. All of Sumer was destroyed, and the gods withdrew from their temple-homes now filled with deadly radiation. Human kings were left to rule the wasteland. The scorched Earth left by the fiery blasts remains visible in the Sinai even today, an ancient reminder of the dangers of nuclear war. There is some evidence that the conflagration may have changed the climate of the entire region. (113)

Only Enki and Marduk reportedly agreed to provide assistance to rebuild human civilization in the devastated region. Enki undertook a massive decontamination effort, and after 70 years Sumer and Akkad were declared habitable. However, as soon as the new cities began to rise, more squabbling broke out among the gods. They no longer exercised effective control over the now human-led land of Sumer. (113)

According to the Shurpa (Sumerian "purification" texts), the resumption of something like normal life in Ur, Larsa, Nippur, and several other Sumerian and Akkadian cities had occurred by 1953 BC. However, little evidence remains of further direct Anunnaki intervention in mundane human affairs. Some human kings may have had communications with the Anunnaki, but they appear to have been channeled through priests or prophets. If the gods physically stayed on Earth much past this period, they had withdrawn to facilities dedicated to space travel. (This development could account for YHVHs practice of remaining out of human sight.) According to some legends, for many centuries humans like Alexander the Great allegedly tried to gain access to the gods' facilities but were apparently unsuccessful. (113)

Finally, Anu and Enlil reportedly agreed that Marduk would be the one to watch over (rule from orbit) Babylon, whose newly powerful king Hammurabi recorded:

Lofty Anu, lord of the gods
who from Heaven came to Earth,
and Enlil, lord of Heaven and Earth
who determines the destinies of the land,
Determined for Marduk, the first born of Enki,
the Enlil-functions over all mankind,
Made him great among the gods who watch and see,
Called Babylon by name to be exalted,
made supreme in the world;
And established for Marduk, in its midst
an everlasting kingship. (113)

Marduk's hegemony from space was not to last. Babylon would have to fight for its existence on human terms. Hittites, Hyksos, and Kassites would vie for supremacy in the region. Much later Assyria would rise to overshadow them. The Chaldeans would in turn overthrow the Assyrians. The descendants of Noah were given their independence, prepared or not, only to fight among themselves. The absence of records seems to suggest that the final Anunnaki pullout was precipitous, leaving not only huge structures unused, but also a large power vacuum. Without an effectively planned transfer of power, rapid societal decline resulted. (113)

The Anunnaki internecine battles of 2000 BC described in Sumerian texts and the gods' apparent withdrawal from human society led to what historians have called the Dark Ages of Mesopotamia. The former Anunnaki-god centers of technical prowess, along with their associated pomp, had fallen on hard times. Science, philosophy, and culture entered a period of decline. Institutions began a slide into decadence. By 1500 BC, Sumerian supremacy in Mesopotamia had ended, and the Babylon of Marduk was fading. (113)

If we look at the later chapters of Genesis, we will find references to giants living in the age of the prophet Abraham, a date usually fixed at around 2000 BC. Several verses deal with how Chedorlaomer, the king of ancient Elam, a country placed in the highlands of south-west Iran, encounters no less than three tribes of giants, who rise up against him and are defeated by his forces in the land of Canaan. They are listed as 'the Rephaim in Ashteroth Karnaim...the Zuzims in Ham; and the Emims in Shaveh Kiriathaim'. (149)

The Sumerian hero of this name [Gilgamesh] had probably been a historical figure - seemingly a king of the city-state of Uruk in central Iraq, sometime during the first half of the third millennium BC. The texts say that he had been a lillu, 'a man with demonic qualities', and that he had been worshipped as a god at various shrines. At Uruk, for example, he is recorded as having been adopted as the personal deity of a king named Utu-hegal, c. 2120 BC, as well as by his immediate successors, who ruled from Ur, a city-state in Lower Iraq between c. 2112-2004 BC. (149)

c. 3000-2000 BC Continued influence of Anannage/Watchers over the Sumero-Akkadian city-states. This was recorded either as contact with gods and goddesses, generally through the Sacred Marriage ceremony, or through battles with demonic bird-men, like those encountered in the Kutha tablet. Kings descended from the Anannage/Watchers are granted deification, or are looked upon as part-demon. A similar contact takes place in Media and Iran. Final fragmentation of the fallen race. (149)

See Zecharia Sitchin's Tale

See Sumerian Mythology

Egypt  

Shortly after 2495 BC there was a change in dynasties as well as in the religious and political texture of the Old Kingdom. The worship of the sun god, Ra, emerged as the dominant religion, and the nobility and provincial authorities began to encroach on the king’s authority. (47)

Through most of antiquity, Egyptians believed that their society and life in general had been established by the gods, and that they and all their social, political, and economic relationships were part of a divinely designed, immutable world order. To some extent, the Egyptian past makes sense only when viewed in that way.

Certain themes are deeply embedded in ancient Egyptian culture. For one thing Egyptians seem to have been a "God-intoxicated" people, "half in love with easeful death." Herodotus wrote that they were the most "religious" people he had encountered, given to incessant and elaborate religious rituals and an enormous priestly bureaucracy. Their concern with death, and the vast energies and richness they invested in preparing for it, are manifestly evident, but it is also a testament to a people so passionately alive that they tried everything to perpetuate life into death. Mummification was an attempt to preserve the body for use in the afterlife, when it would be revived and rehabilitated.

For the ancient Egyptian, the world teemed with unseen but animate conscious forces; malignant spirits were everywhere, as were forces for good; and, with sufficient effort, some of the inconveniences of being dead could be mitigated.

Ancient Egyptians seem to have had a monophysitic perspective in that everything in the universe was thought to been derived from one substance and to be an expression of that substance.

To our own, essentially Greek, minds, the Egyptians seem to have been unable to distinguish between things and representations of things. J. Wilson argues that the Egyptians saw no difference between supplying a dead king with real loaves of bread, wooden models of bread, or loaves painted on the walls; it was not the actual thing that mattered it was the idea. The physical man needed physical bread, but in the spirit world, "spiritual" bread was appropriate. Most temples are oriented from east to west, like the path of the sun, so that the sun could illuminate a statue of god in the innermost sanctuary at specific times. (47)

Around the courtyard, fragments of carved stone lying in the desert sand are remnants of the original alabaster pavement. The ancient tradition holds that Sakkara was a site for healing. Accordingly, the great physician-priest Imhotep is said to have worked in this area, the last of the ancient masters who knew and taught medicine. (70)

Around 2000 BC, Egypt entered the period of the Middle Kingdom. As the Anunnakis withdrew from the picture, the pharaohs changed the definition of the basis of their authority. They continued to claim the powers of gods but also stressed they personally were descended from the gods and, as if to further shore up their authority, promised that the gods would return. By 3,500 years ago, Egypt was in decline. The peak of pharaonic power, the end of the New Kingdom, was fading in Thebes under the leadership of Amenhotep III. (113)

Six thousand years after reestablishing their presence on Earth, the Anunnaki had not resolved the internal divisions that reportedly rent the pre-cataclysmic settlements in Egypt and Mesopotamia. In a great fit of frustration, Anunnaki leadership made the mistake of authorizing the use of nuclear weapons to settle the struggle for control of their Sinai space facilities between two pairs: Nergal and Ninurta versus Marduk and Nabu. The apparent nuclear conflagration in 2020 BC between the warring gods decimated the populations and natural habitat of the whole region. The flourishing civilization dissolved into scattered and ill survivors; there was no infrastructure, and the communities were surrounded by barren soils and poisoned waters. A period of stagnation befell all the city-states in the Near East. But from that desolated region came a line of Abraham's descendants who would later team up with an Anunnaki-god with a long-range strategy for the Anunnaki legacy in the Middle East. (113)

After several hundred years of such conflicts, the Anunnaki apparently decided to pull out of their Earth bases. If they had reasons other than their own internal breakdown for the departure, translators have not yet found them in ancient texts. As we saw earlier, traditions in other parts of the world also have only simple explanations for the apparently precipitous departure of the gods. On the basis of what followed in the human societies, we can surmise there was no Anunnaki commitment to any sort of transition policy. (113)

As long as the Anunnaki gods remained visibly active in the Near East, the twin pillars of their hegemony (Sumeria and Egypt) remained "superpowers' and remained relatively immune from attacks by independents from the Arabian peninsula, the Aegean seacoasts, and Asia Minor. But, as soon as the dust had settled from the final Anunnaki political implosion and likely nuclear explosion, things began to change. The Hittites (from what is now Turkey) extended their empire eastward into Mesopotamia. Sumeria fragmented, with Babylon the cohesive center still loyal to the god Marduk. Egypt, in its already weakened Middle Kingdom, was soon conquered by the Hyksos (shepherd kings from West Asia). (113)

Around 4,025 years ago, the time some believe the Anunnaki nuclear destruction of Sumer and Akkad (including Babylon) occurred, Abram became Abraham. He submitted to the circumcision ritual of the Semites to be accepted under the command of a different Anunnaki. Abraham's entanglement in the regional conflicts reflected the Anunnaki struggle for control of the spaceport in Sinai. Serving an unidentified Anunnaki, Abraham's body of troops and supporters headed for the Negev area to serve a defensive role. Afterwards he went into Egypt (where infighting pitted the sons of Enlil and Enki against one another) in an apparent diplomatic role (see Book of Jubilees). After perhaps five years there, he and his wife Sarai returned to Beth-el (a key Anunnaki stronghold) in Palestine. (113)

With his death around 2000 BC, Abraham passed the torch to his son Isaac. Isaac begot a son, Jacob, who begot a son Joseph (of the multicolored coat), who, in a likely apocryphal story, was sold into slavery in Egypt. After the nuclear holocaust had decimated their homeland, the Israelites had apparently gone voluntarily to Egypt (about 1830 BC). Some spent almost 400 years there, much of it apparently in service to the same Marduk/Ra dynasty against whom Abraham had served in Canaan, Egypt, and elsewhere. One of Joseph's descendants, Moses (born almost 300 years after the death of Jacob), was reared with access to the elite of both the Egyptian and Hebrew worlds. He was chosen, with his brother Aaron, by YHVH--one of the now invisible gods--to serve as instruments for reestablishing an Anunnaki-oriented hegemony in the midst of the desolation wrought by the gods' wars. (113)

To secure the Egyptians' acquiescence to the departure of the Israelites, YHVH apparently used biological weapons to create havoc among the Egyptians by inducing a series of plagues. Though common Egyptians quickly agreed to let them go, the pharaoh (Amenhotep II or Ramses II) held out against YHVH's demands. The final coup, communicated to the pharaoh through Moses and Aaron, was YHVH's decision to send his soldiers (angels of death) to slay all the firstborn sons of the Egyptians. (The Hebrew sons were passed over because YHVH had warned them to mark their door posts with lamb's blood before the fateful night. Such young male genocide has since been used in many religious or ethnic conflicts.) After this bloody demonstration of YHVH's wrath the Hebrews were permitted to cross the Red Sea. (113)

Epoch of 2500 BC, the Pyramid Age: an initiate tracking the journey of the 'solar' Horus, the disc of the sun, to its conjunction with Regulus, the heart-star of Leo, at dawn on the summer solstice. The ritual leaves no room for doubt that the enigmatic figure of Horakhti, so frequently referred to in the Pyramid Texts, is none other than the constellation of Leo. (134)

Indeed, the first cataclysmic set of events, in the twenty-first century BC, and the Messianic expectations that accompanied it, is principally the story of Marduk; it also brought to center stage his son Nabu--a deity, the son of a god, but whose mother was an Earthling. (137)

Marduk's attempt to establish an alternative space facility was not taken lightly by the Enlilites; the evidence suggests that Enlil and Ninurta were preoccupied with establishing their own alternative space facility on the other side of the Earth, in the Americas, near the post-Diluvial sources of gold. This absence, together with the Bull of Heaven incident, ushered in a period of instability and confusion in their Mesopotamian heartland, subjecting it to incursions from neighoring lands. People called Gutians, then the Elamites came from the East; Semitic-speaking peoples came from the West. But while the Easterners worshipped the same Enlilite gods as the Sumerians, the Amurru ("Westerners") were different. Along the shores of the "Upper Sea" (the Mediterrean), in the lands of the Canaanites, the people were beholden to the Enki'ite gods of Egypt. (137)

The annals of Sumer & Akkad from that time record a major policy shift by the Enlilite gods. In Egypt, the date marked the beginning of changes of political-religious significance, and what occurred in both zones coincided with a new phase in Marduk's campaign to attain supremacy. Indeed, it was Marduk's chess-like strategy maneuvers and geographic movements from one place to another that controlled the agenda of the era's "divine chess game." His moves and movements began with a departure from Egypt, to become (in Egyptian eyes) Amon (also written Amun or Amen), "The Unseen." (137)

The date of 2160 BC is considered by Egyptologists to mark the beginning of what is designated the First Intermediate Period--a chaotic interval between the end of the Old Kingdom and the dynastic start of the Middle Kingdom. During the thousand years of the Old Kingdom, when the religious-political capital was Memphis in Middle Egypt, the Egyptians worshipped the Ptah pantheon, erecting monumental temples to him, to his son Ra, and to their divine successors. The famed inscriptions of the Memphite Pharaohs glorified the gods and promised an Afterlife for the kings. Reigning as the gods' surrogates, those Pharaohs wore the double crown of Upper (southern) and Lower (northern) Egypt, signifying not just the administrative but also the religious unification of the Two Lands; unification attained when Horus defeated Seth in their struggle for the Ptah/Ra legacy. And then, in 2160 BC, that unity and religious certainty came crashing down. The turmoil saw a breakup of the Union, abandonment of the capital, attacks from the south by Theban princes to gain control, foreign incursions, desecration of temples, a collapse of law and order, and droughts, famines, and food riots. Those conditions are recalled in a papyrus known as the Admonitions of Ipu-Wer, a long hieroglyphic text that consists of several sections in which it gives an account of calamities and tribulations, blames an unholy enemy for religious wrong­doing and social evils, and calls on tbe people to repent and resume the religious rites. A prophetic section describing the coming of a Redeemer, and another that extolls the ideal times that will follow, conclude the papyrus. (137)

Some Egyptologists believe that at the core of those events lay a simple rivalry for wealth and power, an attempt (suc­ cessful in the end) by Theban princes from the south to control and rule the whole country. Lately, studies have associated the collapse of the Old Kingdom with a "climate change" that undermined a society founded on agriculture, caused food shortages and food riots, social upheaval, and collapse of authority. But little attention has been paid to a major and perhaps the most important change: in the texts, in the hymns, in the honorific names of temples, it was no longer Ra but from then on Ra-Amon, or simply Amon, who was henceforth worshipped; Ra became Amon-Ra the Unseen­-for he was gone from Egypt. (137)

The upheaval began with a collapse of religious observances and manifested itself in the defiling and abandonment of temples, where "the Place of Secrets has been laid bare, the writings of the august enclosure have been scattered, common men tear them up in the streets...magic is exposed, it is in the sight of him who knows it not." The sacred symbol of the gods worn on the king's crown, the Uraeus (the Divine Serpent), "is rebelled against...religious dates are disturbed...priests are carried off wrongfully." After calling on the people to repent, "to offer incense in the temples...to keep the offerings to the gods," the papyrus called on the repenters to be baptized--to "remember to immerse." Then the words of the papyrus turn prophetic: in a passage that even Egyptologists call "truly messianic," the Admonitions speak of "a time that shall come" when an unnamed Savior--a "god-king"--shall appear. Starting with a small following, of him "men shall say:

He brings coolness upon the heart,
He is a shepherd of all men.
Though his herds may be small,
He will spend the days caring for them...
Then he would smite down evil,
He would stretch forth his arm against it."

"People will be asking: 'Where is he today?. Is he then sleeping? Why is his power not seen?''' lpu-Wer wrote, and answered, "Behold, the glory thereof cannot be seen, [but] Authority, Perception and Justice are with him." (137)

Those ideal times, Ipu-Wer stated in his prophecy, will be preceded by their own messianic birth pangs: "Confusion will set throughout the land, in tumultuous noise one will kill the other, the many will kill the few." People will ask: "Does the Shepherd desire death?" No, he answered, "it is the land that commands death," but after years of strife, righteousness and proper worship will prevail. This, the papyrus concluded, was "What Ipu-Wer said when he responded to the majesty of the All-Lord." Scholars are aware of the existence of another prophetic/messianic text that reached us from ancient Egypt... To be specific, while the text purports to relate prophecies made at the time of Sneferu, a Fourth Dynasty pharaoh (circa 2600 BC), Egyptologists believe that it was actually written in the time of Amenemhet I of the Twelfth Dynasty (circa 2000 BC)--after the events that it pretends to prophecy. The prophecies are purported to be told to King Sneferu by a "great seer-priest" named Nefer-Rohu, "a man of rank, a scribe competent with his fingers." Summoned to the king to foretell the future, Nefer-Rohu "stretched forth his hand for the box of writing equipment, he drew forth a scroll of papyrus," and then began to write what he was envisioning, in a Nostradamus-like manner:

Behold, there is something about which men speak;
It is terrifying ...
What will be done was never done before.
The Earth is completely perished.
The land is damaged, no remainder exists.
There is no sunshine that people could see,
No one can live with the covering clouds,
The south wind opposes the north wind.
The rivers of Egypt are empty...
Ra must begin the foundations of the Earth again. (137)

Before Ra can restore the "Foundations of the Earth," there will be invasions, wars, bloodshed. Then a new era of peace, tranquility, and justice will follow. It will be brought by what we have come to call a Savior, a Messiah:

Then it is that a sovereign will come­-
Ameni ("The Unknown"),
The Triumphant he will be called.
The Son-Man will be his name forever and ever...
Wrongdoing will be driven out;
Justice in its place will come;
The people of his time rejoice. (137)

The constellation that rose in the east, just before the sun, marked the 'place' where the sun rested...It was known as the sun's 'carrier' and the vernal equinox was recognised as the fiducial point of the 'system' determining the first degree of the sun's yearly cycle... ...the sun on the vernal equinox rises against the stellar background of Pisces, as it has done for approximately the last 2000 years. The astronomical Age of Pisces began around the time of Christ. During the preceeding age, which broadly-speaking encompassed-the first and second millennia BC, it was the constellation of Aries - the Ram - which had the honour of carrying the sun on the vernal equinox. Is it ...coincidental that rams, in one context or another, are referred to in almost every book of the Old Testament (entirely composed during the Age of Aries) but in not a single book of the New Testament? And is it an accident that the advent of the Age of Aries, shortly before the beginning of the second millennium BC, was accompanied in Ancient Egypt by an upsurge in the worship of the god Amon whose symbol was a ram with curled horns? (152)

The immediate predecessor to the Age of Aries was the Age of Taurus - the Bull - which spanned the period between 4380 and 2200 BC. It was during this precessional epoch, when the sun on the vernal equinox rose in the constellation of Taurus, that the Bull-cult of Minoan Crete fllourished. Readers must judge whether it is a coincidence that Egyptians at the very beginning of the dynastic period were already venerating the Apis and Mnevis Bulls - the former being considered a theophany of the god Osiris and the latter, the sacred animal of Helipolis, a theophany of the god Ra. (152)

Indus Valley

 A more romantic suggestion is that the Harppan civilization was destroyed by repeated invasions of semi-nomadic peoples coming out of Central Asia and Iran. The Rig Veda, the oldest surviving Vedic Sanskrit text, describes the conquest of the dark-skinned natives of the Indus Plain by lighter-skinned Aryan invaders, and the Harapppans have traditionally been associated with the former. (48)

It is significant that a number of the world's calendars agree upon the starting date of the present age--what we might call the Age of Civilization. The Mayan Fifth Sun, the Age of Man, started in 3113 BC, roughly 5,100 years ago. At that time, the first civilizations were under way not only in Mexico, but also in Sumer and Egypt and along the Peruvian coast. The Jewish calendar is reckoned from 3700 BC, and is about 5,700 years old. The Chinese calendar is about 4,500 years old and the Julian calendar is roughly 5,000 years old. According to the Hindu calendar, the panchanga, or traditional almanac, keeps track of the equivalent years in the Kali Yuga and states that from 1990 to 1991: "5,091 Kali years have passed." By late 2001, 5,102 years of the Kali Yuga, or Iron Age, had elapsed in the Yuga system. (69)

We can be fairly certain that between 2500 and 1500 AD, male and female gods from the Anunnaki leadership began to be worshiped as Shiva and Devi. Hindu writers began to identify Vedic archetypes (such as Usas symbolizing the dawn and Surya the Sun) with gods who played roles in the proto-Indo-European Anunnaki civilization. Such cultural borrowing reflected the god-cult era, but no one god was assigned the same supreme position as the anthropomorphic YHVH. (113)

We have noticed that among the earliest remains in India of the culture complex of the hieratic city state, dating from c. 2000 BC, representations have been found of figures in yoga posture. There is also a little scene from that period showing an apparition of the goddess among the boughs of a tree. (128)

In brief, then, the evidence indicates that in the course of the third millennium BC a powerful influence from the Mesopotamian mythogenetic zone, on the levels of the high neolithic and of the hieratic city state, reached India by way of Iran. It touched here, however, another mythogenetic zone of considerable force - of which, up to this time, there had been left no indubitable archaeological evidence. Among the leading elements of this suddenly revealed native Indian mythogenetic complex we may number: the serpent, as a development of the primitive proto-neolithic monster serpent of the tropical planters; the yogi, as a higher transformation of the shamanistic techniques and experiences of ecstasis; the goddess, though in what way or to what degree differently conceived and developed from the goddess of the Mediterranean sphere we cannot say; and the abstract symbol of sexual union (lingom and yoni in conjunction) as a primary symbol of the divine connubium through which the world is simultaneously generated and dissolved. Among the elements and ideas imported, on the other hand, were certainly writing, the art of the stamp-seal, polychrome pottery, wheeled vehicles, metalcraft, grain agriculture, stock-breeding, the idea of the city, and - possibly - the hieratic city state. Almost without question, also, the later Indian ideas of duty (dharma) and the round of rebirth (sarhsara), the cosmic mountain crowned with the city of the gods, the underworlds of suffering and upper worlds of bliss, the kingly solar and lunar dynasties, and the sacral regicide were derived from Mesopotamia; likewise the sacred bull and cow as theriomorphic counterparts of the lingam and yoni. (128)

An Indian author, Sri. A. Kalyanaraman, in his book Aryatar-angini, ...argues that the Aryans had early made their home in north-west India, the Sapta Sindhu, even if they had originally migrated from the Caucasus. Their literature, he emphasises in three places, was composed at a much earlier date than British archaeologists allow: the Rig Veda 5000-4000 BC, the Yajur Veda 4000-3000 BC, the Brahrnanas 3000-2000 BC, the Upanishads 1500-1000 BC. He argues from the internal evidence of these compositions that the Aryans were a sun-worshipping sea-people, who sailed around the world, to the New World as well as to many parts of the Old. (135)

Humans, deities, animals, plants, and the forces of nature were all manifestations of the same divine "spirit," which the Avestans called mainyu and the Sanskrit-speakers manya. It animated, sustained, and bound them all together. Over time the Aryans developed a more formal pantheon. At a very early stage, they had worshiped a Sky God called Dyaus Pitr, creator of the world. But like other High Gods, Dyaus was so remote that he was eventually replaced by more accessible gods, who were wholly identified with natural and cosmic forces. Like all other phenomena, speech was a god, a deva. Aryan religion was not very visual. As far as we know, the Aryans did not make effigies of their gods. Instead, they found that the act of listening brought them close to the sacred. Quite apart from its meaning, the very sound of a chant was holy; even a 'single syllable could encapsulate the divine. Similarly, a vow, once uttered, was eternally binding, and a lie was absolutely evil because it perverted the holy power inherent in the spoken word. The Aryans would never lose this passion for absolute truthfulness. (158)

When a beast was ceremonially given to the gods, its spirit was not extinguished but returned to Geush Urvan ("Soul of the Bull"), the archetypical domestic animal. The Aryans felt very close to their cattle. It was sinful to eat the flesh of a beast that had not been consecrated in this way, because profane slaughter destroyed it forever, and thus violated the sacred life that made all creatures kin. The Aryans would always see sacrifice as creative. By reflecting on this ritual, they realized that their lives depended upon the death of other creatures. The three archetypal creatures had laid down their lives so that others might live. There could be no progress, materially or spiritually, without self-sacrifice. Sacrifice was therefore at the spiritual heart of Aryan society in India, but it was also central to the economy. The old peaceful rites of the steppes had become far more aggressive and competitive, and reflected the dangerous lives of the cattle rustlers. Aryan sacrifice was now similar to the potlatch celebrated by the Native American tribes of the northwest, who proudly displayed the booty they had won and slaughtered large numbers of beasts for lavish sacrificial banquets. (158)

While some of the Sanskrit-speaking Aryans were creating havoc on the steppes, others had begun to migrate south, traveling in small bands through Afghanistan and settling finally in the fertile lands of the Punjab, among the tributaries of the river Indus. The Aryans have left no archaeological record of this early period in India. Theirs was an itinerant society, and people lived out in the open or in temporary encampments. Our only sources of information are the ritual texts, composed in Sanskrit, known collectively as the Vedas ("Knowledge"). The language of the Vedas is so similar to Avestan and its cultural assumptions so close to the Gathas that it is almost certainly an Aryan scripture. Today most historians accept that during the second millennium, Aryan tribes from the steppes did indeed colonize the Indus Valley. (158)

China

 It is significant that a number of the world's calendars agree upon the starting date of the present age--what we might call the Age of Civilization. The Mayan Fifth Sun, the Age of Man, started in 3113 BC, roughly 5,100 years ago. At that time, the first civilizations were under way not only in Mexico, but also in Sumer and Egypt and along the Peruvian coast. The Jewish calendar is reckoned from 3700 BC, and is about 5,700 years old. The Chinese calendar is about 4,500 years old and the Julian calendar is roughly 5,000 years old. According to the Hindu calendar, the panchanga, or traditional almanac, keeps track of the equivalent years in the Kali Yuga and states that from 1990 to 1991: "5,091 Kali years have passed." By late 2001, 5,102 years of the Kali Yuga, or Iron Age, had elapsed in the Yuga system. (69)

Europe

In the fifteenth century, the campaign for global supernatural hegemony began in earnest, carried by Spanish and Portuguese maritime exploration and British-led intercontinental trade. By then, everyone except a few esoteric societies had forgotten that the supernatural god of Indo-European culture had originated as an ordinary god in a family of gods from the planet Nibiru. (113)

Greek wolf-warriors (left and above). Wolf-clans, jaguar-clans, eagle-clans...it had taken me a while to get used to thinking of the Mediterranean peoples dancing around offering victims to the gods dressed in animal skins, but they did, and I'd finally gotten past the misconceptions of my "classical" education. (120)

So we find that Hesiod distinguished two periods of the Bronze Age: the first when war destroys mankind: 'Their armour was of bronze, and their houses of bronze, and of bronze were their implements...Men were destroyed by their own hands and passed to the dank house of chill Hades.' In the second: ...there was created a god-like race of hero-men...Grim war and dread battle destroyed a part of them...But to the other father Zeus the son of Cronos gave a living and an abode apart from men, and made them dwell at the ends of the Earth. And they live untouched by sorrow in the islands of the Blessed along the shore of deep swirling Ocean, happy heroes for whom the grain-giving earth bears honey-sweet fruit flourishing thrice a year, far from the deathless gods...(135)

Humans, deities, animals, plants, and the forces of nature were all manifestations of the same divine "spirit," which the Avestans called mainyu and the Sanskrit-speakers manya. It animated, sustained, and bound them all together. Over time the Aryans developed a more formal pantheon. At a very early stage, they had worshiped a Sky God called Dyaus Pitr, creator of the world. But like other High Gods, Dyaus was so remote that he was eventually replaced by more accessible gods, who were wholly identified with natural and cosmic forces. Like all other phenomena, speech was a god, a deva. Aryan religion was not very visual. As far as we know, the Aryans did not make effigies of their gods. Instead, they found that the act of listening brought them close to the sacred. Quite apart from its meaning, the very sound of a chant was holy; even a 'single syllable could encapsulate the divine. Similarly, a vow, once uttered, was eternally binding, and a lie was absolutely evil because it perverted the holy power inherent in the spoken word. The Aryans would never lose this passion for absolute truthfulness. (158)

When a beast was ceremonially given to the gods, its spirit was not extinguished but returned to Geush Urvan ("Soul of the Bull"), the archetypical domestic animal. The Aryans felt very close to their cattle. It was sinful to eat the flesh of a beast that had not been consecrated in this way, because profane slaughter destroyed it forever, and thus violated the sacred life that made all creatures kin. The Aryans would always see sacrifice as creative. By reflecting on this ritual, they realized that their lives depended upon the death of other creatures. The three archetypal creatures had laid down their lives so that others might live. There could be no progress, materially or spiritually, without self-sacrifice. Sacrifice was therefore at the spiritual heart of Aryan society in India, but it was also central to the economy. The old peaceful rites of the steppes had become far more aggressive and competitive, and reflected the dangerous lives of the cattle rustlers. Aryan sacrifice was now similar to the potlatch celebrated by the Native American tribes of the northwest, who proudly displayed the booty they had won and slaughtered large numbers of beasts for lavish sacrificial banquets. (158)

South America

 Richard Burger and Lucy Salazar-Burger have suggested that much of the architecture of Andean South America between about 1900 BC and 1000 BC expresses a common religious ideology, the Kotosh Religious Tradition (named after the site of Kotosh). We will never know precisely what this religion comprised, but an important element appears to have been ritual fires. In many sites ceremonial hearths were constructed below the floor level of a chamber. Quilter notes that El Paraiso's sunken pit, a rectangle about 4.5 X 4.25 meters, shows evidence of considerable burning. Benches around these pits are common in constructions of this period, and Quilter suggests that in ritual use ten to twelve adults sat around these ritual fires…(52)

Viracocha (or Tiki-Viracocha) becomes a god, and temples are built to him. He is incorporated into the Inca pantheon. According to Garcilaso de la Vega, Viracocha wasn't historically Number One in the Inca pantheon. First came a kind of supergod, Pachacamac, invisible, ultimately unknowable. Then came the Sun, and maybe then came Viracocha. At least this was the case until the reign of the Inca, also called Viracocha (d. 1440), who had a very strange "dream" and afterwards turned the god Viracocha into the Number One Inca god. The time is the fifteenth century, roughly 100 years before the coming of the Spaniards to Peru. Inca Yahuar Huacac was on the throne. His son, Inca Yupanqui, has his "dream" or claims to have had it, saying that: (120)

... the creator Viracocha had spoken to him while he was alone and greatly troubled, complaining that though he, Viracocha, was the universal lord and creator of all and had made the sky and Sun and the world and men, and all was in his power, no one paid him due obedience, but venerated equally the Sun, the thunder, the earth and other things which had no virtues but those he had endowed them with, adding that in heaven, where he lived, he was called Viracocha Pachayachachic, meaning universal creator...(122)

…in the beginning and before this world was created, there was a being called Viracocha. He created a dark world without sun, moon or stars. …And when he had created the world he formed a race of giants of disproportioned greatness and sculptured, to see whether it would be well to make real men of that size… …over all there came a general flood which they call unu pachacuti, which means "water that overturns the land." They say that it rained 60 days and nights, that it drowned all created things… Viracocha preserved three men from the Flood, and afterwards he "went...to a great lake in the Callao, in which there is an called Titicaca...and presently ordered that the sun, moon, and stars should come forth...they say that the moon was created brighter than the sun..." Next, Viracocha went to the mainland to Tiahuanaco, and "he sculptured and designed on a great piece of stone, all the nations he intended to create...he ordered that each one should go by a different road, naming the tribes, and ordering them all to go forth and people the country." As they spoke one language previous to starting, they built those edifices, the ruins of which may still be seen, before they set out. This was for the residence of Viracocha, their maker. After departing they varied their languages, noting the cries of wild beasts, insomuch that, coming across each other afterwards, those could not understand who had been relations and neighbours. (120)

…the description of Viracocha given by Sarmiento de Gamboa from his oral sources sounds very Middle Eastern, almost biblical: They have the tradition that he was a man of medium height, white and dressed in a white robe like an alb secured round the waist, and carried a staff and a book in his hands. (120)

According to Sarmiento de Gamboa's sources, after Viracocha had set up his colonies, he "went on his road and came to a place where many men of his creation had congregated." These "colonists," instead of welcoming Viracocha, attacked him and threatened to kill him: He, falling on his knees on some plain ground, with his hands clasped, fire from above came down upon those on the hill, and covered all the place, burning up the earth and stones like straw. He continued down to the coast and then "went traveling over the water as if it was land, without sinking." In other words, he went out into the Pacific on a raft. (120)

In Inca legend, it was at Titicaca that the sun descended, and the first Incas were the daughter and son of the sun: "Our father the sun, seeing men in the state I have mentioned, took pity and was sorry for them, and sent from heaven to earth a son and a daughter of his to indoctrinate them in the knowledge of our father the Sun that they might worship him and adopt him as their god, and to give them precepts and laws by which they would live as reasonable and civilized men...With this order and mandate our father the Sun set these two children of his in Lake Titicaca..." (120)

Mesoamerica

 For the Maya, the world manifested itself in two complementary dimensions—one in which they lived out their lives, the other (the Otherworld) in which gods, ancestors, and other supernatural beings existed--that were inextricably locked together. The Maya apparently saw their dimension as three layered domains, "the starry arch of heaven, the stony Middleworld of earth made to flower and bear fruit by the blood of kings, and the dark waters of the Underground below." The Maya believed that these three regions were interrelated that shamans and others for example, could penetrate the Underground world via ecstatic trances. Above all, in the sky, was a great crocodilian monster who "made the rains when it shed its blood in supernatural counterpoint to the royal sacrifices on the earth below." The human world was envisioned as floating in a primordial sea, and was sometimes represented as the back of a caiman (a crocodile-like animal) or a turtle. These various interrelated worlds and planes of existence, including the earth, were imbued by the gods with a sacredness that was especially concentrated at special points, such as caves and mountains. (51)

North America

 

Other

 The Australian Aborigones offer a wonderful subject for meditations on the nature of humanity. Consider: these people lived in what may have been nearly complete isolation for more than 40,000 years in an ecologically diverse continent, and when first encountered by Europeans in the 17th century, their technology hardly approached the sophistication of the Neanderthals: just simple stone tools and rudimentary wooden implements; and yet they evolved a kinship system and cosmology that most graduate students in anthropology have struggled to comprehend in all its complexity--and probably never do.(24)