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Evolution                  4,000 BC
Africa
Southwest Asia
Egypt
Indus Valley
China
Europe
South America
Mesoamerica
North America
Other

Africa

 

Southwest Asia

 Paleopathologists studying ancient skeletons from Greece and Turkey found a striking parallel. The average height of hunter-gatherers in that region toward the end of the Ice Age was a generous five feet ten inches for men, five feet six inches for women. With the adoption of agriculture, height crashed, reaching by 4000 BC a low value of only five feet three for men, five feet one for women. By classical times, heights were very slowly on the rise again, but modern Greeks and Turks have still not regained the heights of their healthy hunter-gatherer ancestors. (114)

Egypt

 Many locations in southern Egypt seem to have been abandoned around 4000 BC. The main period of settlement in the Gilf Kebir region lasted from 4000 to 3000 BC; other playas, such as Wadi Bakht and Ard El-Akhdar, continued to exist through 3000 BC and then then abruptly stopped. (70)

In defense of the dynastic race theory, carvings on an ivory knife handle from the town of Gebel-el-Arak (near Denderah, 250 miles south of Cairo) and paintings on the walls of a late-predynastic tomb dated to 3500 BC at Hierakonopolis suggest invasion of the Nile Valley by a seafaring people. Some believe the style of the ornamentation on the knife handle to be Mesopotamian or possibly Syrian. The scene possibly represents a sea battle against invaders; this is also depicted in the Hierakonopolis tomb. Both of these show Egypt's native ships and strange vessels with a high prow and stem, unmistakably Mesopotamian in origin. There is also the discovery of late-predynastic graves in the northern part of Upper Egypt, where the skulls unearthed were of greater size and the bodies were larger than those of the natives. According to Walter Emery, the difference is so distinct that any suggestion that these people derived from the earlier stock is impossible. (70)

Indus Valley

 

China

 

Europe

 Paleopathologists studying ancient skeletons from Greece and Turkey found a striking parallel. The average height of hunter-gatherers in that region toward the end of the Ice Age was a generous five feet ten inches for men, five feet six inches for women. With the adoption of agriculture, height crashed, reaching by 4000 BC a low value of only five feet three for men, five feet one for women. By classical times, heights were very slowly on the rise again, but modern Greeks and Turks have still not regained the heights of their healthy hunter-gatherer ancestors. (114)

South America

 

Mesoamerica

 

North America

  C. Turner looked at many different features of teeth, including shoveling, and variations in the number of roots of premolars and molars. By comparing large samples of teeth on many different measurements, Turner concluded that: (2) New World groups are more like Asians than like Europeans; (1) all New World groups resemble each other more than they do most Old World populations; (3) dental variation is greater in North America than in South America; (4) there are three "clusters" of New World peoples. It is very difficult, however, to estimate rates of change in these kinds of physical features, and thereby to estimate how long ago the migrations to the Americas began, but Turner's calculations estimate a date of about 12,000 years ago for the initial colonization of the New World, with two much later waves of colonizations.(26)

Pigmies, Australoids and Mongols from north-east Siberia, of whom the principal stock was Mongol, had begun to settle in America sometime about 25000 BC, moving south along its coast and across the plains. That occupation was still continuing, doubtless with some people returning in the fifth and fourth millennium BC when earth-worshipping sailors from the Mediterranean and then sea-peoples from India, trading and prospecting the Pacific and the Pacific coast of China for metals, were either blown unwillingly from north of Japan to America or they heard of the movement to those sea-girt continents and, following it, themselves also discovered America. The genius of America remained however, the genius of its already mixed American-Indian populations. Thus the splendid isolation of the vast American continent which became almost its norm, was broken spasmodically by sometimes large - sometimes small-scale contact with civilised peoples from the Old World. They fed in the highly industrialised techniques and ideas then current in India, Mesopotamia, Egypt, and the Mediterranean perhaps not all of them, but nearly all of them.(135)

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