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Africa
Southwest Asia
Egypt
Indus Valley
China
Europe
South America
Mesoamerica
North America
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Africa

 

Southwest Asia

 

Egypt

 Later, the Romans, Arabs, and British would complete the conquest of Egypt, submerging almost entirely this distinctive civilization that was for so many years the light of the ancient world. Not until AD 1952 was Egypt again ruled by Egyptians. (47)

Indus Valley

 

China

 

Europe

 Eventually, steppe peoples in general, regardless of their language, ceased to win in the face of western Europe's advancing technology. When the end came, it was swift. In 1241 AD the Mongols achieved the largest steppe empire that ever existed, stretching from Hungary to China. But after about 1500 AD the Indo-European-speaking Russians began to encroach on the steppes from the west. It took only a few more centuries of tsarist imperialism to conquer the steppe horsemen who had terrorized Europe and China for over five thousand years. Today the steppes are divided between Russia and China, and only Mongolia remains as a vestige of steppe independence. (114)

When Jacobite Christianity came first to Wales, and later to Ireland and Scotland, it was easily accepted. The remnants of the native Druidism readily mutated into Celtic Christianity. This Enochian form of Christianity survived well into the sixth century AD, and we traced it through the teachings of the early Celtic saints and the poems of Taliesin. The sites of the Grooved Ware People have always been held sacred, and for the last 3,000 years have been the object of battles between the various lines of the royal houses of Britain and the descendants of the Priests of the Jerusalem Temple. (160)

South America

 …when the Spaniards are shown the statue that the Inca Viracocha had built modeled on his "dream," it is a statue quite familiar to them--the statue of Saint Bartholomew, a statue of a tall white man with a long beard, wearing a tunic or cassock reaching down to his feet, with some kind of strange animal on a chain. The Spanish reaction was predictable: Spaniards, on seeing the temple and the statue as we have described it, have suggested that the apostle Saint Bartholomew might have reached Peru to preach to those heathens, and that the Indians made the statue and temple in his memory. (120)

1532 AD Pizarro takes Peru. (135)

Mesoamerica

 In AD 1519 Cortez left Cuba with a sizable force of ships, men, armaments, and horses and sailed to the coast of Veracruz. With the advantage of horses, cannons, war dogs, and an extraordinary esprit de corps, Cortez and his men were able to march directly into the Aztec capital at Tenochtitlan, where they were at first welcomed by the Aztec king, Moctezuma, who was under the delusion that the Spanish were-gods returning to their ancestral homeland. He could hardly have been more wrong. Within a short time, the Spanish had kidnapped and jailed him and were forming alliances with local non-Aztec peoples, who were only too happy to help the Spanish displace the Aztecs. Moctezuma and many of his people were eventually killed in a fierce battle at Tenochtitlan, after which Aztec resistance stiffened; but within a few years the Spanish had captured most of the Aztec heartland. In 1524 they hanged the last Aztec king, and thereafter Spanish domination of Mexico was rapid. When the Spanish first arrived, the population of the heartland of the Aztec empire was probably more than a million; 150 years later it probably held fewer than 70,000 people--the survivors of war, disease, slavery, and the other plagues of this epic clash of cultures. (51)

North America

 1492 AD Arrival of Columbus in the Santa Maria with crew of fifty-two men. (135)

Other