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Governance                  10,000 BC
Africa
Southwest Asia
Egypt
Indus Valley
China
Europe
South America
Mesoamerica
North America
Other

Africa

The archaeological record shows that a single culture, the Iberomaurusian, occupied the Maghreb region of North Africa from around 18/16,000 to 8,000 BC, during which time similar assemblages were to be found as far east as the Haua Fteah cave on the Cyrenaican coast. Not quite up to Egypt, but the proximity of Iberomaurusian deposits to the present coastline has suggested to investigators that many sites may have been drowned in the postglacial seas. (115)

Southwest Asia

 A leading Near Eastern prehistorian has recently summarized the present state of our knowledge with regard to the sudden increase in the size of Palestinian settlements during the tenth millennium BC: The jump in settlement size was accompanied by a "virtual explosion" of arts, crafts, and technologies that were heretofore unknown to the local peoples of Palestine. Some of these innovations were in fact new to the archaeological record of known sites anywhere in the world. (115)

If such incidents were indeed connected to prewar Atlantic transgression, one might see tenth millennium Palestine as a refuge, a haven for threatened or otherwise disaffected peoples from all around the Mediterranean. Not only southeast Europeans (Ain Mallaha?), but perhaps dissidents from Atlantic colonies in western Europe (harpoons) and North Africa (tooth-knocking) may have sought safety in the east. What has been termed "the Natufian culture" might then more realistically be defined as the result of the mutual encounter of these groups of immigrants with one another, and with the traditions of the native Kebaran population of Palestine. (115)

Egypt

 Of some 59 burials at this Nubian cemetery, Wendorf found that almost half of the deceased had died violently, the first collection of traumatic deaths known to Africa and perhaps to the Mediterranean world. The crude flints found with these skeletal remains were not, he assures us, grave offerings. Some were still embedded in the bones of the dead, others were found along the vertebral column, chest cavity, and lower abdomen. In Wendorf's opinion, "the ferocity in the deaths of many of these individuals indicates that the situation was more serious than that which leads to the occasional friction between neighboring groups." The date of the Djebel Sahaba burials is uncertain. Wendorf has suggested a time between 12,000 and 10,000 BC "or slightly later"; the Qadan culture itself is now believed to have disappeared around 9000 BC. We are in any case close enough in time to the Timaeus war to suspect some sort of connection between these signs of what Wendorf saw as political unrest along the Nile and the prewar Atlantic transgressions that angered Zeus at the end of the Critias. (115)

As for human activities, the early decline in rainfall in the eastern Sahara may have led to the oldest-known astronomical alignment of megaliths in the world. Consisting of a set of huge stone slabs in the desert of southern Egypt, known as Nabta, it forms a stone circle, a series of flat, tomb-like stone structures and five lines of standing and toppled megaliths, and is dated at around 6.5 to 6 kya. To judge from carbon dating of charcoal and ostrich shells, occupation may have started as early as 12 kya. Initially the settlements at Nabta were small seasonal camps of cattle-herding and ceramic-using people. These cattle are regarded as the first example of the African pattern of herding. The site was intensively exploited by around 9 kya. This included the digging of walk-in wells that suggest the site could have been occupied throughout the year. Other Nabta features, which subsequently appear suddenly and without evident local antecedents in the late Predynastic and early Old Kingdom in the Nile Valley, are the role of cattle to express differences of wealth, power and authority, the emphasis on cattle in religious beliefs, and the use of astronomical knowledge and devices to predict solar events. Nomads used the area until about 5.6 kya, at which time it became hyperarid and uninhabitable. (145)

Egypt's elder culture would appear to have possessed a high state of civilization as early as 10,500 BC. The achievements of these people included the construction of vast cyclopean structures such as the Valley Temple and Osireion, the carving of the Great Sphinx to mark the precessional age of Leo, as well as an intimate knowledge of cosmic time-cycles perhaps spanning tens of thousands of years. They would also appear to have been a civilized society with an extensive knowledge of agriculture, architecture, astronomy, diplomacy, education, engineering, land irrigation and centralized rule. This is what the evidence suggests - and almost certainly there was much more. (149)

Indus Valley

 

China

 

Europe

 …it does seem curious that after some 20,000 years of apparently tranquil relations among Europe's Homo sapiens sapiens populations, the first known European collections of traumatic deaths should have occurred at a time that promises to intersect the chronology of Plato's war. A conflict involving all those who lived inside the Straits of Gibraltar may well have included Ukrainians, but at this point we are primarily interested in the earlier groups of mixed burials, and the possibility that these deaths by flint point were the result of prewar Atlantic encroachment. (115)

In his own analysis of the Ukrainian hostilities, the excavator of Vasylivka III proposed that the violence revealed in all three cemeteries signified the forcing out of a native Proto-Mediterranean population by incoming Cro-Magnon groups from the north. (The Proto-Mediterranean physical type is smaller, more lightly built, and considerably less well-differentiated sexually than Cro-Magnon man.) His idea of the expulsion of one people by another may in fact be applicable beyond the Ukraine, as "considerable cultural change" is said to have characterized much of central and eastern Europe in this Epi-Paleolithic era. (115)

"9,000 years ago" in the archaeological record of western Europe (9600 BC in uncorrected radiocarbon years), a uniquely gifted Magdalenian culture which for several thousand years had graced Europe as far as Italy with an artistic tradition of uncommon excellence and unity, a devotion to the horse (which they apparently had harnessed), and possibly a system of written communication, was showing the first signs of decay. Magdalenian influence seems to have reached across much of Europe by this time; in the west their expanding population had already begun to show a greater interest in weaponry than art…(115)

…stratographically, the human remains at Ghar Dalam lie contemporaneously with Pleistocene red deer and other extinct fauna in the deer layer. (124)

Anthony Frendo, Head of the Department of Archaeology at the University of Malta, initially concluded that the nitrogen results published in the 1964 Report effectively demolished any possibility that Palaeolithic humans had lived on Malta. But in what amounts to an extraordinary endorsement from the heart of the establishment, Frendo concedes that Mifsud's research has now shown those nitrogen results to have been 'tampered with' and the fluorine and uranium oxide tests suppressed so as to create a false Neolithic chronology for the human teeth from Ghar Dalam: 'This means that early man must have come to the Maltese islands in pre-Neolithic times.' (124)

South America

 The archaeologist Professor Neil Steede, who studied Tiahuanaco for many years, concluded the sacred city was built about 12,000 years ago. And, more surprisingly, so does Dr Oswaldo Rivera, the Director of the Bolivian National Institute of Archaeology, who conducted excavations at Tiahuanaco for twenty-one years. (123)

Mesoamerica

 

North America

 

Other