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Governance                  9,000 BC
Africa
Southwest Asia
Egypt
Indus Valley
China
Europe
South America
Mesoamerica
North America
Other

Africa

The archaeological record shows that a single culture, the Iberomaurusian, occupied the Maghreb region of North Africa from around 18/16,000 to 8,000 BC, during which time similar assemblages were to be found as far east as the Haua Fteah cave on the Cyrenaican coast. Not quite up to Egypt, but the proximity of Iberomaurusian deposits to the present coastline has suggested to investigators that many sites may have been drowned in the postglacial seas. (115)

Southwest Asia

 The first area to leave its mark on post-Neolithic history was Mesopotamia (now called Iraq). Along the Tigris and Euphrates arose (or re-arose) the cities of Eridu, Shuruppak, Kish, Erech, Nineveh, Uruk, and Babylon, among others. These cities were surrounded by large agricultural areas to support urban populations up to a hundred thousand or more. As society progressed, more examples of monumental architecture could be found. Walls encircled some of these cities, and all were governed by a resident Anunnaki who required a ziggurat for his use. Local priesthoods developed to serve as channels of communication between humans and the reigning gods. People captured in battle and conquest became slaves. (113)

Establishment of earliest protoneolithic settlements in Palestine and Syria, particularly at Jericho. (149)

Egypt

 Of some 59 burials at this Nubian cemetery, Wendorf found that almost half of the deceased had died violently, the first collection of traumatic deaths known to Africa and perhaps to the Mediterranean world. The crude flints found with these skeletal remains were not, he assures us, grave offerings. Some were still embedded in the bones of the dead, others were found along the vertebral column, chest cavity, and lower abdomen. In Wendorf's opinion, "the ferocity in the deaths of many of these individuals indicates that the situation was more serious than that which leads to the occasional friction between neighboring groups." The date of the Djebel Sahaba burials is uncertain. Wendorf has suggested a time between 12,000 and 10,000 BC "or slightly later"; the Qadan culture itself is now believed to have disappeared around 9000 BC. We are in any case close enough in time to the Timaeus war to suspect some sort of connection between these signs of what Wendorf saw as political unrest along the Nile and the prewar Atlantic transgressions that angered Zeus at the end of the Critias. …these were not the only warriors known to the Epi-Paleolithic Old World, and it does seem curious that after some 20,000 years of apparently tranquil relations among Europe's Homo sapiens sapiens populations, the first known European collections of traumatic deaths should have occurred at a time that promises to intersect the chronology of Plato's war. (115)

Such were the beginnings of civilized life in Kurdistan. From its first foundations between 9500 and 8000 BC, this one region produced some of the first known examples of animal domestication, metallurgy, painted pottery, proto-agriculture, trade, urbanization and written language. No one could deny the extraordinary advances made in this region over a period of some five thousand years, and no Mesopotamian scholar would deny the way in which the Kurds had influenced the development of the Sumerian civilization in the Fertile Crescent of Iraq ans Syria. (149)

Indus Valley

 

China

 

Europe

 …it does seem curious that after some 20,000 years of apparently tranquil relations among Europe's Homo sapiens sapiens populations, the first known European collections of traumatic deaths should have occurred at a time that promises to intersect the chronology of Plato's war. A conflict involving all those who lived inside the Straits of Gibraltar may well have included Ukrainians, but at this point we are primarily interested in the earlier groups of mixed burials, and the possibility that these deaths by flint point were the result of prewar Atlantic encroachment. (115)

South America

 

Mesoamerica

 

North America

 

Other