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Religion & Legends                   20,000 BC
Africa
Southwest Asia
Egypt
Indus Valley
China
Europe
South America
Mesoamerica
North America
Other

Africa

 

Southwest Asia

 

Egypt

 The ancient oral tradition puts forth a meaning that generally agrees with Reymond's translation. Zep tepi corresponds to a time when the people (the Sesh) achieved a new level of consciousness. It began over sixty-five thousand years ago. Mehler believes this time refers to an era between twenty thousand and sixty thousand years ago, when the Khemitians attained a higher level of consciousness and knowledge. It allowed them to build their great structures and carve their tunnels. In essence, it allowed them to create their civilization. Later, all this formed the basis of their creation mythology. (70)

…fragments from writings attributed to Manetho, an Egyptian priest of the Ptolemaic period, have proven generally reliable with respect to the sequence of dynastic kings; but Manetho also claimed that prior to the time of the first mortal king, Egypt had been ruled by gods, demigods, and spirit, of the dead for some 25,000 years (Frag. 1, Eusebius Chronica). Another reputable source, the Turin Papyrus, seems to record around 36,000 years of divine rule before Menes, the first mortal king: 23,200 years for reigns before the Shemsu-Hor and 13,420 years for the rulership of the Shemsu-Hor, usually translated as followers or worshippers of Horus, presumably an older god than the more familiar Horus, son of Osiris. (115)

Here is what the Ancient Egyptians said about the First Time, Zep Tepi, when the gods ruled in their country: they said it was a golden age during which the waters of the abyss receded, the primordial darkness was banished, and humanity, emerging into the light, was offered the gifts of civilization. They spoke also of intermediaries between gods and men - the Urshu, a category of lesser divinities whose title meant 'the Watchers'. And they preserved particularly vivid recollections of the gods themselves, puissant and beautiful beings called the Neteru who lived on earth with humankind and exercised their sovereignty from Heliopolis and other sanctuaries up and down the Nile. Some of these Neteru were male and some female but all possessed a range of supernatural powers which included the ability to appear, at will, as men or women, or as animals, birds, reptiles, trees or plants. Paradoxically, their words and deeds seem to have reflected human passions and preoccupations. Likewise, although they were portrayed as stronger and more intelligent than humans, it was believed that they could grow sick - or even die, or be killed - under certain circumstances. Let us review these figures 'uncritically' and see what they add up to. Diodorus was writing in the first century BC. If we journey back from there for the 5000 years during which the 'mortal kings' supposedly ruled, we get to around 5100 BC. If we go even further back to the beginning of the age of 'gods and heroes', we find that we have arrived at 23,100 BC, when the world was still firmly in the grip of the last Ice Age. (152)

Indus Valley

 One of the Tamil epics of southern India, the Silappadhikaram, frequently mentions a vast tract of land called Kumara Nadu, also known as Kumari Kandam, stretching far beyond India's present-day coasts. Ancient south Indian commentators wrote in detail of a prehistoric "Tamil Sangham," a spiritual academy situated in that ancient land. They wrote also of the submersion of two rivers, the Kumari and the Pahroli, in the middle of the continent, and of a country dotted with mountain ranges, animals, vegetation, and forty-nine provinces. This Pandya kingdom, according to tradition, reigned from 30,000 BC to 16,500 BC. At least one branch of modern-day south Indian mystics claims a direct lineage from those extraordinarily ancient times, when their spiritual progenitors were said to have achieved extremely long lives through yogic techniques. (56)

The Silappadhikaram tells of a country with forty-nine provinces, and mountain ranges that yielded precious gems (Sri Lanka and other parts of India are sources of precious gems to this day). This Pandyan kingdom, according to tradition, reigned from 30,000 BC to 16,500 BC. At least one lineage of modern-day south Indian mystics claims direct descent from those extraordinarily ancient times, when their spiritual progenitors achieved extremely long lives through yogic mastery, walking as virtual gods. This was a phenomenon said to have been duplicated successively to the present, carried on in remote regions of the Himalayas. (83)

China

 

Europe

...the appearance of Type A [blood] appears to coincide with the migration to Europe of humans from Annunaki colonies in the Fertile Crescent during the period from 30,000 to 15,000 BC. Plant dispersion patterns suggest these migrants also took agricultural samples from the Annunaki colonies in the Fertile Crescent. (113)

Stage IV, then (c. 30,000-10,000 BC), reveals the mythology of the naked goddess and the mythology of the temple-caves. The richest finds of the first of these two complexes have turned up in the Ukraine, though the range extends westward to the Pyrenees and eastward to Lake Baikal. Provisionally, therefore, the Ukraine may be designated as the mythogenetic zone; and this likelihood is rendered the more evident when it is considered that many of the basic elements of the complex were to reappear in the neolithic goddess-cults of the fifth millennium B.C., directly to the south, on the opposite flank of the Black Sea. (128)

South America

 

Mesoamerica

 

North America

 

Other

The Australian Aborigones offer a wonderful subject for meditations on the nature of humanity. Consider: these people lived in what may have been nearly complete isolation for more than 40,000 years in an ecologically diverse continent, and when first encountered by Europeans in the 17th century, their technology hardly approached the sophistication of the Neanderthals: just simple stone tools and rudimentary wooden implements; and yet they evolved a kinship system and cosmology that most graduate students in anthropology have struggled to comprehend in all its complexity--and probably never do.(24)