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Governance                  5,000 BC
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 Dominating everything, setting their civilised stamp upon the world, are the god-kings. According to Homer, they were born out of Ocean, sea-people, dependent upon sea-power. They were the brilliant fore­runners of the Titans. They commanded the sea in the second half of the fifth millennium and the first half of the fourth. The world has never been able to escape their influence. Who were they? The Indians claim they were Aryans and India was certainly in on the deal. We shall probably find when the excavating has been done that Persia, nominally the home of the Aryans, was involved also. Egyptian records suggest some of them were certainly Semites. I believe both statements are true, the two were variously intermingled in the professions of merchants and seamen. Both taught the Sumerians who carried on much of their tradition, especially under the kings of Akkad. Theirs was both the Golden Age and the Garden of Eden. (135)

Africa

 Dom

Southwest Asia

The Tell as-Sawwan burials do not seem to reflect inherited status and wealth. (46)

These people were the first to establish a productive economy on the basis of a traditional Mesopotamian farming strategy, based on cereals (in this case, barley) and various vegetable and fruits (particularly dates) in combination with the milk and meat of cattle, sheep, and goats. Living in communities that ranged in size from fewer than fifty to a few thousand, the Ubaid peoples did small-time irrigation of crops, traded for a few products, and in general were able to produce the base materials out of which the alchemy of cultures produces civilization, namely economic surpluses.

A major temple dating to after 4000 B.C. at Uruk was found to haw been built on the exact same site as a temple of the 'Ubaid period, indicating a great continuity of religious traditions.

But by 4500 B.C. some signs of cultural changes toward cultural complexity appeared in a large region of the lower alluvial plain, in the foothills of the Zagros and in some of the larger valleys of the Zagros. Henry Wright notes that in these areas "There were large centers with populations of 1,000 to 3,000, which dominated networks of smaller settlements. Excavation on some of these larger centers revealed central platforms, supporting ritual buildings, segregated elite residences with large storage structures, and indications of socially segregated cemeteries.

In sharp contrast to the pervasive smaller villages of the [earlier] periods, Choga Mish on the Susiana Plain covered an area of some fifteen hectares by 4300 B.C. Most architecture consisted of residences and associated ceramic kilns. The community also contained at least one monumental building, perhaps more. This ten-by-fifteen-meter structure had walls of between one and two meters thick and contained several interior rooms. One of these was stacked with storage jars, while another was apparently used in working flint. A substantial mud-brick platform stood nearby. This period in Susiana and elsewhere saw the introduction of formalized closure of containers using clay sealings that carried the impression of a decorated seal. This practice is ordinarily associate with problems of security in materials storage or shipment.

Virtually every 'Ubaid settlement had a large nonresidential building, probably a temple, built of mud brick on platforms of clay or imported stone. Access typically was by a flight of stairs, to a room about ten meters in length, with a broad platform at one end and a table or small altar at the other.

Until about 5000 BC, settlements seem to have been located primarily with regard to the availability of resources and the land's agricultural potential, not on the basis of political or economic relationships. By 4000 BC, the number of small settlements had increased dramatically in many areas, and there was increasing variability in their arrangement and composition. (46)

Babylon itself was discovered in the early twentieth century. The biblical accounts came to life when the great ziggurat the Tower of Babel was revealed. The ancient city was a fortress, with surrounding walls that were wide enough to allow 10 chariots to gallop side by side upon them. Excavations found that it was exactly as the Bible and ancient Greek and Roman historians had depicted it: a vast complex of palaces and temples where wondrous hanging gardens were once situated. When the ruins of ancient Akkad were uncovered and revealed that it had preceded Babylon by 2,000 years, it seemed clear that it was the trunk and Babylonia and Assyria were branches. That seemed to settle it: Civilization dated back 3,500 years to ancient Akkad. (68)

Midway through the sixth millennium, peoples in certain areas of southwest Iran went through a rapid and crucial transition which was to set them clearly on the path toward population expansion and urban life. The three major innovations of that period were (1) the beginnings of competent irrigation, (2) the beginnings of cattle domestication, and (3) the use of a full range of cereals improved either by mutation or hybridization. (115)

In the southwest [Iran] the early fifth millennium saw further increases in the number of new agricultural sites in Susiana, while in the northeast a chain of perhaps twenty settlements now stretched along the foothills of the Kopet Dagh and into the Gurgan plain. Shrines had begun to appear in the larger northeastern communities; flint tools were gradually being replaced by copper. On the plateau, copper was already being cast into molds at Tepe Gabristan, where a recently discovered workshop for coppersmiths, complete with crucible, kiln, and molds, has been dated to the early fifth millennium BC. By this time, as noted above, the Sialk/Cheshmeh Ali plateau pottery had begun to display the ornamental animal motifs which were to give Iranian art its most distinctive trait (fig. 130). The end of the fifth millennium would see the first recorded use of the potter's wheel at Sialk, an innovation which, like the advances in metallurgy, was then to spread westward from Iran into southern Mesopotamia , and not, as was once supposed, the other way around. (115)

As soon as the Sumerians had established themselves in the country at the head of the Persian Gulf they began to build dykes and other earthworks, in order to protect their settlements from the floods of the Tigris and Euphrates. At first they lived in huts made of reed-mats fastened to sticks stuck in the ground, and later in little houses of a rectangular(?) shape made of bricks. As they consolidated their position they formed themselves into village communities, each of which had its own god and was practically ruled by the priest of that god. And the power of the gods increased as the prosperity of the people increased, and at length they were housed in temples of brick and stone instead of huts made of reed-mats. Among the early Sumerian cities of which we have knowledge may be mentioned Eridu (the modern Abu Shahren), the most southerly, which lies to the south of the Euphrates, and was traditionally regarded as the starting-point of Sumerian and Babylonian civilization. It stood at the head of the Persian Gulf almost on the sea-shore, but its ruins are now about 130 mile from the mouth of the Shatt al-'Arab. (118)

Babylon must have been in existence in the fifth or fourth millennium before Christ, and it must have been an important commercial centre even in the time when Kish, which lay eight miles to the east of it, flourished under the rule of its great Sumerian kings. (118)

The Moral Law demanded truth-speaking, straight-dealing, and the honouring of parents; lying, deceit, murder, adultery, robbery of the orphan, were abominable acts. A man should avoid his neighbour's house and the polluting of the water supply. It was his duty to maintain and honour and keep together the members of the family, and to avoid all words or deeds that would break up a family or cause strife in the house or town, etc. The Civic Law forbade the use of false weights and measures and the use of metals with alloy in them as currency, trespass on the property of the god or the neighbours, the removal of landmarks and boundary stones, the stealing of a neighbour's plough, the destruction of growing crops, the cutting down of reeds and thickets, the stopping of a watercourse, and, in short, any act or deed that would tend to disgrace the Local-god or cause unhappiness, injury, misery or loss in any shape or form to a neighbour. Offences against any law could only be atoned for by offerings of various kinds and prayers to the gods made under the direction of a priest. (118)

The second key proto-Indo-Mediterranean migration route was from Mesopotamia (stage 1) into predynastic Egypt (stage 2). We are talking about 4500 BC. The Dravidians came overland from Mesopotamia through Syria and by way of the Mediterranean into upper Egypt and, by a second route, moved across the Arabian Sea into the Gulf of Aden, into the Red Sea, across lower Egypt into the Nile Valley. The Indic peoples' offensive is two-pronged: one overland from Sumer, the other straight from India itself with a stopover in southwestern Arabia. (120)

Around 5000 BC the 'Ubaid people descended from the Upper Zagros mountains to take over various existing sites of occupation throughout Upper Iraq.' They then spread gradually southwards to establish new communities, including the one at Tell al-Ubaid, c. 4500 BC. Many of their sites of occupation were inherited from an earlier, more advanced culture known as the Samarra, who had been the first to introduce land irrigation and agriculture to the region. The Samarra had also been behind the establishment of Eridu, the first Mesopotamian city, in around 5500 BC. In one temple complex dated to this early period, evidence of a ritual pool and large quantities of fish remains have been unearthed, leading scholars to suggest that the Samarra's principal deity was a primordial form of Enki, the much later Sumerian god of Abzu, the watery abyss, who subsequently became divine patron of Eridu. (149)

c. 5500-5000 BC Gradual fragmentation of the Watcher colony into two opposing camps. One remains in isolation within the Kurdish highlands, while the other emerges on to the surrounding plains of Armenia, Iran and Mesopotamia. This new subculture is variously remembered as the Nephilim of Enochian and Dead Sea literature, the daevas in Iranian mythology and the Edimmu in Assyrio-Babylonian myth and legend. Foundation of first settled communities on the Mesopotamian plains, the earliest being Eridu in c. 5500 BC. Possible time-frame of biblical patriarchs. (149)

c. 5000-4000 BC The 'Ubaid culture come down off the Zagros mountains of Iraq and Iran to establish themselves at various sites in Upper and Lower Iraq. They inherit the serpentine art of the Jarmo people and, like the Watchers, their totems include the goat, the serpent and the vulture. (149)

Egypt

 The second key proto-Indo-Mediterranean migration route was from Mesopotamia (stage 1) into predynastic Egypt (stage 2). We are talking about 4500 BC. The Dravidians came overland from Mesopotamia through Syria and by way of the Mediterranean into upper Egypt and, by a second route, moved across the Arabian Sea into the Gulf of Aden, into the Red Sea, across lower Egypt into the Nile Valley. The Indic peoples' offensive is two-pronged: one overland from Sumer, the other straight from India itself with a stopover in southwestern Arabia. (120)

Now the culture-bringers who came to Egypt from the east were seemingly sea-people. They came in the fifth and fourth millennia. They were sun-worshippers from India. When Menes founded the first dynasty of united Egypt, 3000 BC, kingship in Egypt was already 1900 years old, Massoulard says, placing its commencement four hundred years before Diodorus. (135)

Indus Valley

 Boosted by the great agricultural productivity of this area and its easy riverine transport, these village-farming adaptations were subsequently transformed into an urban civilization. (48)

I discovered the Jesuit scholar H. Heras' Studies in Proto-Indo-Mediterranean Culture, and the worldwide importance of the Nagas as cultural movers, innovators, creators became clear to me. ...according to Heras, [they] had moved across the globe in prehistoric times influencing and shaping cultures that in turn had later influenced the New World in a kind of two-stage, two-step influence-pattern. Heras' book is basically a study of the influence of Dravidian culture on the West. We are back to 3000-5000 BC. The Greeks have not yet appeared. We are so far back that we are forced to conceive of the Dravidians at this time as a kind of proto-Indo-Mediterranean race, the essential, bottom stratum of Indo-Mediterranean culture, which is still in the process of acquiring its identity and creating its cultural forms. This proto-Indo-Mediterranean race migrates out of India (the Indus Valley) westward across the Arabian Sea into the Persian Gulf where, at the end of the Gulf in the Mesopotamian area between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, it establishes Sumer. This is one key proto-Indo-Mediterranean migration route. (120)

The second key proto-Indo-Mediterranean migration route was from Mesopotamia (stage 1) into predynastic Egypt (stage 2). We are talking about 4500 BC. The Dravidians came overland from Mesopotamia through Syria and by way of the Mediterranean into upper Egypt and, by a second route, moved across the Arabian Sea into the Gulf of Aden, into the Red Sea, across lower Egypt into the Nile Valley. The Indic peoples' offensive is two-pronged: one overland from Sumer, the other straight from India itself with a stopover in southwestern Arabia. (120)

There is an unbroken archaeological continuum between Mehrgarh I A around 7000 BC and the upsurge of Mohenjodaro and Harappa as great cities after 3000 BC. For some reason the rate of growth and development became particularly rapid between 2600 and 2500 BC - the mature phase of incredibly vigorous urban expansion - but you can see the roots even of this phase in many small and large details more than 4000 years older exposed in the excavations of the first habitation layers at Mehrgarh. (124)

In a major marine archaeological discovery, Indian scientists have come up with excellent geometric objects below the sea-bed in the western coast similar to Harapppan-like ruins. 'This is the first time such sites have been reported in the Gulf of Cambay,' Science and Technology Minister Murli Manohar Joshi told reporters. The discovery was made a few weeks ago when multi-disciplinary underwater surveys carried out by the National Institute of Ocean Technology (NIOT) picked up images of 'excellent geometrical objects', which were normally man-made, in a 9-kilometre stretch west of Hazira in Gujerat. 'It is important to note that the underwater marine structures discovered in Gulf of Cambay have similarity with the structures found on land on archaeological sites of Harappan and pre-Harappan times,' Joshi said. The acoustic [sonar] images showed the area lined with well-laid house basements, like features partially covered by sand waves and sand ripples at 30-40 metre water depth. At many places channel-like features were also seen indicating the possible existence of possible drainage in the area, he said. Possible age of the finds can be anywhere between 4000 and 6000 years, Joshi said, adding the site might have got submerged due to a powerful earthquake. (125)

What Joshi could not have known without studying inundation maps first is that earthquakes or not (and admittedly this part of India does suffer from severe earthquakes) no site anywhere in the Gulf of Cambay could possibly have been above water as recently as 4000 years ago - although 6000 years ago is getting closer. As we have seen, the Gulf of Cambay remained a valley until it was completely flooded by rising sea-levels at some point between 7700 years ago and 6900 years ago. A city 9 kilometres in extent and more than 3000 years older than Harappa and Mohenjodaro would rewrite not only the history of the Indian subcontinent but of the world. (124)

China

 

Europe

 Until about the seventh millennium BC, "Barbarian Europe"--the great forests, grasslands, and mountain ranges beyond the Aegean Sea and extending north to Britain, Scandinavia, and Russia, was inhabited only by hunters, and foragers. In succeeding millennia, Europeans developed complex forms of subsistence and adaptation, and a rich cultural repertoire of technology and social systems, but throughout prehistory and well into the early centuries of the first millennium AD, European cultures were not the equal of those of Egypt, Mesopotamia, China, and other areas in most of the characteristics of cultural "complexity". (50)

South America

 The first formative area in America was seemingly Bolivia and Peru; the period was the Copper Age. In the fourth millennium certainly, but probably as early as the fifth or sixth, prospectors sought to meet the needs of the Fertile Crescent. The cause of the contact between these two distant parts of the world was the need for copper, silver and gold, and later, tin. High up in the Sierra, among the peaks of the Andes rising to 25,000 feet, a mining city comparable with Kimberley and Johannesburg in modern Africa, was developed by varying groups of white men some 5,000 years ago in South America. Behind Peru and Bolivia were the creative energy of the Semitic sea-people, the Aryans and the Sumerians, their astronomical, mathematical, and navigational skills, their knowledge of irrigation farming, their proclivity for terraced agriculture. From this local centre of civilisation they traded with and travelled throughout the Americas. In this centre the peculiar form of Amerindian civilisation was developed that spread north to Central America, the Peruvians themselves, as well as the Sumerians and Cretans, taking it to Mexico and Yucatan. (135)

Mesoamerica

 

North America

 Indeed a Sumerian inscription has been found in Utah and examples of early Mediterranean writing even farther north. This we use to support the statement that the American continent had been prospected for minerals almost from top to toe, which is supported by the astonishingly early date for copper-mining on Lake Superior of 5000 BC. And the American-Indians themselves retain lively traditions of these white culture-heroes. (135)

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