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Evolution                  7,000 BC
Africa
Southwest Asia
Egypt
Indus Valley
China
Europe
South America
Mesoamerica
North America
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The earliest known dog in the archaeological record dates back 14,000 years. But the remains that date to that point in time are few and far between. More dogs have been found buried with humans who died about 12,000 years ago, which indicates that by the end the Ice Age the human-dog relationship was beginning to be established. It was not until 7000 BC to 6000 BC, however, that this relationship was clearly established in the archaeological record. The bones of dogs become common in campsites of the late Neolithic period. (69)

Africa

 

Southwest Asia

 An even larger conundrum lies in the fact that dogs begin to appear in the Neolithic record only when these various kinds of prized dogs--clearly bred--first appear in the records of the seminal civilizations of Sumer and Egypt. Where did the purebreds come from? The dogs in Neolithic graves are certainly not salukis or basenjis. And how did such purebred dogs--so vastly different from a wolf in appearance--come into existence in the span of only several thousand years? (69)

The ancestors of Iranians and Indians (or Indo-Aryans to be more precise) both called themselves aryas, and similarity of many of their traditions has led scholars to conclude that the two were originally a single people, an Indo-Iranian branch of the larger Indo-European family of nations. But scholars today generally believe that the two peoples had already separated before the coming of the prophet, and give the name Old Iranian to the popular religion that he reformed. (115)

Egypt

 An even larger conundrum lies in the fact that dogs begin to appear in the Neolithic record only when these various kinds of prized dogs--clearly bred--first appear in the records of the seminal civilizations of Sumer and Egypt. Where did the purebreds come from? The dogs in Neolithic graves are certainly not salukis or basenjis. And how did such purebred dogs--so vastly different from a wolf in appearance--come into existence in the span of only several thousand years? (69)
Through skeletal and dental comparisons, it is clear that the Cro-Magnon types were the dominant human group in North Africa and the Mediterranean prior to 10,000 BC. Studies from both Egypt and Malta bear this out, and attest to the probability that Mediterranean type slowly mixed with the indigenous population. The Cro-Magnon types began to diminish around 5000 BC. Eventually, the Mediterranean types became the dominant human type in the area. Since, as scholars such as Emery have noted, Cro-Magnon types were some of the earliest pharaohs, it is logical to conclude that they were members of the host culture that occupied the land in Egypt. (70)

Indus Valley

 ...twenty-five miles off the coast of Gujurat, India. The discovery took place in that part of the Arabian Sea known as the Gulf of Cambay. India's National Institute of Ocean Technology (NIOT) turned up some amazing sonar images from the gulf's depths while scanning for pollution levels. Using equipment that penetrates the sea floor, marine experts discovered a pattern of distinct, man-made formations across a five-mile stretch of seabed.

According to reports published worldwide, NIOT's sonar-imaging technology detected what appeared to be the stone pillars and collapsed walls of at least two cities. The site was described as part of an ancient river valley civilization not unlike the River Saraswati of the Rig Veda, thought to be mythical but--according to recent independent findings by Indian scientists--has been proved to have flowed to Gujurat. Divers at the Gulf of Cambay site later retrieved from depths of 120 feet two thousand man-made artifacts, including pottery, jewelry, sculpture, human bones, and evidence of writing, according to The Times of London.

…in January 2002, carbon dating revealed that an artifact from the site was astonishingly ancient, between 8,500 and 9,500 years old (the oldest known civilization in the world by thousands of years. This was a time when, according to orthodox archeological standards, India should have been peopled with primitive hunter-gatherers and a few settlements, not the inhabitants of a lost civilization. (56)

The ancestors of Iranians and Indians (or Indo-Aryans to be more precise) both called themselves aryas, and similarity of many of their traditions has led scholars to conclude that the two were originally a single people, an Indo-Iranian branch of the larger Indo-European family of nations. But scholars today generally believe that the two peoples had already separated before the coming of the prophet [Zarathustra], and give the name Old Iranian to the popular religion that he reformed. (115)

According to Luckacs, the teeth of the Period I inhabitants of Mehrgarh contrast strongly with the European dental complex [generally found in India and in the neighbourhood of Mehrgarh from antiquity] and share several dental features common with the Sundadont pattern...The Neolithic people of Mehrgarh may represent the western margin of South-Southeast Asian phenotypic dental pattern known as Sundadont. (124)

China

 

Europe

 Through skeletal and dental comparisons, it is clear that the Cro-Magnon types were the dominant human group in North Africa and the Mediterranean prior to 10,000 BC. Studies from both Egypt and Malta bear this out, and attest to the probability that Mediterranean type slowly mixed with the indigenous population. The Cro-Magnon types began to diminish around 5000 BC. Eventually, the Mediterranean types became the dominant human type in the area. Since, as scholars such as Emery have noted, Cro-Magnon types were some of the earliest pharaohs, it is logical to conclude that they were members of the host culture that occupied the land in Egypt. (70)

South America

 

Mesoamerica

 

North America

  C. Turner looked at many different features of teeth, including shoveling, and variations in the number of roots of premolars and molars. By comparing large samples of teeth on many different measurements, Turner concluded that: (2) New World groups are more like Asians than like Europeans; (1) all New World groups resemble each other more than they do most Old World populations; (3) dental variation is greater in North America than in South America; (4) there are three "clusters" of New World peoples. It is very difficult, however, to estimate rates of change in these kinds of physical features, and thereby to estimate how long ago the migrations to the Americas began, but Turner's calculations estimate a date of about 12,000 years ago for the initial colonization of the New World, with two much later waves of colonizations.(26)

A human mummy found in Spirit Cave, Nevada, recently dated with the most advanced radiocarbon dating methods, was found to be a surprisinbg 9400 years old. This individual was about 5'2" tall. He seemed to be quite different physically and genetically from modern Native Americans: he has a long cranium and a small face, which looks more like Southeast Asian peoples than contemporary Native Americans.(26)

Chatters said the skeleton resembled nothing as closely as a "premodern European." Within days, the local paper's report had exploded Kennewick Man into national fame, bruiting the notion that Europeans had predated American Indians on this continent. The lab there obliged Chatters with the date in a mere seventy-two- hours: the skeleton appeared to be 8,400 years old. Later changed to 9,300 years, that date made Kennewick Man one of the handful of truly ancient sets of human remains found in North America, though not the oldest. What light has all this controversy shed so far on the question of who the first Americans were and how and when they got here? That Kennewick Man looks practically nothing like any contemporary Indian people is not, on the whole, a very great surprise. None among the handful of skeletal remains from this time period looks much like contemporary Indians either; they tend to look more like southern Asians, it seems. This fits fairly well with what has been surmised from linguistics and mtDNA analysis about the origins of the people who settled the Western Hemisphere - that people in southern Asia spread out south and north as long as 40,000 years ago or more and probably arrived in the Americas at various times over thousands of years. (130)

... a small section of the bone joining the left little finger to the wrist [of Kennewick Man] was sent to Dr Taylor of the University of California, who identified that the individual died in 9410 BP or plus or minus 160 years (7414 BC). But how did an ancient European male come to be in the north-west USA, nearly 9,000 years before Columbus? His bones showed little signs of arthritis, suggesting that he rarely carried heavy weights during his life, and his teeth indicated that he had probably enjoyed a good diet of soft foods including a lot of meat. Jim Chatters reconstructed the facial features of Kennewick Man, and speaking on an Equinox TV programme broadcast by the BBC on 6 October 1998, commented that the nearest racial group seemed to be the Ainu people of Japan. (160)

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