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Governance                  4,000 BC
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The Indo-Sumerian god-kings, greatest of men, sent out waves of cultural change. It is likely that all irrigation farming had one source, and the source was with them. It is the nature of metal-mining to enjoy large margins of profit. But much of this profit has to be returned in prospecting expenses for new deposits. Prospecting parties from India and Mesopotamia must literally have ransacked the world to find the supplies of needed metal, eventually circling the globe in the fourth and third millennia BC. Their intensive study of astronomy, which was so vital as to occupy their temples along with the gods, was at least as important to navigation as to farming. Indo-Sumerians sailed all the seas of the world. Dolmens and stepped temples mark the permanent camps of their prospecting parties. They knew the geography of the world, that the shape of the world was a sphere, they knew of the tropics and the equator. (135)

We have found that these mining groups and the settlements arising from them carried Indus Valley, Middle East and Egyptian civilisation around the world. So that today the parts of the globe which are Christian and Moslem somewhat coincide with the areas these men influenced. For Islam, and Christianity have not so much been the carriers of this civilisation but the seals imposed upon those countries which the culture of the sky-worshippers had previously appropriated, Islam and Christianity are rooted in the religious notions of the Middle East, back to the original heaven worship many times reformed. (135)

The tradition continues with European kings, for kingship seems to have been an institution specifically created by sun-worshippers, where everything is still conceded to royal blood, rather than to nationality; as if these special families were in very fact different from ordinary men, as, six thousand years ago, had been almost true. In the days of Cortes and Pizarro, Spanish ships did not carry the picture of Christ crucified or the letters INRI or even the cross of Christ, they carried painted almost the height and breadth of their sails, blood-red, the Maltese cross, the great sun-symbol with which in the fourth millennium the gentle culture-heroes had first arrived in America. Small wonder Montezuma was confused. (135)

But it came to be felt that Nature and the soil was not the final authority, since Nature herself was governed by the seasons and the seasons were governed by the sun and the moon. This encouraged the ardent study of astronomy, the calendar and mathematics and permitted the males to recover their position in society around the worship of the sky, commencing, say, around 4500 BC. They developed the political system of monarchy with a king being god incarnate upon earth. These sky-worshipping and later, sun-worshipping god-kings took with them as they travelled by sea from one country to another, a reformed religion, metallurgy, political institutions of the disciplined centralised state, the caste system, zeal. (135)

Africa

The

Southwest Asia

 The Tell as-Sawwan burials do not seem to reflect inherited status and wealth.

These people were the first to establish a productive economy on the basis of a traditional Mesopotamian farming strategy, based on cereals (in this case, barley) and various vegetable and fruits (particularly dates) in combination with the milk and meat of cattle, sheep, and goats. Living in communities that ranged in size from fewer than fifty to a few thousand, the Ubaid peoples did small-time irrigation of crops, traded for a few products, and in general were able to produce the base materials out of which the alchemy of cultures produces civilization, namely economic surpluses.

A major temple dating to after 4000 B.C. at Uruk was found to haw been built on the exact same site as a temple of the 'Ubaid period, indicating a great continuity of religious traditions.

But by 4500 B.C. some signs of cultural changes toward cultural complexity appeared in a large region of the lower alluvial plain, in the foothills of the Zagros and in some of the larger valleys of the Zagros. Henry Wright notes that in these areas "There were large centers with populations of 1,000 to 3,000, which dominated networks of smaller settlements. Excavation on some of these larger centers revealed central platforms, supporting ritual buildings, segregated elite residences with large storage structures, and indications of socially segregated cemeteries.

In sharp contrast to the pervasive smaller villages of the [earlier] periods, Choga Mish on the Susiana Plain covered an area of some fifteen hectares by 4300 B.C. Most architecture consisted of residences and associated ceramic kilns. The community also contained at least one monumental building, perhaps more. This ten-by-fifteen-meter structure had walls of between one and two meters thick and contained several interior rooms. One of these was stacked with storage jars, while another was apparently used in working flint. A substantial mud-brick platform stood nearby. This period in Susiana and elsewhere saw the introduction of formalized closure of containers using clay sealings that carried the impression of a decorated seal. This practice is ordinarily associate with problems of security in materials storage or shipment.

Virtually every 'Ubaid settlement had a large nonresidential building, probably a temple, built of mud brick on platforms of clay or imported stone. Access typically was by a flight of stairs, to a room about ten meters in length, with a broad platform at one end and a table or small altar at the other.

Until about 5000 BC, settlements seem to have been located primarily with regard to the availability of resources and the land's agricultural potential, not on the basis of political or economic relationships. By 4000 BC, the number of small settlements had increased dramatically in many areas, and there was increasing variability in their arrangement and composition. (46)

The Uruk period is regarded as the era of primary state formation in Southwest Asia. Cultural forces and processes probably in operation for thousands of years culminated in this interval in the appearance of the complete checklist of civilization: cities, warfare, writing, social hierarchies, advanced arts and crafts, and other elements.

As many as 10,000 people may have lived in the city of Uruk by 3800 BC, and around the town were many smaller villages and towns whose sizes and distribution suggest they may not have been tightly integrated into Uruk's political and economic systems. Then, at about 3000 BC, the city of Uruk apparently grew rapidly to about 50,000 people, who lived behind substantial defensive walls. There is also evidence of widespread simultaneous abandonment of almost all the rural settlements surrounding Uruk--leaving little doubt...that the growth of the city was a result of the immigration or forcible transference of the population from the hinterlands into the city.

Archaeologists who have excavated Uruk settlements usually have found themselves ankle deep in the remains of millions of bevel-rimmed bowls, surely one of the ugliest ceramic types ever made outside a kindergarten, but also one of the most significant. Gregory Johnson has shown that various measurements of these bowls change over time, so that the Late, Middle, and Early Uruk periods can be defined in part by changes in their form. These bowls were mass produced, probably by simply molding, and they represent one of the first craft items for which the government organized some aspects of the production and distribution system. But these simple features of mass production and perhaps, government administration of commodity production an distribution were fateful steps in the evolution of states.

Urbanism does not just increase the size of communities, however: a key element of Mesopotamian urbanism was that proportionately greater numbers of people lived in larger settlements, and the people in these settlements became increasingly specialized in their occupations. All of these people--kings, priests, scribes, farmers, soldiers, slaves, etc.--became functionally integrated in the sense that they all depended on each other to perpetuate the community, and all derived benefits from the greater efficiency of functional differentiation an integration. Toward the end of the 'Ubaid period, almost all major settlements were fortified, and documents written much later, at about 2600 BC, speak at length of conflict between the people of Ur, Uruk, Umma, and the other city states.

Adams argues that early Mesopotamian urbanization may have been imposed on a rural populace by a small, politically conscious superstratum that was motivated principally by military and economic interests. Because of defensive considerations and the cost of transporting labor and products, agricultural land nearest the urban areas would have been most intensively exploited, and this may have stimulated the construction of large irrigation systems.

In addition to suggesting that the ancient Mesopotamian state can be defined as a society with at least three levels of specialized administrators, Wright and Johnson contend that the effectiveness of such societies and their dominance over other societal forms are tied to their ability to store and process information and make correct decisions at specific points with the control hierarchy.

In most of Mesopotamia at this time, the administration of people and goods was facilitated by using pieces of inscribed stone to impress clay with signs of authorization. These stones were usually in the form of stamps, used like the rubber stamps of today, or cylinders that were rolled across the clay to make an impression, and they varied in size and in the complexity of the symbols incised on them. The impressed clay can be divided into two classes. Commodity sealings were used to certify the contents of a container such as a vessel, basket, bale, or storeroom. Other seals are termed message sealings and convey or store facts about goods or people. Writing, as we know it, did not exist until after the state--as defined by Wright and Johnson--emerged, but these stamps and seals obviously conveyed a great deal of information.

Wright and Johnson also analyzed the locational arrangement of the settlements in southwestern Iran and found that after about 3600 BC there were trends toward more regular spacing of settlements and the emergence of distinctive site size groupings--both consistent with the change from a two-level to a three-level control hierarchy. This pattern of developing settlement arrangements, which correlate with changes in the technology of administration, is apparently not unique to southwestern Iran.

The transition seems to occur in several adjacent regions in Iraq between [2700 BC and 3250 BC] around the ancient centers of Nippur, Nineveh, and Uruk .... Thus rather than one case of state emergence, there was a series of emergences of individual states in a network of politics.

Potters, using molds and mass-production techniques, turned out enormous quantities of pottery. In earlier periods great numbers of beautifully painted vessels were made at most larger settlements, but by the middle and late fourth millennium, pottery manufacture had become a centralized administered activity at Uruk and many other settlements. Other specialists included stonecutters, metal smiths, bricklayers, farmers, fishermen, shepherds, and sailors. Writing did not come into general use in Mesopotamia until the first half of the third millennium BC, but at Uruk and other sites, in levels dating from the fifth millenium onward, archaeologists frequently find stamp and cylinder seals which were used to impress clay sealings for containers, bales of commodities, and documents. Some of these seals convey in picture form the economic specialization of the community. Boats, domestic animals, grain, deities, and many other motifs are portrayed.

By the late fourth millennium BC, Uruk was already an impressive settlement of perhaps 10,000 people and several large temples. Between about 3200 and 3100 BC, the "White Temple" at Uruk was built on a ziggurat (a stepped tower of successively receding stories) some twelve meters above ground level. Constructed of whitewashed mud brick and decorated with elaborate recesses, columns, and buttresses, it must have been an impressive sight-especially to peasants coming into the city on market days. Inside the temple were tables and altars, all arranged according to the same ritual pan evident at Eridu some 2,500 years earlier. (46)

One of the less desirable "firsts" of Sumerian civilization was probably in the field of epidemic diseases. Just as there are certain disastrous things a hunter and gatherer can do (e.g., to presume on too slight evidence that a cave bear is not at home), one of the worst things a villager can do is contaminate drinking water with sewage, and this is hard to avoid in a primitive town. Typhoid, cholera, and many other diseases require certain levels of population density to evolve, to maintain a reservoir of infected individuals, and to perpetuate themselves.

Few economies in history or prehistory have been as organize as the Sumerian. Tablet after tablet records endless lists of commodities produced, stored, and allotted. Ration lists, work forces, guild members--all are recorded in numbing detail. Even the city's snake-charmers were organized.

Although Sumerian society was organized on the basis of kinship, people also belonged to and acted through occupational an social classes. In the event of war, for example, members of different "guilds," such as silversmiths or potters, would be under the command of their "guild president.'

At the pinnacle of Sumerian society was a god-king, assumed to be a descendant of the gods who was also in contact with the gods. Beneath him was a leisure class of nobles. There was also a leisure class of businessmen who lived in the larger, better houses of the city; of lesser wealth and prestige were the many artisans and farmers, including smiths, leather-workers, fishermen, bricklayers, weavers, and potters. Scribes apparently held fairly important positions, and literacy was an admired accomplishment. At the bottom society were the slaves, often war captives or dispossessed farmers.

Money, as we know it, did not exist in ancient Sumer; most exchange was "in kind," the trading of products for other products. Local and long-distance trade was voluminous, however, and ships sailed up the rivers from the gulf carrying shell, carnelian, lapis lazuli, silver, gold, onyx, alabaster, textiles, and food and other produce.

All together some sixteen "royal" burials were found at Ur, all of them distinguished from the myriad common graves by the fact that each was not merely a coffin but rather a structure of stone, or stone and mud brick, and by the inclusion of human sacrifices--up to eighty in one case. At least three categories of burials seemed evident, ranging from the sixteen royal graves to less elaborate but still richly furnished graves in which the common people were presumably placed. (46)

C. Leonard Wooley began excavations in southern Mesopotamia in 1922. Over the course of 12 seasons he unearthed the remains of another biblical city, Ur of the Chaldees, the birthplace of Abraham, and retrieved clay cylinders written in cuneiform. Scholars soon realized they were the originals that the Akkadian and Babylonian scribes had studied and copied. It was now clear that the "plain of Shinar" from which the Bible tells us "the men set about to erect a tower reaching to heaven" was Mesopotamia. (68)

Before the Sumerians there were no bakers, harpists, carpenters, metalsmiths, jewelers, artists, engineers, mathematicians, bureaucrats, or scribes. All these innovations appeared for the first time in their cities between 3700 BC and 3000 BC. In addition to irrigation, agriculture, kilns, and writing, they also invented the wheel, the chariot, bronze, sailboats, mathematics, the harp, astrology, schools, and the idea of trades and professions. In short, they invented nearly the entire foundation of all future civilizations-all in one fell swoop. (68)

Civilization after the Sumerians was based on five basic components: agriculture, cities, metallurgy, specialization, and social stratification. The Sumerians must have possessed some very special genes because they seem to have come out of nowhere to perform miracles--at least on technological matters--when compared with their contemporaries and the sum total of human prehistory. But the real problem surrounding all of these impressive accomplishments, so radically advanced in relation to the circumstances of the rest of Earth’s population at that time, is that there is no traceable, step-by-step path leading to them from the hunter-gatherer way of life. (68)

No human culture appears to claim the invention of kingship. The Bible and Sumerian king lists record that ten demigods, from Adam to Noah, reigned until the Cataclysm. Then after the Flood (as the Cataclysm of 11,500 BC was known in West Asia), kingship by demigods resumed in the city of Kish. According to Sumerian texts, the demigods ruled until 3760 BC, when a meeting of the senior gods took the decision to grant kingship to mankind. At that time, according to both Sumerian and biblical sources, Nimrod was anointed to the throne of Kish by the Anunnaki Ninurta. (113)

Babylon must have been in existence in the fifth or fourth millennium before Christ, and it must have been an important commercial centre even in the time when Kish, which lay eight miles to the east of it, flourished under the rule of its great Sumerian kings. (118)

The second key proto-Indo-Mediterranean migration route was from Mesopotamia (stage 1) into predynastic Egypt (stage 2). We are talking about 4500 BC. The Dravidians came overland from Mesopotamia through Syria and by way of the Mediterranean into upper Egypt and, by a second route, moved across the Arabian Sea into the Gulf of Aden, into the Red Sea, across lower Egypt into the Nile Valley. The Indic peoples' offensive is two-pronged: one overland from Sumer, the other straight from India itself with a stopover in southwestern Arabia. (120)

The new relationship between men and gods was formulated, sanctified, and codified when Mankind was granted its first high civilization, in Mesopotamia, circa 3800 BC. The momentous event followed a state visit to Earth by Anu, not just Nibiru's ruler but also as the head of the pantheon, on Earth, of the ancient gods. Another (and probably the main) reason for his visit was the establishment and affirmation of peace among the gods themselves--a live-and-let-live arrangement dividing the lands of the Old World among the two principle Anunnaki clans, that of Enlil and that of Enki...According to Sumerian texts, the Anunnaki established Kingship--civilization and its institutions, as most clearly exemplified in Mesopotamia--as a new order in their relationships with Mankind, with kings/priests serving both as a link and a separator between gods and men. But as one looks back on that seemingly "golden age" in the affairs of gods and men, it becomes evident that the affairs of the gods constantly dominated and determined the affairs of Men and the fate of Mankind.(137)

Farther south, the archaeologists found Eridu--the first Sumerian city, according to ancient texts. As the excavators dug deeper, they came upon a temple dedicated to Enki, Sumer's God of Knowledge, which appeared to have been built and rebuilt many times over. The strata clearly led the scholars back to the beginnings of Sumerian civilization; 2500 BC, 2800 BC, 3000 BC, 3500 BC. Then the spades came upon the foundations of the first temple dedicated to Enki. Below that, there was virgin soil--nothing had been built before. The time was circa 3800 BC. That is when civilization began. It was not only the first civilization in the true sense of the term. It was a most extensive civilization, all-encompassing, in many ways more advanced than the other ancient cultures that had followed it. It was undoubtedly the civilization on which our own is based. Joseph Campbell (The Masks of God) summed it up in this way: "With stunning abruptness...there appears in this little Sumerian mud garden...the whole cultural syndrome that has since constituted the germinal unit of all the high civilizations of the world." (146)

c. 5000-4000 BC The 'Ubaid culture come down off the Zagros mountains of Iraq and Iran to establish themselves at various sites in Upper and Lower Iraq. They inherit the serpentine art of the Jarmo people and, like the Watchers, their totems include the goat, the serpent and the vulture. (149)

c. 4000-3000 BC The gradual emergence of city-states on the Mesopotamian plains, perhaps under the influence of the Anannage, the Sumero-Akkadian name given to the Watchers. (149)

With the large and complex settlements of the Ubaid as a base, after 6000 B.P., dramatic changes occurred in southern Mesopotamia, and a number of communities became much larger. Between 5500 and 5200 B.P., the settlement at Uruk (also called Warka) became so large, with a population estimated to be more than 10,000, that we can reasonably call it a city - in fact, the world's first. (170)

Egypt

But by 4000 BC agriculture had spread over much of Egypt, including the southern areas that had taken a few tentative steps toward agriculture in the late Pleistocene. Some people still depended on fish and wild plants for much of their food, while others were already heavily dependent on the wheat-barley, sheep-goat-cattle-pig combination that underlies so much of Middle Eastern cultural evolution. (47)

Around 4000 BC, city-states may have developed at Naqada, Hierakonopolis, Gebelein, and Abydos. Archaeologists label this period Gerzean or Naqada II. (70)

The second key proto-Indo-Mediterranean migration route was from Mesopotamia (stage 1) into predynastic Egypt (stage 2). We are talking about 4500 BC. The Dravidians came overland from Mesopotamia through Syria and by way of the Mediterranean into upper Egypt and, by a second route, moved across the Arabian Sea into the Gulf of Aden, into the Red Sea, across lower Egypt into the Nile Valley. The Indic peoples' offensive is two-pronged: one overland from Sumer, the other straight from India itself with a stopover in southwestern Arabia. (120)

Diodorus Siculus suggests that the Egyptians used the word year of a lunar cycle or a month. He later says that the god-kings and heroes ruled Egypt for 18,000 years before Menes, which is approximately 1370 of our years. Since Menes, the first king of the first dynasty reigned about 3000 BC, it suggests that the professional god-kings ruled parts of Egypt about 4370 to 3000 BC. Diodorus says that later Egyptian kings were mortals. For he follows the distinction of the period in calling a mere Sumerian conqueror a mortal, while the professional god-kings were gods and always called such. Neither ancient history nor the book of Genesis can be understood until the terminology of the period is cottoned on to. (135)

Now the culture-bringers who came to Egypt from the east were seemingly sea-people. They came in the fifth and fourth millennia. They were sun-worshippers from India. When Menes founded the first dynasty of united Egypt, 3000 BC, kingship in Egypt was already 1900 years old, Massoulard says, placing its commencement four hundred years before Diodorus. (135)

Indus Valley

 I discovered the Jesuit scholar H. Heras' Studies in Proto-Indo-Mediterranean Culture, and the worldwide importance of the Nagas as cultural movers, innovators, creators became clear to me. ...according to Heras, [they] had moved across the globe in prehistoric times influencing and shaping cultures that in turn had later influenced the New World in a kind of two-stage, two-step influence-pattern. Heras' book is basically a study of the influence of Dravidian culture on the West. We are back to 3000-5000 BC. The Greeks have not yet appeared. We are so far back that we are forced to conceive of the Dravidians at this time as a kind of proto-Indo-Mediterranean race, the essential, bottom stratum of Indo-Mediterranean culture, which is still in the process of acquiring its identity and creating its cultural forms. This proto-Indo-Mediterranean race migrates out of India (the Indus Valley) westward across the Arabian Sea into the Persian Gulf where, at the end of the Gulf in the Mesopotamian area between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, it establishes Sumer. This is one key proto-Indo-Mediterranean migration route. (120)

The second key proto-Indo-Mediterranean migration route was from Mesopotamia (stage 1) into predynastic Egypt (stage 2). We are talking about 4500 BC. The Dravidians came overland from Mesopotamia through Syria and by way of the Mediterranean into upper Egypt and, by a second route, moved across the Arabian Sea into the Gulf of Aden, into the Red Sea, across lower Egypt into the Nile Valley. The Indic peoples' offensive is two-pronged: one overland from Sumer, the other straight from India itself with a stopover in southwestern Arabia. (120)

There is an unbroken archaeological continuum between Mehrgarh I A around 7000 BC and the upsurge of Mohenjodaro and Harappa as great cities after 3000 BC. For some reason the rate of growth and development became particularly rapid between 2600 and 2500 BC - the mature phase of incredibly vigorous urban expansion - but you can see the roots even of this phase in many small and large details more than 4000 years older exposed in the excavations of the first habitation layers at Mehrgarh. (124)

...this is what the discoveries at Harappa and Mohenjo-daro have now placed beyond question. They exhibit the Indus peoples of the fourth and third millennia BC, in possession of a highly developed culture in which no vestige of Indo-Aryan influence is to be found. Like the rest of Western Asia, the Indus country is still in the Chalcolithic Age - that age in which arms and utensils of stone continue to be used side by side with those of copper or bronze. Their society is organised in cities; their wealth derived mainly from agriculture and trade, which appears to have extended far and wide in all directions. They cultivate wheat and barley as well as the date palm. They have domesticated the humped zebu, buffalo, and short-horned bull, besides the sheep, pig, dog, elephant, and camel; but the cat and probably the horse are unknown to them. For transport they had wheeled vehicles, to which oxen doubtless were yoked. They are skilful metal workers, with a plentiful supply of gold, silver, and copper. Lead, too, and tin are in use, but the latter only as an alloy in the making of bronze. With spinning and weaving they are thoroughly conversant. Their weapons of war and of the chase are the bow and arrow, spear and axe, dagger and mace. The sword they have not yet evolved; nor is there any evidence of defensive body armour. Among their other implements, hatchets, sickles, saws, chisels and razors are made of both copper and bronze; knives and celts sometimes of these metals, sometimes of chert or other hard stones. For the crushing of grain they have the muller and saddle-quem but not the circular grindstone. Their domestic vessels are commonly of earthenware turned on the wheel and not infrequently painted with encaustic designs; more rarely they are of copper, bronze, or silver. The ornaments of the rich are made of the precious metals or of copper, sometimes overlaid with gold, of faience, ivory, carnelian, and other stones; for the poor they are usually of shell or terra-cotta. Figurines and toys, for which there is a wide vogue, are of terra-cotta, and shell and faience are freely used, as they are in Sumer and the West generally, not only for personal use of ornaments but for inlay work and other purposes. (135)

One thing that stands out clear and unmistakable both at Mohenjo-daro and Harappa, is that the civilisation, hitherto revealed at these two places is not an incipient civilisation, but one already age-old and stereotyped on Indian soil, with many millennia of human endeavour behind it. Its history, within the limits of our archaeology, stretched from about 3250 BC. But the lowest levels of the cities have not been excavated since they are now below the water-table. K. N. Sastri, ...therefore reasonably places its beginnings very much earlier and puts forward the opinion that the Sumerians for much of the time formed the ruling class. Certainly, from an examination of skeletons, it seems that the upper classes were Mediterranean man, the lower classes Australoid, with a number of Chinese and Mongol visitors. Sastri gives a number of reasons for saying that the ruling class was Sumerian. He shows Indus seals of bull-fighting as in Crete. He shows the similarity of the tree legend, the tree of knowledge of the book of Genesis, found both in Sumer and India. The botanic name is ficus religiosa; it is the pipal or bo-tree, beneath which Buddha achieved enlightenment. (135)

Finally the facial features of early Sumerians and those from Mohenjo-daro exhibit many similarities, including style of beard, shaved upper lip and knot of hair at the back. The Sumerian legend relates, according to the historian Berosus, that civilisation came to them from the east out of the Persian Gulf and that they first peopled the southern part of Mesopotamia with Eridu, the oldest Sumerian city, as their capital. (135)

China

 Based on an analysis of pig skulls in burials at several Neolithic sites, Seung-Og Kim has argued that pigs were used as important status and wealth markers. Pigs were supremely adapted to Neolithic Chinese agriculture. Kim found that the Chinese Neolithic graves with the most wealth in the form of ivory and jade ornaments, pottery, and other goods also, on average, had more pig skulls and carved pig tusks in them. Kim argues that between about 4000 and 2000 BC the elites in many Chinese communities used pigs as "concentratable and productive internal wealth in order to establish political authority." (49)

Europe

 Until about the seventh millennium BC, "Barbarian Europe"--the great forests, grasslands, and mountain ranges beyond the Aegean Sea and extending north to Britain, Scandinavia, and Russia, was inhabited only by hunters, and foragers. In succeeding millennia, Europeans developed complex forms of subsistence and adaptation, and a rich cultural repertoire of technology and social systems, but throughout prehistory and well into the early centuries of the first millennium AD, European cultures were not the equal of those of Egypt, Mesopotamia, China, and other areas in most of the characteristics of cultural "complexity". (50)

The Indians who came to Egypt entered first from the Indian Ocean through Somalia, making their first Nilotic base in upper Egypt. The delta for a time was one of the centres for Phoenicians. It is not therefore necessarily chance that the name for the great megalithic monument in Britany dated from 3800 BC bears the same name as the great temple in upper Egypt, Karnak. The size and scale of the Brittany alignments suggests the political vision of a Napoleon or a Hitler. (135)

3930 BC Bank at Maes Howe established (160)

South America

 The first formative area in America was seemingly Bolivia and Peru; the period was the Copper Age. In the fourth millennium certainly, but probably as early as the fifth or sixth, prospectors sought to meet the needs of the Fertile Crescent. The cause of the contact between these two distant parts of the world was the need for copper, silver and gold, and later, tin. High up in the Sierra, among the peaks of the Andes rising to 25,000 feet, a mining city comparable with Kimberley and Johannesburg in modern Africa, was developed by varying groups of white men some 5,000 years ago in South America. Behind Peru and Bolivia were the creative energy of the Semitic sea-people, the Aryans and the Sumerians, their astronomical, mathematical, and navigational skills, their knowledge of irrigation farming, their proclivity for terraced agriculture. From this local centre of civilisation they traded with and travelled throughout the Americas. In this centre the peculiar form of Amerindian civilisation was developed that spread north to Central America, the Peruvians themselves, as well as the Sumerians and Cretans, taking it to Mexico and Yucatan. (135)

While many other contacts, more or less superficial, flowed from the Old world across the Pacific: Chinese, south-east Asian, Indian and Polynesian; and also across the Atlantic: Roman, Jewish, Welsh and Scandinavian, there were three main periods of intensive colonisation, all of which crossed the Atlantic, and which transformed the cultural prehistory of America. The first and by far the most significant was its prospecting and colonising early in the fourth millennium by Asian Indians, in this case seemingly both Aryan and Semitic sailors working out of India. Following them, its subsequent colonisation by the god-kings of Summer and Akkad was directed by a similar theocracy. A colony was founded, on the island of the sun in Lake Titicaca in Bolivia, from there spread a civilising and religious influence which left indelible marks upon Chile and the Amazon basin, and expanded into the southern states of North America. This Indo-Sumerian culture of sky-worshippers, which followed the still earlier prospecting of America by earth-worshippers, placed a stamp upon Amencan religious and civil architecture which was never forgotten and will affect it for ever. (135)

Mesoamerica

 

North America

 While many other contacts, more or less superficial, flowed from the Old world across the Pacific: Chinese, south-east Asian, Indian and Polynesian; and also across the Atlantic: Roman, Jewish, Welsh and Scandinavian, there were three main periods of intensive colonisation, all of which crossed the Atlantic, and which transformed the cultural prehistory of America. The first and by far the most significant was its prospecting and colonising early in the fourth millennium by Asian Indians, in this case seemingly both Aryan and Semitic sailors working out of India. Following them, its subsequent colonisation by the god-kings of Summer and Akkad was directed by a similar theocracy. A colony was founded, on the island of the sun in Lake Titicaca in Bolivia, from there spread a civilising and religious influence which left indelible marks upon Chile and the Amazon basin, and expanded into the southern states of North America. This Indo-Sumerian culture of sky-worshippers, which followed the still earlier prospecting of America by earth-worshippers, placed a stamp upon Amencan religious and civil architecture which was never forgotten and will affect it for ever. (135)

Other

 The same story of pressure on resources emerges from analysis of rock art in northern Australia. This tells a tale of continuing collective violence, which develops from individual and small group conflicts around 10 kya to larger group confrontations from about 6 kya. This covers a period of ecological crisis when the rising sea flooded the rich plains between Australia and New Guinea. (145)