HUMANPAST.NET

Evolution                  70,000 BC
Africa
Southwest Asia
Egypt
Indus Valley
China
Europe
South America
Mesoamerica
North America
Other

In General

The multiple ways in which Homo spaiens diverged physically and behaviorally from pre-sapiens forms of Homo in the period between about 300,000 years ago to 30,000 years ago are collectively referred to as the "Middle/Upper Paleolithic transition." This "transition" is visible in many radical changes, such as (1) an increase of average human brain size from about 1,000 to about 1,400 cubic centimeters; (2) changes in physical form such that modern Homo sapiens sapiens have less robust skeletons, a more prominent chin, smaller or absent brow ridges, smaller teeth, a higher rounded skull, and other physical characteristics; (3) increased human population numbers and densities. (18)

The discovery that our ancestors of 65,000 years ago knew as much and probably more than we do about the solar system is really baffling. First of all, the birth date of the Nineveh constant coincides precisely with the sudden arrival on Earth of Cro-Magnon man, the first human with a brain volume equal to ours, the first successful result in a program for the improvement of the human race. ...this astounding knowledge was given to mankind by extraterrestrial astronauts who came from outer space, with a much higher civilization and culture. ...little by little, these astronauts created modern man by insemination and mutation. Our primitive ancestors were thus slowly transformed from Neanderthal men into Cro-Magnon men, the strong and intelligent beings that appeared on Earth about 65,000 years ago. (141)

What can be said is that the bottleneck appears to have occurred around 70 to 80 kya, give or take 5 to 10 kyr. In particular, the event that has been linked to the massive eruption of Mount Toba in Indonesia at 71 kya is a likely candidate. This super­volcano could have produced what is sometimes referred to as a 'volcanic winter' that lasted several years and could conceivably have significantly altered global climate for the next 1000 years. The dramatic cooling resulting from this eruption could have brought famine and death to many modern humans, leading to an abrupt decrease in our ancestors' populations: in short, a bottleneck. The genetic evidence can be interpreted as indicating that the global human population crashed to no more than 15000 to 40000 people, and possibly lower. (145)

Africa

About all scholars agree on is that: (1) there were humans living in Europe and western Asia by 500,000 years ago but they were not Homo sapiens spaiens; (2) a distinctive form of human, the "Neanerthals," who were different from us in important anatomical ways, lived in Europe, western Asia, and perhaps North Africa between about 100,000 and 40,000 years ago; and (3) by 30,000 years ago all the Neanderthals and other distinctive physical forms of humans, except ourselves, Homo sapiens sapiens, had disappeared.

Some of the strongest fossil-bone evidence of anatomically modern Homo sapiens has been collected at the mouth of the Klasies River. A cave there was occupied by early human hunters between 60,000 and 120,000 years ago. (75)

Between their appearance in Africa more than 100,000 years ago until about 50,000 years ago, or even a bit later, the archaeological record does not evidence a quantum leap to modern-looking cultural behavior. Although these ancient, moodern-looking people may have looked just like us, their artifacts do not reflect that they thought like us. Only after 50,000 years ago, in the period called the Upper Paleolithic in Europe and Asia and the Late Stone Age in Africa, do we see what appears in the archaeological record to be an intellectual leap forward.  (170)

Southwest Asia

 About all scholars agree on is that: (1) there were humans living in Europe and western Asia by 500,000 years ago but they were not Homo sapiens spaiens; (2) a distinctive form of human, the "Neanerthals," who were different from us in important anatomical ways, lived in Europe, western Asia, and perhaps North Africa between about 100,000 and 40,000 years ago; and (3) by 30,000 years ago all the Neanderthals and other distinctive physical forms of humans, except ourselves, Homo sapiens sapiens, had disappeared.

...the hill lands of Syria, Lebanon, and Israel, are replete with caves where the evidence of prehistoric but modern Man has been preserved. One of these caves, Shanidar, is located in the north-eastern part of the semiarc of civilization. As layer upon layer of debris was removed, it became apparent that the cave preserved a clear record of Man's habitation in the area from about 100,000 to some 13,000 years ago. (146)

Egypt

 Although a few early and middle Paleolithic sites (dated between 100,000 and 40,000 years ago) have been discovered, none dates to the final stages of the ice age. According to archaeologists, the earliest occupation in the Darb El Arba'in Desert, in southwest Egypt, occurred more than 70,000 years ago during the middle Paleolithic, before the ice age began. (70)

Indus Valley

 

China

 ...regression studies (using mtDNA) show all modern humans appear to be genetically related possibly as far back as 230,000 years. Africans (the oldest) are considered to have been clearly well established between 130,000 and 80,000 BC. The next oldest seems to be Caucasoid, Middle-Eastern types, dating from about 100,000 years ago. The next oldest are believed to have been Central Asians dating between 73,000 and 56,000 BC. (113)

Europe

About all scholars agree on is that: (1) there were humans living in Europe and western Asia by 500,000 years ago but they were not Homo sapiens spaiens; (2) a distinctive form of human, the "Neanerthals," who were different from us in important anatomical ways, lived in Europe, western Asia, and perhaps North Africa between about 100,000 and 40,000 years ago; and (3) by 30,000 years ago all the Neanderthals and other distinctive physical forms of humans, except ourselves, Homo sapiens sapiens, had disappeared.

South America

 

Mesoamerica

 

North America

 

Other