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Africa
Southwest Asia
Egypt
Indus Valley
China
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Africa

 

Southwest Asia

The area [around Petra] is mentioned several times in the Bible. The valley itself is often called the Valley of Moses, and nearby is a rise that both Muslims and Christians believe to be the Biblical Mount Hor, the burial place of Aaron. The Nabateans rose to prominence in Jordan during the later stages of the Iron Age, roughly corresponding to the period covered by much of the Hebrew Bible. They built elaborate aqueducts, many of which are still visible, and a system of clay pipes to bring water in from distant springs. The Nabatean script evolved into modern written Arabic. In the Augustan age, the kingdom was responsible for 25 percent of the gross economic output of Rome. Petra was the capital of the Nabatean kingdom. Because of its strategic location--along the incense, silk and spice route that wound its way from China, India and southern Arabia to Rome--many Nabateans became wealthy, and Petra became a center for artists and scholars. When the kingdom was annexed by Emperor Trajan of Rome in AD 106, it became one of the empire's most important trading centers. In the fourth century, it continued to be an important political outpost for the Byzantine Empire, becoming the seat of a bishopric. But the city soon began to fall into decline. Petra sank into obscurity after a shift in trade routes that was followed by two powerful earthquakes, one in A.D. 363 and a second in 551. (90)

By Alexander the Great's campaigns around 300 BC, the Anunnaki heritage was weakened to the point that a Greek society representing an independent perspective was able to topple most of the remnants of "divine kingship." The Hellenistic culture of Alexander's empire spread a new perspective to the former Anunnaki-ruled societies. It was replaced by the widespread imposition of the new institutions of the Roman Empire (which had been developing for 1,000 years independently of Anunnaki rule). (113)

Historians have documented that for twenty centuries, armies surged back and forth across the plains of modern day Kuwait, Iraq, Syria, and Jordan; the mountains of Lebanon and the Sinai Peninsula; and the Egyptian river valley. Kings vying for power kept the region in turmoil, but one human's legacy with roots in the earlier days of the gods wove a religious thread through the area that would reshape not only Middle Eastern history, but the history of the world. The transmitter of that legacy was a Sumerian-born aristocrat named Abraham who joined the Semite people who would eventually overshadow the Caucasian and Hamitic people of the region. (113)

By the end of the second century after Jesus, Christianity had garnered a following rivaling any other cult. It was persecuted by the Roman authorities (Christians refused to pay allegiance to the Emperor) until emperors like Galerius and Constantine began to realize the growing numbers in this new group could bolster the crumbling Roman Empire. Constantine first decided to tolerate growing Christian groups (313 AD) along with other god-cults. He later convened a council of Christian bishops (at Nicea in 325 AD) to define their orthodoxy and centralize control, effectively allying the church with the state. (113)

Another dark period of over half a century passed until Ezra the scribe, from the family of the chief priest Aaron, came to Jerusalem from Babylonia (probably in 458 BC). Ezra was sent to make inquiries "about Judah and Jerusalem" by Artaxerxes king of Persia, who authorized him to take with him an additional group of Jewish exiles from Babylon who wanted to go there. (143)

The other hero of that time was Nehemiah, the cupbearer, or high court official, of the Persian king. Nehemiah heard about the poor state of the inhabitants of Judah and about Jerusalem's terrible condition of disrepair. Deeply affected at this news, he asked the Persian king Artaxerxes to go to Jerusalem to rebuilt the city of his fathers. Nehemiah was also active in implementing social legislation, condemning those who extracted interest, and urging restitution of land to the poor. At the same time, he too prohibited Jewish intermarriage with foreign wives. These rulings by Ezra and Nehemiah in Jerusalem in the fifth century BC laid the foundations for Second Temple Judaism in the establishment of clear boundaries between the Jewish people and their neighbors and in the strict enforcement of the Deuteronomic Law. Their efforts - and the efforts of other Judean priests and scribes which took place over the one hundred and fifty years of exile, suffering, soul-searching, and political rehabilitation - led to the birth of the Hebrew Bible in its substantially final form. (143)

The Babylonian historian-priest Berossus, who in the third century BC compiled a history of Mankind, reported that the "first inhabitants of the land, glorying in their own strength...undertook to raise a tower whose 'top' should reach the sky." But the tower was overturned by the gods and heavy winds, "and the gods introduced a diversity of tongues among men, who till that time had all spoken the same language." The historian Alexander Polyhistor (first century BC) wrote that all men formerly spoke the same language. Then some undertook to erect a large and lofty tower so that they might "climb up to heaven." But the chief god confounded their design by sending a whirlwind; each tribe was given a different language. "The city where it happened was Babylon." (146)

Traces of the beliefs of the Grooved Ware People survived in two major strands: the teachings of Enochian Judaism, and the Celtic legends of the Druids. These two strands recombined - some time around 580 BC - at the time of the fall of Solomon's Temple, when a princess of the line of David was taken to Ireland for safety, and established the royal line of the High Kings of Tara by marrying the native king. The Roman Empire tried, unseccessfully, to destroy both these strands of Enochian belief in the first century AD. (160)

155 BC Zedikite Priests move to Qumran (160)

7BC Jesus born (160)

AD 32 John the Baptist killed (160)

AD 33 The Crucifixion of Jesus (160)

AD 62 James brother of Jesus killed (160)

AD 66 Jewish Revolt begins (160)

AD 70 Destruction of Jerusalem and its Temple (160)

Egypt

 In 332 BC, Alexander the Great marched into Egypt, evicted the Persians, and built the city of Alexandria. (47)

By Alexander the Great's campaigns around 300 BC, the Anunnaki heritage was weakened to the point that a Greek society representing an independent perspective was able to topple most of the remnants of "divine kingship." The Hellenistic culture of Alexander's empire spread a new perspective to the former Anunnaki-ruled societies. It was replaced by the widespread imposition of the new institutions of the Roman Empire (which had been developing for 1,000 years independently of Anunnaki rule). (113)

50 BC Cleopatra of Egypt commits suicide with aid of serpent, the royal symbol. Says she will return to her father the Sun. Rome famous for roads. (135)

Indus Valley

 300 BC Macedonian land empire under Alexander, destruction of Tyre and Sidon. Alexander's fleet sails down the Indus. (135)

China

 Through it all, along the northern and western frontiers, the nomadic horsemen and herders of Asia pressed on the periphery of successive empires. The Great Wall, built about 100 BC, was meant to keep the nomad out and the farmer in, but it was probably not too successful. Throughout Chinese history there was a constant interchange between sedentary and nomadic cultures. (49)

Europe

 With the expansion of Roman power between 200 BC and well into the first millennium AD, the character of Europe was forever changed, becoming a hybrid mix of Greek, Middle Eastern, and native elements. (50)

By Alexander the Great's campaigns around 300 BC, the Anunnaki heritage was weakened to the point that a Greek society representing an independent perspective was able to topple most of the remnants of "divine kingship." The Hellenistic culture of Alexander's empire spread a new perspective to the former Anunnaki-ruled societies. It was replaced by the widespread imposition of the new institutions of the Roman Empire (which had been developing for 1,000 years independently of Anunnaki rule). (113)

By the end of the second century after Jesus, Christianity had garnered a following rivaling any other cult. It was persecuted by the Roman authorities (Christians refused to pay allegiance to the Emperor) until emperors like Galerius and Constantine began to realize the growing numbers in this new group could bolster the crumbling Roman Empire. Constantine first decided to tolerate growing Christian groups (313 AD) along with other god-cults. He later convened a council of Christian bishops (at Nicea in 325 AD) to define their orthodoxy and centralize control, effectively allying the church with the state. (113)

Later Emperors (Julian and Theodosius I) decided to further co-opt Christianity, progressively making it into the state religion (by 392 AD). Eventually emperors exempted Christian clergy from taxes, built churches at government expense, authorized independent ecclesiastical courts, made Sunday a legal holiday, and began to suppress worship of other gods and goddesses. This most energetic of supernatural religions helped to shore up the authority of the Roman Empire, even with its imperial capital in Constantinople. The 438 AD Theodosian Code required all citizens of the Roman Empire to be members of the official Church. (113)

What had started out as natural worship of the demonstratively god YHVH--who apparently returned to the heavens and became the object of cult adoration--came to be seen as prophetic of a new form of worship. That form was anthropomorphic supernaturalism, a synthetic combination of Jewish and Greco-Roman ideas. Three-plus centuries after the Old Testament vision of YHVH as most-powerful-among-local-gods (held by Jesus' contemporaries, the scribes of the Dead Sea scrolls), the new Christian church needed a single supreme being. That was long enough during a period of language barriers and unreliable communication channels to allow the council at Nicea in 325 AD to efface YHVHs connection with the Anunnaki and designate him the only true God. To reinforce that claim, they tried to censor all references to the history of other gods in officially recognize texts. They banned Hebrew, Aramaic, and Greek texts that revealed too much historical realism. (113)

By a historical accident, it was Paul's version of Christianity that survived. The reason for the triumph of Christianity was entirely political. In AD 66 there was another Jewish revolt, prompted partly by the murder of James, who was thrown from the top of the Temple by the priests. It was at that point, Lomas and Knight believe, that the Qumranians decided to hide their scriptures until peace was restored. The less important ones were hidden in the Dead Sea caves. The more important ones were hidden in the Temple, where the Templars would find them eleven centuries later. The revolt failed. The Roman general Vespasian stamped it out with incredible brutality, also destroying most of the 'Christians'. But by that time, Paul was abroad, preaching his own version of Christianity to the gentiles. And this, ironically, was the version that went on to conquer the world. By AD 300 the Roman empire was falling to pieces, overstretched by its conquests and its need for huge armies. The emperor Constantine had an inspiration. About one in ten of his subjects were Christians. If he made Christianity the religion of the Roman empire, he would have a supporter in every town and village, and a fellow emperor in every city large enough to have a bishop. (Constantine himself never became a Christian--he remained a worshipper of the sun god Sol Invictus.) His solution worked, and Christianity held together the Roman empire for another two centuries. But by now the Christian Church had taken over the reins of power. Lomas and Knight quote Pope Leo X, a contemporary of Henry VIII, as saying: 'It has served us well, this myth of Christ'. (123)

300 BC Macedonian land empire under Alexander, destruction of Tyre and Sidon. Alexander's fleet sails down the Indus. (135)

140 BC Roman land empire. The razing of Carthage. Capture of Spain by Romans, Subjugation of Greeks. (135)

50 BC Rome famous for roads. (135)

In the first century AD, the Romans, otherwise tolerant of subject nations' religious beliefs, devoted considerable effort to destroying both the Enochian Jews and the Druids. We conclude that this was because, as the royal line of the true kings, they represented a threat to the divine status of the Roman Emperors. Despite their best efforts the Roman overlords did not quite succeed, because an Enochian tradition survived and resurfaced in Celtic Christianity during the sixth century. The evidence for this survival is found in the poems of Gwion, who took the Barchic name Taliesin when he told riddles from the Book of Enoch to King Maelgwn of Gwynydd. (160)

Traces of the beliefs of the Grooved Ware People survived in two major strands: the teachings of Enochian Judaism, and the Celtic legends of the Druids. These two strands recombined - some time around 580 BC - at the time of the fall of Solomon's Temple, when a princess of the line of David was taken to Ireland for safety, and established the royal line of the High Kings of Tara by marrying the native king. The Roman Empire tried, unseccessfully, to destroy both these strands of Enochian belief in the first century AD. (160)

When Jacobite Christianity came first to Wales, and later to Ireland and Scotland, it was easily accepted. The remnants of the native Druidism readily mutated into Celtic Christianity. This Enochian form of Christianity survived well into the sixth century AD, and we traced it through the teachings of the early Celtic saints and the poems of Taliesin. The sites of the Grooved Ware People have always been held sacred, and for the last 3,000 years have been the object of battles between the various lines of the royal houses of Britain and the descendants of the Priests of the Jerusalem Temple. (160)

AD 58 Bran takes Christianity to Wales (160)

South America

 

Mesoamerica

  La Venta appears to have been intentionally destroyed soon after about 400 BC, or at least we might infer this from the fact that some of its greatest stone monuments were intentionally defaced. (51)

North America

 

Other

 One of the most interesting examples of the evolution of sociopolitical complexity is Hawaii. Hawaii was probably settled in the late first millennium BC, by settlers from the Marquesas Islands and perhaps other areas of eastern Polynesia. Eighteenth and nineteenth-century ethnographic accounts provide a detailed account of a highly stratified society with inherited power, prestige, and wealth, a diversified economy, complex trade relationships, monumental architecture, and many other elements associated with complex societies. (50)

…living Easter Islanders showed Thor Heyerdahl how their ancestors had used logs as rollers to transport the statues and then as levers to erect them. The other questions were solved by subsequent archaeological and paleontological studies that revealed Easter's gruesome history. When Polynesians settled Easter around 400 AD, the island was covered by forest that they gradually proceeded to clear, in order to plant gardens and to obtain logs for canoes and for erecting statues. By around 1500 AD the human population had built up to about 7,000 (over 150 per square mile), about 1,000 statues had been carved, and at least 324 of those statues had been erected. But the forest had been destroyed so thoroughly that not a single tree survived. (114)