Envolution around 8,000 BC

Africa

In North Africa, modern man (Homo sapiens sapiens) appeared as Iberomaurusians (an African Cro-Magnon variation) between 19,000 and 10,000 years ago. (Before the Pharaohs

Southwest Asia

Shanidar Cave in the Kurdish mountains of what is now northern Iraq: occupied by Neanderthal man c.50,000 years ago to 46,000 years ago; occupied by anatomically modern Upper Palaeolithic humans around 34,000 years ago; occupied by Mesolithic peoples around 11,000 years ago. (Underworld)

Egypt

Through skeletal and dental comparisons, it is clear that the Cro-Magnon types were the dominant human group in North Africa and the Mediterranean prior to 10,000 BC. Studies from both Egypt and Malta bear this out, and attest to the probability that Mediterranean type slowly mixed with the indigenous population. The Cro-Magnon types began to diminish around 5000 BC. Eventually, the Mediterranean types became the dominant human type in the area. Since, as scholars such as Emery have noted, Cro-Magnon types were some of the earliest pharaohs, it is logical to conclude that they were members of the host culture that occupied the land in Egypt. (Before the Pharaohs

Indus Valley

 

China

 

Europe

Through skeletal and dental comparisons, it is clear that the Cro-Magnon types were the dominant human group in North Africa and the Mediterranean prior to 10,000 BC. Studies from both Egypt and Malta bear this out, and attest to the probability that Mediterranean type slowly mixed with the indigenous population. The Cro-Magnon types began to diminish around 5000 BC. Eventually, the Mediterranean types became the dominant human type in the area. Since, as scholars such as Emery have noted, Cro-Magnon types were some of the earliest pharaohs, it is logical to conclude that they were members of the host culture that occupied the land in Egypt. (Before the Pharaohs

South America

 

Mesoamerica

 

North America

 C. Turner looked at many different features of teeth, including shoveling, and variations in the number of roots of premolars and molars. By comparing large samples of teeth on many different measurements, Turner concluded that: (1) New World groups are more like Asians than like Europeans; (2) all New World groups resemble each other more than they do most Old World populations; (3) dental variation is greater in North America than in South America; (4) there are three "clusters" of New World peoples. It is very difficult, however, to estimate rates of change in these kinds of physical features, and thereby to estimate how long ago the migrations to the Americas began, but Turner's calculations estimate a date of about 12,000 years ago for the initial colonization of the New World, with two much later waves of colonizations.(Patterns in Prehistory)

The Elrama mound revealed skeletons, giving proof that the Mound Builders lived here 10,000 years ago. The late George S. Fisher, Finleyville archaeologist, made excavations at the site and reported that the largest skeleton was seven feet five inches in length. (The Giants Who Ruled America)

In 1984, work finally got under way to drain the pond of its six to ten feet of water in order to gain access to the bones that were found under six feet of peat. All told, the bones of 168 individuals were recovered, ranging in age from infants to adults in excess of sixty years of age. That this was an official cemetery there can be no doubt, as the heads of all the individuals were held down by ritual stakes and the bodies were all laid on their left sides with their heads pointing to the west. The oldest skeletons were found to be in excess of 8,280 years old, and there was evidence of continual use of the burial site for more than one thousand years. Even more incredible was the state of preservation of the skeletons due to being sealed in the acid-neutral peat. In over ninety of the skeletons actual brain matter was preserved. This allowed the scientists the unprecedented opportunity to test the intact skulls with X-rays, computed tomography (CT) scans, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). ... the bodies were buried within twenty-four to forry-eight hours afrer death, based on the DNA and tissue that was examined. DNA testing on the bodies was conducted by Joe Lorenz, and as was the case with the skeletons at Spirit cave in Nevada, the genomes were found to contain Haplogroup X, which is a distinct DNA marker, only found in caucasians of generally northern European origin. (The Giants Who Ruled America)

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