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Evolution                  6,000 BC
Africa
Southwest Asia
Egypt
Indus Valley
China
Europe
South America
Mesoamerica
North America
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The earliest known dog in the archaeological record dates back 14,000 years. But the remains that date to that point in time are few and far between. More dogs have been found buried with humans who died about 12,000 years ago, which indicates that by the end the Ice Age the human-dog relationship was beginning to be established. It was not until 7000 BC to 6000 BC, however, that this relationship was clearly established in the archaeological record. The bones of dogs become common in campsites of the late Neolithic period. (69)

The Capsians of North Africa appear to have been a folk of moderate stature, averaging about five to five and a half feet tall, having long heads with retreating foreheads. They hunted with boomerangs, clubs, and bows, speared fish with delicate harpoons, collected berries and roots, and made a great thing of snails and shellfish. They wore beads, disk-shaped, of ostrich-egg shell, feathers, bracelets and girdles of perforated shells. The males like many innocents of the woman-dominated equatorial zone instead of concealing, decorated their genitals, while the women wore long stylish skirts. The Natufians of the Mount Carmel caves, on whose appearance, c. 6000 BC, we based our dating of the proto-neolithic, were a people of this Capsian culture style. (128)

Africa

 

Southwest Asia

An even larger conundrum lies in the fact that dogs begin to appear in the Neolithic record only when these various kinds of prized dogs--clearly bred--first appear in the records of the seminal civilizations of Sumer and Egypt. Where did the purebreds come from? The dogs in Neolithic graves are certainly not salukis or basenjis. And how did such purebred dogs--so vastly different from a wolf in appearance--come into existence in the span of only several thousand years? (69)

That the races too met and mixed is indicated by a uniquely high percentage of Alpine Brachycephalic physical types intermingled at Catal Huyuk with the two Proto-Mediterranean strains known earlier in the Near East, and again by the presence of a group of black men among the otherwise pink-skinned celebrants in the Hunting Shrine murals. (115)

Egypt

An even larger conundrum lies in the fact that dogs begin to appear in the Neolithic record only when these various kinds of prized dogs--clearly bred--first appear in the records of the seminal civilizations of Sumer and Egypt. Where did the purebreds come from? The dogs in Neolithic graves are certainly not salukis or basenjis. And how did such purebred dogs--so vastly different from a wolf in appearance--come into existence in the span of only several thousand years? (69)

Indus Valley

 

China

 

Europe

 As an oasis the Black Sea rim might have acted as a mixing pot, both for genes and language. Perhaps this is why Gamkrelidze was able to recognize so many words shared by the proto-Europeans, the proto-Kartvelians, the proto-Semites, and the proto-Ubaidians who would one day parent the Sumerians. It may also explain the transfer of a propensity for type B blood from settlers in southern Russia to those who would later immigrate to Mesopotamia and Egypt. The refuge for already-practicing farmers might also have provided a place to share tools, practical knowledge, seed, and livestock. As noted by many linguists, the borrowed vocabulary is especially rich in agrarian jargon. With its fertile river valleys, potential for grazing and hunting, abundant fish, and ease of communication by boat. (131)

South America

 

Mesoamerica

 On the other side of the world, in ancient Mexico, figurines of dogs have been found dating from about 8,000 years ago; fossilized dog remains have been discovered in several excavations; and, in a fascinating and intriguing combination, artifacts have been found in Mesoamerican burial sites that depict dogs on wheeled objects. These are either full-bodied dog figures mounted on four disk wheels attached to wooden axles or dogs whose bodies become sleds of sorts. The mystery of these objects stems from the belief that the ancient civilizations of the Americas did not have knowledge of the wheel. At one time it was thought that these dogs-on-wheels were children's toys, but scholars have since realized that their inclusion in burial sites marks a more serious significance. To ancient Mesoamericans the wheel symbolized the cycle of life, death, and rebirth. Like gold, neither it nor representations of it were used for utilitarian purposes. The dog also had symbolic significance. In Mexico it was a symbol of the night sun, making the dog a valuable companion to the deceased, who, according to Mexican cosmology, had to journey into the nine underworlds in the afterlife. (69)

Tlapacoya is located at the foot of a small, extinct volcano that formed an island or peninsula at the northern edge of Lake Chalco. Nevertheless, archaeological excavations on the ancient lake shores at the site's Zohapilco locality have yielded an impressively long sequence of occupation stretching back to 6,000 BC. (159)

North America

  C. Turner looked at many different features of teeth, including shoveling, and variations in the number of roots of premolars and molars. By comparing large samples of teeth on many different measurements, Turner concluded that: (2) New World groups are more like Asians than like Europeans; (1) all New World groups resemble each other more than they do most Old World populations; (3) dental variation is greater in North America than in South America; (4) there are three "clusters" of New World peoples. It is very difficult, however, to estimate rates of change in these kinds of physical features, and thereby to estimate how long ago the migrations to the Americas began, but Turner's calculations estimate a date of about 12,000 years ago for the initial colonization of the New World, with two much later waves of colonizations.(26)

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