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Language in General
Africa
Southwest Asia
Egypt
Indus Valley
China
Europe
South America
Mesoamerica
North America
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The Globe

Various scholars believe that our contemporary fluency of speech appeared only after about 50,000 years ago and in only a limited number of hominid species (perhaps only one); others believe that even the toolmakers of Olduvai Gorge could communicate vocally with much greater fluency than chimpanzees. The areas of the human brain most associated with speech, Broca's and Wernicke's areas, both of which are located on the left side of the brain, were almost certainly not as developed in early hominids, given that their brians were much smaller than ours. But speech is not simply a matter of brain size. Unlike the anatomy of other animals, ther human larynx and the pharynx converge low in the throat. The advantage of this odd configuration is that it provides a relatively large chamber over the vocal chords, permitting sound production of great variety.(8)

Writing more than likely began as a separate and distinct symbolic system of communication, like painting, sculpture and oral storytelling, and only later merged with spoken language. In exchanging interpretations and new information, the scholars' acknowledged that they still had no fully satisfying answers to the most important questions of exactly how and why writing was developed. Many of them favored a broad explanation of writing's origins in the visual arts pictograms of things being transformed into increasingly abstract symbol for things, names and eventually words in speech. Their views clashed with a widely held theory among archeologists that writing grew out of the pieces of clay in assorted sizes and shapes that Sumerian accountants had used as tokens to keep track of livestock and stores of grain. (110)

Of the earliest writing systems, scholars said, only the Sumerian, Chinese and Mesoamerican ones seemed clearly to be independent inventions. (110)

Twenty of the most-spoken languages today fall into six distinct families: Indo-European (about three billion speakers), Sino-Tibetan (more than one and a half billion), Altaic (200 million), Afro-Asiatic (almost 200 million), Malayo-Polynesian (150 million), and Dravidian (130 million). Many other languages also fit into these families, and there are thousands of languages in more than a hundred other families. The language spoken by the largest number of people is Mandarin Chinese, but English (with the largest vocabulary) is the most widely spoken on the planet. (113)

The clicking sound central to the Khoisan language is one of the; earliest means of vocal communication available to babies. Within a few weeks of birth, infants master the communication techniques of eye contact and the smile. Within months they can use the tongue to click against the roof of the mouth to make responses to similar adult overtures. (113)

 

 

 

 

Both cuneiform and hieroglyphs evolved from the pictographic systems. They evolved from clearly representational characters to more abstract symbols. They were almost syllabic, in the sense that symbols could be combined to create a new word with its own meaning. With improved human skills and writing equipment (pens, clay, wedges, paints, etc.), proficient scribes using cuneiform or hieroglyphs could convey almost any information or concept they desired. (113)

Widespread sharing of both actual human experience and human wishful thinking were facilitated by the unprecedented "introduction" of the alphabet into Indo-European culture. (113)

 

 

 

 

 

 

Its more precise and nuanced structure makes it very likely that the devanagari Sanskrit was the pattern from which devolved the other alphabets. As already mentioned, it contains almost twice as many letters as any other and captures the full range of sounds that can be made without stress on the voice box. History suggests that cultural inventions that redirect human history start with a peak of clarity and refinement that subsequently becomes distorted by their transmission through various cultural filters. Comparisons of Sanskrit to Hebrew and of Hebrew to English illustrate their progressively diminishing representation of the full energetic potential of the voice, and thereby, the deeper levels of human communication. (113)

The identity of the ingredient that produced the Great Leap Forward poses an archaeological puzzle without an accepted answer. It doesn't show up in fossil skeletons. It may have been a change in only 0.1 percent of our DNA. What tiny change in genes could have had such enormous consequences? Like some other scientists who have speculated about this question, I can think of only one plausible answer: the anatomical basis for spoken complex language. The answer seems to involve the structure of the larynx, tongue, and associated muscles that give us fine control over spoken sounds. Like a Swiss watch, all of whose many parts have to be well designed for the watch to keep time at all, our vocal tract depends on the precise functioning of many structures and muscles. I don't suggest that the Great Leap Forward began as soon as the mutations for altered tongue and larynx anatomy arose. (114)

It wasn't because they did it in the easiest or sole way possible to devise a language. For instance, creoles use prepositions (short words preceding nouns), as do English and some other languages, but there are other languages that dispense with prepositions in favor of postpositions following nouns, or else noun case endings. Again, creoles happen to resemble English in placing subject, verb, and object in that order, but borrowing from English can't be the explanation, because creoles derived from languages with a different word order still use the subject-verb-object order. (114)

These similarities among creoles seem likely to stem from a genetic blueprint that the human brain possesses for learning language during childhood. Such a blueprint has been widely assumed ever since the linguist Noam Chomsky argued that the structure of human language is far too complex for a child to learn within just a few years, in the absence of any hard-wired instructions. For example, at age two my twin sons were just beginning to use single words. As I write this paragraph a bare twenty months later, still several months before their fourth birthday, they have already mastered most rules of basic English grammar that people who immigrate to English-speaking countries as adults often fail to master after decades. Even before the age of two, my children had learned to make sense of the initially incomprehensible babble of adult sound coming at them, to recognize groupings of syllables into words, and to realize which groupings constituted underlying words despite variations of pronunciation within and between adult speakers. (114)

Such difficulties convinced Chomsky that children learning their first language would face an impossible task unless much of language's structure was already preprogrammed into them. Chomsky concluded that we are born with a "universal grammar" already wired into our brains to give us a spectrum of grammatical models encompassing the range of grammars in actual languages. This prewired universal grammar would be like a set of switches, each with various alternative positions. The switch positions would then become fixed to match the grammar of the local language that the growing child hears. (114)

However, Bickerton goes further than Chomsky and concludes that we are preprogrammed not just to a universal grammar with adjustable switches, but to a particular set of switch settings: the settings that surface again and again in creole grammars. (114)  

Thus, at least four types of evidence indicate that Indo-European languages are the products of an ancient steamroller. The evidence includes: the family-tree relationship of surviving Indo-European languages; the much greater linguistic diversity of areas like New Guinea that have not been recently overrun; the non-Indo-European languages that survived in Europe into Roman times or later; and the non-Indo-European legacy in several Indo-European languages. (114)

How can we obtain a calibration factor that converts "percentage difference between languages" into "time since the languages began to diverge"? Some linguists use the rate of word change in historically documented written languages, like the changes from Anglo-Saxon to Chaucer's English to Modern English. These calculations, which belong to a science called glottochronology (= chronology of languages), yield the rule of thumb that languages replace about 20 percent of their basic vocabulary everyone thousand years. Most scholars reject glottochronology calculations, on the grounds that word-replacement rates must vary with social circumstances and with the particular words themselves. (114)

From one single region, the Middle East on Cavalli-Sforza's map, sprung all the colonizers who brought farming to Palestine, Mesopotamia, Persia, India, Anatolia, Europe, Ukraine, and even Egypt. The genetic distance between the newcomers and those left behind had grown through time. But in addition he had shown that the branchings of the genetic tree conformed quite precisely to those of the linguistic tree. Cavalli-Sforza had, in fact, confirmed a suspicion of Charles Darwin's that "if the tree of genetic evolution were known, it would enable scholars to predict that of linguistic evolution." (131)

In the Far East, there is the clear similarity between the Sumerian cuneiform writing and the scripts of China, Korea, and Japan. The similarity is not only in the script: many similar glyphs are identically pronounced and also have the same meanings. (137)

Then we have the mystery of the Atlantic dialects different from those of the Mediterranean: a group of rough, guttural dialects still spoken, from the Guanche dialect of the Azores and the Canary Islands to the many tongues of unknown origin spoken between Morocco and Ireland. And the impossible-sounding names, even more difficult to write in our Greek-Latin alphabet, consisting of letters that we use very little, like x and z, found in places inhabited by the Bretons, the Basques, the Gaels, the Andalusians, and the Berbers. All of these mysterious languages are related to the Guanche dialect, all the way across the Azores and the Canary Islands to the Mayan land of the Yucatan with its ancient religious centres like Chichen Itza, Iszamal, Tzebtun, Uxmal, Uxul, Yaxuna or Oxkintok. (141)

According to linguist Noam Chomsky, the development of human language could not have occurred as a straightforward step from animal communication. "There seems to be no substance to the view that human language is simply a more complex instance of something to be found elsewhere in the animal world," he writes. "This poses a problem for the biologist, since, if true, it is an example of true 'emergence '- the appearance of a qualitatively different phenomenon at a specific stage of complexity of organization." Humans possess an innate or inherent capacity for language development, for grammar and syntax, that no current model for the acquisition of traits seems to fit. "In fact, the processes by which the human mind achieved its present stage of complexity and its particular form of innate organization are a total mystery... (156)

Until the eighth century, writing was regarded as a divine, uncanny skill that was potentially dangerous for human beings. The wisdom of the community belonged to everybody, and should not become the possession of a literate minority. But by the end of the eighth century, literacy was becoming more widespread in the Near East, and new political circumstances prompted kings to record traditions that were favorable to their rule in a library of written texts. (158)

Egyptian hieroglyphic writing is thought to have been developed as a result of the Sumerian innovation. The so-called Proto-Elamite writing that developed in Elam has not yet been deciphered, and nothing can be said of its nature at the present time except that, from the number of signs used, it is a form of logogram writing. This type of word pictogram writing also developed, at a later date, in the Aegean, in Anatolia, in the Indus Valley of India and, of course, in China where they still use this system. (160)

Instead of presuming that human language 'evolved', it is time to take seriously and literally the statements made by all great ancient civilisations and by many so-called primitive societies: that language was bestowed upon men by the 'gods'. In whatever sense this is meant (by the 'gods' directly or by sages in direct contact with the 'gods'), it tallies with the curious fact that no language has ever been discovered that is not grammatically and syntactically complete. No language has ever been found in an early state of 'evolution'. The most primitive language allows its speakers to convey whatever they want to convey within that society's frame of reference. (172)

Africa

 One other family seems to have grown from post-cataclysmic Anunnaki influence: The Afro-Asiatic family includes, among others, Arabic, Hebrew, Berber, Cushite, Hausa in present-day Nigeria, and extinct Egyptian. (113)

The name for a temple in Mexico was teocalli and means in Mexican 'god's house'. Teo was the Mykenaean word for god, and as we shall see later provides the first syllable for an early city of Bolivia, Tiahuanaco. (135)

Southwest Asia

The premise for considering that the Sumerian poems were oral in origin stems from the observation that they used a common set of formulas, despite their existence in widely differing recensions. Within a single version they generally employ the same traditional phrases and fixed sequences of words to express the same idea. (131)

...the professional names used by the Sumerians in relation to the metal trades--simug (blacksmith) and tibira (coppersmith and metal manufacturer)--are not original Sumerian words. Linguists talk of there being a substrate language from which the Sumerians borrowed these words, but this proto language has not been identified. Second, as the world's first metallurgists, from what human culture could the Sumerians have borrowed these terms? (69)

The Indo-European language family includes ten branches that until a few centuries ago, primarily functioned in the Middle East and Central and South Asia--the general domain of the Anunnaki. Currently, this family includes most of the European languages, plus Persian (Farsi) and Sanskrit. One other family seems to have grown from post-cataclysmic Anunnaki influence: The Afro-Asiatic family includes, among others, Arabic, Hebrew, Berber, Cushite, Hausa in present-day Nigeria, and extinct Egyptian. (113)

This book postulates that the only area of post-cataclysm, direct Anunnaki involvement in human development was in West Asia, the cradle of the Indo-European culture and languages. That region produced only two of the current 100-plus language families: Indo-European and Afro-Asiatic. That these two families have their roots within the region of Anunnaki hegemony supports the notion of a singular proto-language associated with the Anunnaki colony from Niburu. History reveals that these two language families undergirded the dispersion of Sumerian/Anunnaki culture around the world. (113)

The circumstances surrounding the Tower of Babel story suggests an Anunnaki-based explanation. The word “Babel” has at least two possible origins. The Hebrew root “babal” means “to confound or mix.” In Akkadian, “bab-ilu” means “gate of the gods.” Both usages point to the same event. (113)

A Sumerian scribe recorded on a clay tablet that he had been taught to write by the "god of the scribes." Egyptian writing was attributed to the god Thoth, who allegedly provided nearly all advanced knowledge to humans. Nebo, the son of the god Marduk (an Anunnaki), reportedly gave the Babylonians writing. On stone tablets, Moses received a script from YHVH (an invisible god). (113)

In fact, historical claims of the existence of antediluvian writing have survived in various cultures. Hebrews assert that genealogical records from Adam to Noah were recorded prior to the Deluge. Phoenicians and Egyptians claimed their writing came before the Cataclysm. (113)

A Sumerian tablet found in Nineveh records King Ashurbanipal saying he was "initiated into the secrets of writing by the god of scribes…and that he could read Sumerian (and) understand the stone carvings of the days before the flood." The phrase "stone carvings" may suggest it was not the cuneiform system used in the Nineveh clay tablets. (113)

Egyptian and Sumerian king lists clearly cover antediluvian rulers. They included gods and demigods (the human kings and pharaohs came much later). Retaining such chronologies for thousands of years on both sides of the Cataclysm would have required permanent records in some durable form and a safe location. (113)

Both cuneiform and hieroglyphs evolved from the pictographic systems. They evolved from clearly representational characters to more abstract symbols. They were almost syllabic, in the sense that symbols could be combined to create a new word with its own meaning. With improved human skills and writing equipment (pens, clay, wedges, paints, etc.), proficient scribes using cuneiform or hieroglyphs could convey almost any information or concept they desired. (113)

Jewish Kabbalists and Hindu esoterics believe letters and words created from their alphabets have several levels of meaning. The Hebrew letter was considered to have at least three levels of meaning. The first level dealt with the inner structure of reality, of the universe itself. The second involved nature, the physical level of reality. The third was for individual understanding and social communication. (113)

The babylonians and chaldeans were masters of the arts of astrology, divination, the weaving of spells, the reading of omens, and of every branch of magic, and their fame as magicians and sorcerers and authors of incantations has gone out into all the world. A native tradition says that the art of divination was practiced by them before the Flood, but whether it was of indigenous or foreign origin is not known. They taught the rest of the world many things, and their wisdom was proverbial at a very early period, but, curiously enough, they have received little credit or thanks for the greatest of all their gifts to mankind, viz, the art of writing. The Akkadians, i.e. Semitic Babylonians, borrowed that art from the Sumerians, and transmitted it to many nations of Western Asia, and along with it went much of the Sumerian knowledge and the wisdom that the Babylonians were believed to possess. The earliest form of Sumerian writing was pictorial, as will be seen later, but the pictures passed from that form at a very early period into conventional representations of them, which were formed by groups of wedges arranged in various ways. It was this wedge-writing, now commonly called Cuneiform (from the Latin cuneus, "a wedge"), which the Akkadians adopted and passed on to their neighbours. The discoveries of Sir John Marshall at Harappa in the Panjab and at Mohenjo-Daro in Sind prove that peoples in India during the Sumerian period also used a system of pictorial writing. (118)

A comparatively small proportion of the population of Babylonia learned to read and to write cuneiform, and those who were masters of the art were usually the priests, the high officials, and the scribes who kept the accounts of the palace and temples, and, made copies of the religious and magical works used by the priests. The education of the Babylonians was entirely in the hands of the priests, who derived their knowledge from Nabu, the inventor of writing, and letters, and every kind of learning, and the Lord of "Houses of Tablets" (or Books), i.e. Libraries. (118)

At Der and at Abu Habbah many hundreds of "case-tablets," i.e. tablets enclosed in clay envelopes inscribed with duplicate texts of the contracts, and bearing the impressions of many cylinder seals, were found in rows on stone shelves, and thousands of the smaller tablets were in large baked-clay jars. Private individuals kept their business documents buried in the ground under their houses… (118)

In the Sumerian language most of the root words are monosyllabic. However, those having to do with agriculture and crafts are polysyllabic, such as the words for farmer, herdsman, fisherman, plow, furrow, metalworker, blacksmith, carpenter, basketmaker, weaver, leatherworker, porter, mason, and even merchant. (131)

Tocharian [It was given the name Tocharian after an ancient Persian tribe] displays conspicuous similarities in vocabulary and grammar to Celtic and German. These attributes identify Tocharian as a limb on the trunk of the Indo-European language tree, one of the world's major language groups, descendants of which are spoken today by people in Eurasia as far ranging as India, Iran, Iraq, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Armenia, almost all of Europe, and North and South America. (131)

The Sumerians were not Semites. Their language is unlike any other known language. But its general structure is called agglutinative. (135)

...suddenly, unexpectedly, inexplicably--the Near East witnessed the blossoming of the greatest civilization imaginable, a civilization in which our own is firmly rooted. Even the Hellenic alphabet, from which the Latin and our own alphabets derive, came from the Near East. The ancient Greek historians themselves wrote that a Phoenician named Kadmus ("ancient") brought them the alphabet, comprising the same number of letters, in the same order, as in Hebrew... That Greek and Latin writing, and thus the whole foundation of our Western culture, were adopted from the Near East can easily be demonstrated by comparing the order, names, signs, and even numerical values of the original Near Eastern alphabet with the much later ancient Greek and the more recent Latin. ...the Akkadian cuneiform script was syllabic: Each sign stood for a complete syllable (ab, ba, bat, etc.). Yet the script made extensive use of signs that were not phonetic syllables but conveyed the meanings "god," "city," country," or "life," "exalted," and the like. The only possible explanation for this phenomenon was that these signs were remains of an earlier writing method which used pictographs. Akkadian, then; must have been preceded by another language that used a writing method akin to the Egyptian hieroglyphs. (146)

One of the greatest finds of Akkadian texts was the ruins of a library assembled in Nineveh by Ashurbanipal; Layard and his colleagues carted away from the site 25,000 'tablets, many of which were described by the ancient scribes as copies of "olden texts." Another text bore an enigmatic statement by Ashurbanipal himself:

The god of scribes has bestowed on me the gift of the knowledge of his art.
I have been initiated into the secrets of writing.
I can even read the intricate tablets in Shumerian;
I understand the enigmatic words in the stone carvings from the days before the Flood.

The Akkadian references to the "olden texts" became meaningful, and scholars soon realized that tablets with long columns of words were in fact Akkadian-Sumerian lexicons and dictionaries, prepared in Assyria and Babylonia for their own study of the first written language, Sumerian. (146)

It also became clear that the Sumerian script, originally pictographic and carved in stone in vertical columns, was then turned horizontally and, later on, stylized for wedge writing on soft clay tablets to become the cuneiform writing that was adopted by the Akkadians, Babylonians, Assyrians, and other nations of the ancient Near East. (146)

...the Sumerians should also be credited with the invention of printing. Millennia before Johann Gutenberg "invented" printing by using movable type, Sumerian scribes used ready-made "type" of the various pictographic signs, which they used as we now use rubber stamps to impress the desired sequence of signs in the wet clay. They also invented the forerunner of our rotary presses--the cylinder seal. Made of extremely hard stone, it was a small cylinder into which the message or design had been engraved in reverse; whenever the seal was rolled on the wet clay, the imprint created a "positive" impression on the clay. The seal also enabled one to assure the authenticity of documents; a new impression could be made at once to compare it with the old impression on the document. (146)

The title of First Historian was bestowed by Kramer on Entemena, king of Lagash, who recorded on clay cylinders his war with neighboring Umma. While other texts were literary works or epic poems whose themes were historical events, the inscriptions by Entemena were straight prose, written solely as a factual record of history. (146)

The language of the Ugarit inscriptions, the Canaanite language, was what scholars call West Semitic, a branch of the group of languages that also includes the earlierst Akkadian and present-day Hebrew. Indeed, anyone who knows Hebrew well can follow the Canaanite inscriptions with relative ease. The language, literary style, and terminology are reminiscent of the Old Testament. (146)

The Greek alphabet was derived from a northern Semitic script, so we find that the first four letters of the Greek alphabet, in particular, are derived straight from the Semitic alphabet:

Greek:   A Alpha     B Beta   r Gamma    Delta
Semitic: ¢ Aleph      9 Beth      Gimel       Daled

It can be demonstrated that the transfer of this alphabet was from the Near East to Greece and not vice versa, as the letters themselves tend to have no intrinsic meaning in Greek, but they each have specific meanings in the Semitic languages. This means that Greek was derived from Semitic languages in Palestine and Egypt; indeed, the root of this alphabet appears to be Phoenician. (147)

Egypt

Emery agrees in principle. He believed that ancient Egypt's written language was beyond the use of pictorial symbols even during the earliest dynasties. According to his research, signs were also used to represent sounds only along with a numerical system. At the same time hieroglyphics had been stylized and used in architecture, a cursive script was already in common use. His conclusion was that "all this shows that the written language must have had a considerable period of development behind it, of which no trace has as yet been found in Egypt." (70)

The Indo-European language family includes ten branches that until a few centuries ago, primarily functioned in the Middle East and Central and South Asia--the general domain of the Anunnaki. Currently, this family includes most of the European languages, plus Persian (Farsi) and Sanskrit. One other family seems to have grown from post-cataclysmic Anunnaki influence: The Afro-Asiatic family includes, among others, Arabic, Hebrew, Berber, Cushite, Hausa in present-day Nigeria, and extinct Egyptian. (113)

Egyptian writing was attributed to the god Thoth, who allegedly provided nearly all advanced knowledge to humans. (113)

In fact, historical claims of the existence of antediluvian writing have survived in various cultures.Phoenicians and Egyptians claimed their writing came before the Cataclysm. Egyptians claimed god Anubis wrote "annals" before the Flood. (113)

Egyptian and Sumerian king lists clearly cover antediluvian rulers. They included gods and demigods (the human kings and pharaohs came much later). Retaining such chronologies for thousands of years on both sides of the Cataclysm would have required permanent records in some durable form and a safe location. (113)

Both cuneiform and hieroglyphs evolved from the pictographic systems. They evolved from clearly representational characters to more abstract symbols. They were almost syllabic, in the sense that symbols could be combined to create a new word with its own meaning. With improved human skills and writing equipment (pens, clay, wedges, paints, etc.), proficient scribes using cuneiform or hieroglyphs could convey almost any information or concept they desired. (113)

The Egyptian hieroglyphics comprise the second-most pervasive ancient writing system. It, too, preserved for posterity records not only of concrete items and events, but of the nuances of religion and personal emotions. The wealth of information that survived in tombs and ruins up and down the Nile River portrays a highly developed intellectual and emotional culture. The records reveal that the structure of consciousness of the ancient Egyptians would not appear to be beyond the comprehension of modem tourists who visit their land. (113)

If the name Mata-Ki-Te-Rani is edited by the removal of the words 'Ki- Te' ('looking at') we are left with 'Mata Rani', a coherent expression in the Easter Island and other Polynesian languages which means 'the eye of heaven'. No one could deny that Mata Rani is a rather close match phonetically and semantically for the ancient Egyptian maat Ra, meaning - essentially - 'the eye of the sun'. Moreover, the focus in both cases is on the skies and on the celestial bodies; in other words, it is astronomical in nature. (161)

Indus Valley

Other titillating fragments of anomalous evidence suggest a pervasive if not advanced seafaring or even airborne culture having once existed in ancient India --for example, the identical nature of the Indus Valley script to that found at Easter Island on the other side of the Pacific Ocean . Initial reports suggest, it should be noted, that the script found recently in the Gulf of Cambay resembles the Indus Valley script. According to certain south Indian researchers, the indecipherable scripts are written in a proto-Tamil language, which would link the culture of distant Easter Island and its famous megalithic statues with ancient southern India , Kumari Kandam--an idea echoed in the lore of Easter Islanders about a lost continent to the West from which their people originated. (56)

...the Hindus used Sanskrit, thought of by some scholars as a maritime language due to its similarities to Polynesian languages and Hawaiian. (113)

The Indo-European language family includes ten branches that until a few centuries ago, primarily functioned in the Middle East and Central and South Asia--the general domain of the Anunnaki. Currently, this family includes most of the European languages, plus Persian (Farsi) and Sanskrit. (113)

The Vedics gave credit to god Sarasvati for their writing. As mentioned earlier, devanagari, the name of the Hindu script used in Sanskrit, means "from the gods." Tellingly, the word Sanskrit itself means "polished or perfected," suggesting an already established system. (113)

In fact, historical claims of the existence of antediluvian writing have survived in various cultures.Hindus say the god Vishnu became a fish and retrieved their "holy books" from the bottom of the ocean, taken there by the demon Haya-Griva before the Cataclysm. (113)

Jewish Kabbalists and Hindu esoterics believe letters and words created from their alphabets have several levels of meaning. Vedic scholars believe the original words in Sanskrit had four levels of meaning. First was the physical spoken word. The second was its inner meaning. The third was its vibrational force that was transmitted telepathically through prana (a subtle energy that permeates space). The final was its transcendental significance. (113)

Sunu in Quechua is vase; in Sanskrit, it is suna. Tankat is thorn in Quechua; it is tank in Sanskrit. Tupani is Quechua for to scratch; the ani is absent in Sanskrit, and it becomes simply Tup. In Quechua, uma is head. In Sanskrit, it's a little more abstract, meaning intelligence. Una begins in Sanskrit as "a small thing." It has become more specific in Quechua: a lamb. Yana (black) in Quechua is yana in Sanskrit. The Sanskrit for white or shining is kil. Its Quechua equivalent, killa, has been limited specifically to mean moon. Sanskrit for "to claw" is naka, in Quechua nakeha is to comb. In Sanskrit, the word for house is pita; in Quechua, pitita has become a little more specific, meaning bedroom. In Sanskrit, simi means smile; in Quechua, function has become object, and simi means mouth. (120)

Tocharian [It was given the name Tocharian after an ancient Persian tribe] displays conspicuous similarities in vocabulary and grammar to Celtic and German. These attributes identify Tocharian as a limb on the trunk of the Indo-European language tree, one of the world's major language groups, descendants of which are spoken today by people in Eurasia as far ranging as India, Iran, Iraq, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Armenia, almost all of Europe, and North and South America. (131)

China

 

Protected by mountains from roaming bands of survivors and by a favorable climate, the proto-Chinese culture was apparently left on its own to resuscitate agriculture and animal husbandry shortly after the Cataclysm’s effects waned. It maintained what was probably the pre-cataclysm Mandarin-language homogeneity without outside interference for millennia. It’s single language eventually split eight ways as its speakers moved into adjacent areas in Southeast Asia. (113)

Chinese historians attributed their ideographic system to divine origins. (113)

In fact, historical claims of the existence of antediluvian writing have survived in various cultures. Chinese and Spanish legends report writings before the destruction of an earlier race. (113)

Tocharian [It was given the name Tocharian after an ancient Persian tribe] displays conspicuous similarities in vocabulary and grammar to Celtic and German. These attributes identify Tocharian as a limb on the trunk of the Indo-European language tree, one of the world's major language groups, descendants of which are spoken today by people in Eurasia as far ranging as India, Iran, Iraq, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Armenia, almost all of Europe, and North and South America. (131)

Europe

Chariot technology, Dr. Muhly noted, seems to have left an imprint on Indo-European languages and could help solve the enduring puzzle of where they originated. All of the technical terms connected with wheels spokes, chariots and horses are represented in the early Indo-European vocabulary, the common root of nearly all modern European languages as well as those of Iran and India. In which case, Dr. Muhly said, chariotry may well have developed before the original Indo-European speakers scattered. And if chariotry came first in the steppes east of the Urals, that could be the long-sought homeland of Indo-European languages. (81)

The Indo-European language family includes ten branches that until a few centuries ago, primarily functioned in the Middle East and Central and South Asia--the general domain of the Anunnaki. Currently, this family includes most of the European languages, plus Persian (Farsi) and Sanskrit. (113)

Combining DNA analyses and language maps, we find that for all Indo-European language speakers in Europe, about 85 percent of their genetic stock has been in place for 50,000 years. This phenomenon could correspond to the diaspora from Eden. It suggests that Anunnaki influence from the heart of its Earth colony in Mesopotamia had already extended to Europe well before the Cataclysm. The Anunnaki colonial philosophy would have shaped European language, measures, and commerce. (113)

But not everyone in Europe arrived from the Middle East. For instance, the Basque, Hungarian, Finnish, and Estonian peoples and languages do not fit in the Indo-European family. Neither do other peoples (possibly including the Celts, Berbers, Etruscans, and some Nordics) who may have migrated to coastal areas during the disintegration of Atlantis. (113)

The Greeks trace their writing to the god Hermes (who was the Greek version of the Egyptian god Thoth). The Phoenicians ascribe theirs to the god Taut (again another form of Thoth). (113)

In fact, historical claims of the existence of antediluvian writing have survived in various cultures. Druids said writing (attributed to Pridian) and books (written by Pheryllt) existed before the Flood. Chinese and Spanish legends report writings before the destruction of an earlier race. (113)

Kelley has an even more conclusive piece of evidence for trans-Pacific voyagers. He was intrigued by a speculation of the American sinologist Hugh Moran that the Hebrew and Greek alphabets were derived from the Chinese lunar zodiac. This time the link is with the Mayan rather than the Aztec calendar. Again, there are obvious correspondences. The Greek kappa and the Hebrew kaph correspond to the letter k; 'kaph also means the palm of the hand, and Kelley notes that the Mayan day Manik is represented as a hand and probably pronounced 'keh'. The following letter in the Greek alphabet is lambda, which in Hebrew is lamed; in the Mayan calendar it is lamat (another Mayan language calls it lambat, even closer to lambda). Next in Hebrew comes mem, and in Greek mu, which means water not only in Hebrew but also in the Semitic language from which the Greeks borrowed it; in Mayan, the next sign is mulu, which is ruled by the shark god and also corresponds to the Aztec day water. (123)

Tocharian [It was given the name Tocharian after an ancient Persian tribe] displays conspicuous similarities in vocabulary and grammar to Celtic and German. These attributes identify Tocharian as a limb on the trunk of the Indo-European language tree, one of the world's major language groups, descendants of which are spoken today by people in Eurasia as far ranging as India, Iran, Iraq, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Armenia, almost all of Europe, and North and South America. (131)

The Maya were using an elaborate hieroglyphic writing when the Spaniards encountered them. The hieroglyphic for K included the head of an elephant. Among the most frequent symbols in Mayan script are those for their days and months. Chuen, Eb, Akbal, Ben, Manik, Caban, Eznab - such are some of the names - sound distinctly Semitic. They are indeed very like the names of the ancient Phoenician and Greek letters; some, in fact, are almost identical. Here are a few instances - giving the letters in Greek, Phoenician, and Mayan in that order:
Alpha, aleph, ahau
Beta, bejt, baaz
Gamma, gimel, ghanan
Epsilon, eh, eb
Lota, iud, ik
Kappa,koph,queh
Lamda, lamed, lamat
Tau, tav, tihaz (135)

Comparative table of Mayan and Cretan signs from Pierre Nonore', In quest of the White Gods. In many cases the Phoenicians and the Maya have very similar 'characters' for the same letters, and also similar meanings for the characters. Now, the Maya cannot possibly have hit upon not only the names but also the order as in the Phoenician alphabet. So at first sight it looks as if the Mayan script had come from the Phoenicians. But the Phoenician characters are very simple, in contrast to the complicated day-symbols of the Maya. It therefore seems probable that both scripts have a common root,older than the Phoenician script, from which they both developed. We may therefore safely say that the Mayan legends were right: Kukulcan their White God, taught his people the script he had brought with him. And this script was Cretan. (135)

The written word, astronomy and geometry have long been thought to have arisen in the Middle East, but we now had competing evidence that these sophisticated skills were in use in Europe long before they arrived in Sumer or Egypt. (160)

 

 

 

 

 

 

South America

The Inka Empire...was the only one of the six "primary" ancient civilizations that did not develop a written language, despite the fact that it was the largest political system ever to evolve in the pre-Columbian the pre-Columbian New World. (52)... but they had a fairly efficient substitute in the form of a vast bureaucracy and the quipu, a system of knotted strings in which the length of strings and placement of knots was used as a device to assist the memory of the record keeper. (45)

Sunu in Quechua is vase; in Sanskrit, it is suna. Tankat is thorn in Quechua; it is tank in Sanskrit. Tupani is Quechua for to scratch; the ani is absent in Sanskrit, and it becomes simply Tup. In Quechua, uma is head. In Sanskrit, it's a little more abstract, meaning intelligence. Una begins in Sanskrit as "a small thing." It has become more specific in Quechua: a lamb. Yana (black) in Quechua is yana in Sanskrit. The Sanskrit for white or shining is kil. Its Quechua equivalent, killa, has been limited specifically to mean moon. Sanskrit for "to claw" is naka, in Quechua nakeha is to comb. In Sanskrit, the word for house is pita; in Quechua, pitita has become a little more specific, meaning bedroom. In Sanskrit, simi means smile; in Quechua, function has become object, and simi means mouth. (120)

...comparisons can be made between the writing system of Easter Island and the ideographs of certain tribes of Colombia, Venezuela, and the high Peruvian-Bolivian plateau...(128)

The name for a temple in Mexico was teocalli and means in Mexican 'god's house'. Teo was the Mykenaean word for god, and as we shall see later provides the first syllable for an early city of Bolivia, Tiahuanaco. The Indian word for Peru when the Spaniards arrived, meant literally 'Land of the Four Quarters'. One of the pre-eminent titles of Naram-Sin, grandson of King Sargon, whose name is inscribed in Peru, was 'Ruler of the Four Quarters'. (135)

They heard their fathers and ancestors say that Pachacuti Inca Yupanqui, the ninth Inca, had verified the history of the former Incas...And after he had well ascertained the most notable of their ancient histories he had it all painted after its order on large boards, and he placed them in a big hall in the house of the sun, where the said boards, which were garnished with gold, would be like our libraries, and he appointed learned men who could understand and explain them. (135)

Another possible legacy of Tiahuanaco, and of the Viracochas, lay embedded in the language spoken by the local Aymara Indians - a language regarded by some specialists as the oldest in the world. In the 1980s Ivan Guzman de Rojas, a Bolivian computer scientist, accidentally demonstrated that Aymara might be not only very ancient but, significantly, that it might be a 'made-up' language - something deliberately and skilfully designed. Of particular note was the seemingly artificial character of its syntax, which was rigidly structured and unambiguous to an extent thought inconceivable in normal 'organic' speech. (152)

Close to Lake Tiahuanaco in South America there is an ancient Indian tribe known as the Aymara, who speak a language "regarded by some specialists as the oldest in the world." This language has some peculiar properties indeed: In the 1980s Ivan Guzman de Rojas, a Bolivian computer scientist, accidentally demonstrated that Aymara might be not only very ancient but, significantly, that it might be a 'made-up' language - something deliberately and skilfully designed. Of particular note was the seemingly artificial character of its syntax, which was rigidly structured and unambiguous to an extent thought inconceivable in normal 'organic' speech. This synthetic and highly organized structure meant that Aymara could easily be transformed into a computer algorithm to be used to translate one language into another. (164)

Mesoamerica

Pictograms visually represented objects or concepts and were most useful to keep records of specific items or events. The Aztec highly pictographic script reportedly came from their ancestors, created by a god known as Zanna. The Toltecs credit god Quetzalcoatl with the origination of their writing. The Mayan writing system appears full-blown in the archaeological record (as does Mayan knowledge of astronomy and mathematics). Combining elements of pictographs ideographs, and syllabic characters, some believe the Mayan system to be alphabetic and related to the Indo-European alphabets. (113)

Kelley has an even more conclusive piece of evidence for trans-Pacific voyagers. He was intrigued by a speculation of the American sinologist Hugh Moran that the Hebrew and Greek alphabets were derived from the Chinese lunar zodiac. This time the link is with the Mayan rather than the Aztec calendar. Again, there are obvious correspondences. The Greek kappa and the Hebrew kaph correspond to the letter k; 'kaph also means the palm of the hand, and Kelley notes that the Mayan day Manik is represented as a hand and probably pronounced 'keh'. The following letter in the Greek alphabet is lambda, which in Hebrew is lamed; in the Mayan calendar it is lamat (another Mayan language calls it lambat, even closer to lambda). Next in Hebrew comes mem, and in Greek mu, which means water not only in Hebrew but also in the Semitic language from which the Greeks borrowed it; in Mayan, the next sign is mulu, which is ruled by the shark god and also corresponds to the Aztec day water. (123)

The name for a temple in Mexico was teocalli and means in Mexican 'god's house'. Teo was the Mykenaean word for god, and as we shall see later provides the first syllable for an early city of Bolivia, Tiahuanaco. (135)

The Maya were using an elaborate hieroglyphic writing when the Spaniards encountered them. The hieroglyphic for K included the head of an elephant. Among the most frequent symbols in Mayan script are those for their days and months. Chuen, Eb, Akbal, Ben, Manik, Caban, Eznab - such are some of the names - sound distinctly Semitic. They are indeed very like the names of the ancient Phoenician and Greek letters; some, in fact, are almost identical. Here are a few instances - giving the letters in Greek, Phoenician, and Mayan in that order:
Alpha, aleph, ahau
Beta, bejt, baaz
Gamma, gimel, ghanan
Epsilon, eh, eb
Lota, iud, ik
Kappa,koph,queh
Lamda, lamed, lamat
Tau, tav, tihaz (135)

Comparative table of Mayan and Cretan signs from Pierre Nonore', In quest of the White Gods. In many cases the Phoenicians and the Maya have very similar 'characters' for the same letters, and also similar meanings for the characters. Now, the Maya cannot possibly have hit upon not only the names but also the order as in the Phoenician alphabet. So at first sight it looks as if the Mayan script had come from the Phoenicians. But the Phoenician characters are very simple, in contrast to the complicated day-symbols of the Maya. It therefore seems probable that both scripts have a common root, older than the Phoenician script, from which they both developed. We may therefore safely say that the Mayan legends were right: Kukulcan their White God, taught his people the script he had brought with him. And this script was Cretan. (135)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

North America

In

Other

Other titillating fragments of anomalous evidence suggest a pervasive if not advanced seafaring or even airborne culture having once existed in ancient India --for example, the identical nature of the Indus Valley script to that found at Easter Island on the other side of the Pacific Ocean . Initial reports suggest, it should be noted, that the script found recently in the Gulf of Cambay resembles the Indus Valley script. According to certain south Indian researchers, the indecipherable scripts are written in a proto-Tamil language, which would link the culture of distant Easter Island and its famous megalithic statues with ancient southern India , Kumari Kandam--an idea echoed in the lore of Easter Islanders about a lost continent to the West from which their people originated. (56)

...comparisons can be made between the writing system of Easter Island and the ideographs of certain tribes of Colombia, Venezuela, and the high Peruvian-Bolivian plateau...(128)

A single language family, the Malayo-Polynesian, extends, in fact, all the way from Madagascar (just off the coast of southeast Africa) eastward to Easter Island (off the coast of Peru), and from New Zealand north to Formosa, and northeast to Hawaii. Such linguistic affinities indicate not only cultural and historical relationship, but also psychological homologies - and to such a degree that not even the most passionate supporter of a theory of parallel development would presume (I should think) to explain according to his cherished principles such a coincidence as that represented by the following ways of naming the numbers from one to ten: (128)

    MADAGASCAR                    INDONESIA                   POLYNESIA
    MALAGASY         MALAY    JAVANESE    TAGAL      SAMOAN    MAORI
1       isa                       sa               sa                    isa               tasi                tahi
2       rua                       dua            ru                    dalawa         lua                rua
3       telu                       tiga            telu                  tatlo             tolu               taro
4       efatra                    ampat        pat                  apat             fa                  wha
5       limi                        lima           lima                 lima             lima               rima
6       eni(na)                   anam         (ne)nem           anim            ana               ana
7       fitu                         tujuh         pitu                  pita              fitu                whitu
8       valu                       dulafan      wolu                walo            valu               waru
9       sivi                         sambilan    sana                siyam          iva                  iwha
10     fulu                        puluh          puluh              polo            sefulu              nahuru

Picture-writing, then, the Incas in Peru and the Polynesians had in common. Also the quipu, the communication system by means of knotted string, which was common both to Peru and to Polynesia, as well as to south China. (135)

If the name Mata-Ki-Te-Rani is edited by the removal of the words 'Ki- Te' ('looking at') we are left with 'Mata Rani', a coherent expression in the Easter Island and other Polynesian languages which means 'the eye of heaven'. No one could deny that Mata Rani is a rather close match phonetically and semantically for the ancient Egyptian maat Ra, meaning - essentially - 'the eye of the sun'. Moreover, the focus in both cases is on the skies and on the celestial bodies; in other words, it is astronomical in nature. (161)